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Full text of "King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of the Compendious history of the world by Orosius. Containing,--facsimile specimens of the Lauderdale and Cotton mss., a preface describing these mss., etc., an introduction--on Orosius and his work; the Anglo-Saxon text; notes and various readings; a literal English translation, with notes; Mr. Hampson's Essay on King Alfred's geography, and a map of Europe, Asia, and Africa, according to Orosius and Alfred"

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Facsimile Specimens of the Lauderdale and Cotton >ISS. 
Preface describing these MSS. etc. - - - p i — Ixiv. 

The Introduction' — An account of Orosius and hi^ writings, 

p 10—17. 

TflE Anglo-Saxon Text - - . . p Q—iZ^. 

Notes, Various Readings, and Corrections - p 1 — 31. 

The English Translation with Notes - - p 15—198. 

G Mr. Hampson's Essay on King Alfred's Geography p 1 — 63. 



^ Pl.\te I and II face ei^ch other, and are placed before the title. 

^' The Facsimile of p 12, from the Lauderdale MS., faces 
p. 84 of English translation, and p 14 naturally follows 13. 

^ Plate III faces p. 83 of English translation. 

C Plate IV faces p. 33 of the Anglo-Saxon text. 

J The Map of Europe, Asia, and Africa has its left margin pasted 
on the outer margin of the right-hand cover, and unfolds to 
the right, that the whole may be visible while reading the 


History speaks of all ages and nations : it discourses of the 
present, and leads ns back, through the wide space of past ages, 
to the very dawn of creation. It brings before us the scenes and 
events of more than five thousand years. History thus surveys 
not only our own vast dominions, and the whole extent of the 
Roman, the Grecian, the Persian, and the Assyrian empires, but 
it enables us to speak with our English Alfred, the Spanish 
Orosius, the Roman Livy, the Grecian Herodotus, and with the 
inspired Moses and the Prophets. 

In this point of view, attractive as history is ; yet, when taken 
as a whole, and studied in all its extent, with its complicated and 
minute details, it overwhelms and often leads to confusion. The 
mind throws off this unwieldy burden, and relieves itself by rest- 
ing upon the most striking events, and upon the actions of the 
most eminent men. These events are viewed with interest and 
attention, in smaller and separate groups. History is thus 
naturally epitomized, and the chief events of history are deeply 
impressed on the memory. 

The rise and fall of great men, as of nations, are often involved 
in an obscurity, which the unaided powers of the brightest intel- 
lect cannot remove. As a dense, black cloud, covering the sun, 
shrouds all nature in gloom, till a gleam, darting from behind, not 
only gilds the edge, but illuminates and cheers the whole scene ; 
80 Revelation throws a clear light on the dark page of history, by 
which the Divine Hand is seen reducing confusion to order, and 
introducing men and measures to promote '* peace on earth, and 
goodwill toward men." . 

History thus receives light from revelation. Just such is the 
work before us — the epitome of Universal History, written in 
Latin by Orosius, and translated into Anglo-Saxon by King Alfi-ed 
the Great. Genei-al History, it must be confessed, is little else 



than a naiTative of the follies, crimes, and miseries of men. This 
was so evident, that heathen writers adduced it as an argument 
against Revelation, asserting that Christianity was the cause of 
increased misery in the world. To correct this perversion, the 
African Bishop, S. Augustine, induced his friend Orosius to write 
this abridgement of Universal History, upon Christian principles, 
to shew the real origin of the misery of the world ; hence the work 
is entitled, Be mmrid mundi^ . 

This History of the world, Trom the creation to a.d. 416, was 
ver}^ popular in the time of Alfred, and was held in the highest 
estimation for many ages. It was first printed at Vienna in 1471, 
from an excellent manuscript. Numerous editions were subse- 
quently published by the most eminent printers, but the most 
important to us is the first edition of Schiiszler-, in folio, 1471, 
for it contains passages omitted by subsequent editors, which 
are retained in King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version. From this 
we may infer that Alfred translated from a copy of the MS. from 
which Schuszler printed his valuable text. Several instances 
might be quoted, but that relating to the quality of the fruit of 
Sodom will be sufficient: — "Illic poma virentia et formatos 
uvarum racemos, ut edentibus gignant cupiditatem, si carpas, 
fatiscunt in cinerem, fumumque excitant, quasi ardeant*." 

This passage is omitted in subsequent editions, and it is not 
found in the critical text of Havercamp, but it is in Alfi^ed's 

A minute description of Scliu8zler*8 scarce and early printed folio volume of 
1471 may afford some interest. It is printed in a round, thick letter, between 
German and Eoman, to represent the MSS. of that age, and has spaces left for 
the insertion of illuminated capitals. The title, the name of the author, the 
publisher, and the date are at the end, as in the earliest printed books. It 
commences with the table of contents, consisting of 7 leaves, and begins — 

" Begstrum pro capitulis tocius libri inquirendis. De miseria hominum ab 
initio per peccatum. Ca-'pmum." It ends at the bottom of the thirteenth page 
with — "Vbi constatius comes gothos a narbona expulsos in hispaniam abire 
cocgit 'xlvij" 

1 In some manuscripts it is called, Ormnia^ Ormesta, Ormista, Hormuta^ and Orches- 
tra, which seem to be corrupted contractions of De miseria mundi, or rather Orbis misma^ 
written contractedly Or, misia, and by ignorant scribes Omiesia etc. Omxuta may be 
formed from Or. m. tsta^ an abbreviation for C^rosii mundi hutovia. 

2 Schuizler in loco : Anglo-Sax. p 27, 30—32 ; Eiig. p 63, 9, noU I: p77 fwte I ; 
and p 198 note. 


Then follow two pages of what is called the Prologue, to which is prefixed — 
*^ Fauli horosij presbiteri historiogphi discipl'i sancti 
augustini epi* viri hispani generis eloquentissimi- 
aduersu cristiani nols qrulos prologus ! libros septe." 

*' Preceptis tuia parui beatissime pater augustie" The P, in PreceptUy is an 
illuminated red letter. At the end is — 

Finit prologus. 
Then follow 122 leayes, containing the History, beginning with — 
" Pauli horosij presbiteri historiographi discipl'i sancti- Augustini episcopi- 
aduersom cristiani nominis querulos libri numero septe incipiat" 

Capitulum primum" 
The last* the left page of these 122 leaves, which are not numbered, closes 
with — 

"Beati Pauli horosij presbiteri in xpiani nols querulos libri n&o septem 
finiunt feliciter, Per Jobanne Scbus|ler florentissime vrbis Auguste conciug 
impressi. Anno a ptu rirginis Marie salutifero* ]\P qdringetesimo et septua- 
gesimo p'mo- [1471] Circit* iunij nonas septlas." 

Another edition, in small folio, by Herman Levilapis {Lelehtenstein), with the 
text rerised from other MSS., was published at Yincenza in the north of Italy, 
without date [about 1475]. From this the nine Venice editions appear to have 
been printed. A description of that of 1500, which omits the sentence relatiug 
to the fruit of Sodom, will serve for the others. At the top of the first page, 
just above the dedication to S. Augustine, are the two following lines in small 
Soman Capitals — 


It is printed in Soman letters, with many contractions. There is not any 
table of contents, but short headings to the chapters, and the names of the 
chief persons and places in the margin. It consists of 79 leaves : the pages 
are not numbered, but patli OEOsn lib£b pbimts, sEcrypTs etc. is put as a 
head line. At the beginning of each chapter a space is left, and a small letter 
printed in the middle as a guide to the illuminator. These spaces, in the copy 
before me, the loan of the Rev. H. S. Trimmer, Yicar of Heston, Middlesex, 
are filled with large red letters, having very little ornament. 

At the end of the history, on the right hand page, which is the 79th, is 
printed — 

** Vt ipse titulus margine in prinio docet. 
Orosio nomen mihi est. 
Librariorum quicquid erroris fuit. 

Exemit Aeneas mihi. 
Quod si situm orbis : siqj nostra ad tempora. 

Ab orbis ipsa origine. 
Quisq tumultup : bellaqi : & csodes uelit. 
Cladesqi nosse: me legat. 


" Pnuli Orosii uiri clarissimi Ad Aurelium Aagustinum episcopum & docto- 
rem eximium Libri scptimi ac ultimi Finis. Impressi Tenetiis : opera & ex- 
pensia Bcrnardiui Ycneti de Yitalibus. Anno ab incamatione domini .m.ccccc. 
Die .XII. Mensis Octobris. Begnate Domino Augustino Barbadico. 

" Segistrum 
" Omnes sunt temi prater n qui est quatemua.'* 
That is — all the signatures have three sheets of two leaves each, except n, the 
last signature, which has four sheets, or eight leaves. 

The best edition of Orosius is that of Havercamp, Leyden, 4to. 
1738 and 1767; the latter i& apparently the same book with 
only a new title. It is well edited, and contains a great mass of 
valuable notes : to tliis edition reference is always made in this 

The high esteem in which Orosius was held in the time of 
Alfred, and for the subsequent six or seven hundred years, is 
spoken of in the following Introduction ; it need not, therefore, 
be here repeated. While his popularity must be admitted, it 
cannot be denied that he has defects. He is not free from the 
credulit}^ of the age in which he lived, and his authorities for the 
facts and the chronology in his history are not always the best, 
lie has been severely criticized by Lipsius and Casaubon, and has 
had able defenders. A summary of these will be found in a small 
and recent 12mo. vol. entitled — 

De Orosii Vita ej usque Historiarum Libris septem adversos paganos. Scripsit 
Theodorus IMorner, Doctor Philos. Berolini, 1844. 

The greater part of this work is employed in indicating the 
sources from which Orosius derived his historical knowledge; 
and he clearly shews that, besides referring to Grecian historians, 
especially to Herodotus and Polybius, he made ample use of Livy 
and Tacitus, and had the advantage of consulting Tubero and 
many other historians whose works are now in part or entirely lost, 
Tliough much may be said in favour of Orosius, it is not his 
reputation as an historian, or the propriety of his Latin style, 
that claim our regard, so much as the fact that he was the popu- 
lar historian whom our intellectual and energetic Alfred selected 
for translating into his vernacular Anglo-Saxon, with the view of 
presenting to his people the best historical knowledge of his day. 
It is the clear style of Alfred, and the additional information that 
he imparts in a supplementary sentence or clause, which interest 


"^is, as given from his own personal knowledge; such, for in- 
stance, as when speaking of the Romans fording the Thames, 
^fred points out the exact place, by stating that it was at 

As our chief interest is in the works of Alfred, and particularly 
in his translation of Orosius, it is unnecessary to prolong our re- 
marks upon his original Latin, only repeating that Alfred appears 
to have translated from a MS. connected with that which was 
subsequently used by Schiiszler in printing the first edition of 
1471. Should any ask, what are the works or writings of Alfred? 
It may be answered generally, that, as it was the prevailing desire 
of Alfred to benefit his people, he was more anxious to improve 
their minds in what he wrote, than to exalt himself. Instead, 
therefore, of laying before them only his own compositions, he 
did not hesitate to select and translate the best and most popular 
works of his day. In translating, he exercised his own powerful 
mind, and freely used his sound judgment, not only in omitting 
what he deemed of little importance, but in giving his own opi- 
nions and experience, and adding his own remarks and illustra- 
tions ; not unfrequently expanding a thought and illustrating a 
fact of the Latin text to such an extent, as to constitute him the 
original author of the most instructive Essays. These important 
additions and separate Essays are very interesting as the compo- 
sition of Alfired, One of the longest of these is his description of 
Europe and the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, subsequently 

We shall now speak of his works generally, and endeavour to 
ascertain at what time they were written. Though a want of 
documents may prevent us from aniving at a ceitainty, a few 
dates are recorded by which an approximation may be made. 
Asser tells us* he was first introduced to Alfred in 884. Besides 
himself, the king had engaged others to read and converse with 
him in turn : these w^ere Werefrith, bishop of Worcester, the 
translator of Gregory's Dialogues into Anglo-Saxon, Plegmund 
the Mercian, and his chaplains -^thelstan and Werewnilf, the 
most learned men of that day. By theu* knowledge and teaching 

3 Anoales xerum gestamm JEihedi Magni, auctore Asserio Menevensi, recensuit Fran- 
cucus Wise, JLbL Oxon. 1722. Small Svo. p 47. 


would gladly take the first opportunity of resuming his studies, 
and of finishing, with the aid of his friends, the works which had 
been so long interrupted by the distractions of war. 

Amongst these may possibly be placed "Gregory's Pastoral 
Care." We have more certain intimations as to the date of 
Alfred's translation of the Pastoral. We know it must have been 
published after 890 ; for, in the introduction, written by himself, 
Alfred speaks of the assistance he received from Archbishop 
Plegmxmd, Bishop Asser, sTnd th^e presbyters Grimbold and 
John^. Now the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle repprds the accession 
of Plegmund to the see of Canterbiuy in 890. As Alfred calls 
Plegmund his archbishop, in his introduction, it must have been 
written between the year of Plegmund's accession in 890, and 
that of Alfred's death in 901. It could hardly have been finished 
befoi'e the invasion of Hastings in 893, nor before his expulsion 
in 897 ; if so, it must have been finished between 897 and 901. 

In all this, it must be allowed, there is much uncertainty. As 
the exact dates could not be ascertained, even after close investi- 
gation, it was thought that some would prefer what appears an 
approach to truth, to an entire silence on the subject. It is with 
this feeUng alone that these remarks have been made upon the 
probable dates of Alfred's chief works. 

Though there is an uncertainty as to the exact dates when 
Alfred translated Boethius, Bede, Orosius and the Pastoral, there 
can be none as to his being the translator of these works into 
Anglo-Saxon. They have always been ascribed to him. In the 
first sentence of the preface to Boethius, it is said, " Alfred, king, 
was translator of this book, and turned it fix)m book-latin into 
English'." There are other expressions in this preface which 
could not have been properly used by any one except by the king 
himself. — The Anglo-Saxon version of Bede has always been 
ascribed to Alfred. — ^The fact is testified by the Church, for 
iElfric, in his homily on S.Gregory, written about 990, and 
generally used in the Church, speaks of Bede's " Historia Anglo- 

2 Ic hie geliornode set PlegmuDde xninum ccrce-bisccpe, and st Assere miauin bUcepe, 
and let Grimbolde minum mscssc-prioste, and st Johanne minum meesse-preoste. ItUro^ 
duction to Gre^orf/s Pastorale^ Oxford MS. JIatton 20,/ol 2. 

3 Alfred, Euning, wses wealhstod Msse bee, and hie of bee Ledene on Englisc wende. 
Ocrd, Bod. p ii. 


rum, which King Alfred turned from Latin into English^." There 
is the strongest internal evidence, in addition to the testimony of 
antiquity, that the Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius was made by 
the king. In introducing the Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan 
into his description of the north of Europe, he begins — "Ohthere 
told his lord, King Alfred, that he dwelt northmost of all North- 
men/* Again, " Ohthere said that the district . . . was called 
Halgoland." In proof that these voyages were written down by 
Alfred from the oral relation of these bold navigators, Wulfstan 
uses the language of personal nan^ative : — " We had, on our left, 
the land of the Burgundians," etc. — In Alfred's celebrated preface 
to Gregory's Pastoral Care, he distinctly states the manner in 
which he translated it. ** Then began I, among other diflferent 
and manifold affairs of this kingdom to turn into English the 
book, which is called in Latin Pasioralis, and in English Herch- 
nian^s hook^ one while word for word, another while meaning for 
meaning, as I learnt it from Plegmund my Archbishop*." 

These translations vary much in style, according to the subject 

on which they treat. They are the best specimens of Anglo- 

S^on prose. Boethius is natural and animated: his form of 

dialogue has the charm of lively ease and graceful freedom. It is 

^^ animated picture of Alfred's mind, — his opinions, feelings, and 

^^^erience. Bede is more stately and historical. The Pastoral 

^ H-teral, plain, and didactic, adhering closely to the Latin text. 

^^^sius is a free, historical style, interspersed with lively nar- 

-*^aving touched upon the original Latin text of Orosius, and his 

^^"•^^ation as an historian, and noticed the interest and import- 

^ ^^^^ of Alfred's Anglo-Saxon versions, with the supposed dates 

^j^ *^is various translations, especially of Orosius, probably finished 

g '^^'V^t the year 890, we have arrived at a point when we must 

Q ^^^li of the Manuscripts of Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of 

^^^ius : these are the 

OTW ^^ ^^^^istoria Anglorum, Ua "Se -cElfred cyning of Ledene on Englisc awende. j£lf. ffon. 

i 3ngan ic, dogemang o'^rum mislicum and manigfealdum bisgum t$isses kynericei 
i wendan dn Englisc, l^e is genemned 6n Lseden Pastoralis, and un Englisc Hierde 
^^ wilum trord be word, hwilum andgit of andgite, swa s\Ya ic hio geliornode »t PIcg- 
~ i miiiiim JSroebiaoepe. Oxford MS. Ilatton 20,/ol 2. 



Latjdebbale, written about the end of the ixth century. 

Cotton, in the xth century. 

Transcript of Cotton by T Transcript of Junius by 

Junius, about 1658? < Elstob/m 1698. 

Hampson, finished June 8th 1841. [ Ballard, in 1751. 

A short history of each of these may be desirable, particularly 
of the older. There ai*e only two old MSS. of King Alfred's 
Anglo-Saxon version of Orosiys, the. Lauderdale and the Cotton. 
They are both of gi'eat antiquity; but, as there appear to be 
strong reasons for concluding that the L is the older, it has the 
first claim to a short historic record, — an investigation of its age 
and value, — and a brief description of its present state. 

The Lauderdale MS. receives its name fix)m its late possessor, 
the Duke of Lauderdale, a nobleman not less distinguished for 
his loyalty and energj' in the cause of Charles II, than for his 
enlightened zeal in promoting literature. He was taken prisoner, 
in the civil war, at the battle of Worcester, in 1651, and was 
confined in the Tower of London for nine years. At the restoration 
hi 1660, his fidelity and talents were acknowledged by Charles II, 
who, at once, made him Secretary of State, and President of the 
Council. Besides receiving many other proofs of the sovereign's 
favour, he was installed a Knight of the Garter, and appointed 
High Commissioner of Scotland ; and, on May 2nd 1672, he was 
created ^Marquis of March, and Duke of Lauderdale, in Scot- 
land; and enrolled among the Peers of England, 25 June 1674, 
as Baron Petersham and Earl of Guilford. 

We avoid speaking of the great immorality prevailing in that 
most profligate age, in which the Duke and Duchess lived ; but 
as Lord Macaulay*, following the party bias of preceding histo- 
rians, has painted the Duke's character in the darkest colours, 
scarcely throwing in one light shade, it seems necessary to cite 
some more just estimates of his conduct by those who neither 
spared his failings, nor the vices of the age, but who, while 
severely censuring his errors, had the candour to mention with 
praise the Duke's devotion to literature, and his patronage of 
learned men. 

6 Hist, of England from the Accession of James IL 5th. Edn. 8to. 1849 : yol I, 
p2l3: 11,575. 


" As this great nobleman hath been most unjustly aspersed by 
some historians, we first give his character in the words of 
Korth, an author of reputation, who, though an English His- 
torian, seems to have examined the whole line of his conduct 
without prejudice. He says — * It is well known that, by the 
prudent conduct of the Duke of Lauderdale, Scotland was in a 
posture, not only of safety, but of giving assistance to the king, if 
needed. He w^as an inexpugnable loyalist, and keeped the door 
of Scotland close shut, that no arm could get in or out there, 
whilp he was Commissioner, which, in the sense of the Earl of 
Shafisbury and his party, was the. worst of offences. In the 
meantime, all the party foul-mouths vented against him the 
utmost obloquy that could possibly be imagined, as if he had 
been the basest of men, and the modern time-serving historians 
chime in with it, though most injurious to the chaittcter and 
honour of the best and wisest of statesmen that England ever 
hadV , 

Mr. Malcolm LaingS though he does not spare immorality, has 
the candour to speak thus of the Duke : — " During a long im- 
prisonment his mind had been carefully improved by study, and 
impressed with a sense of religion, which was soon effaced on his 
return to the w^orid. His learning w^as extensive and accurate ; 
in public affairs his experience was considerable, and his elocution 
copious, though unpolished and indistinct.'' ^ 

Having given these estimates of the Duke's character, Tve may 
allude to his love of literature and of books, as evidenced in his 
patronage of learned men, and in the collection of an extensive 
and valuable library, both of printed books and of MSS. The 
latter was em-iched by the oldest MS. of King Alfred's Anglo- 
Saxon version of Orosius. In the midst of all his honours, 
luxury, and indulgence, he did not forget literature, which had 
been his chief resource and consolation in his long and dreary 
imprisonment, nor did he disregard the just claims of learned 
men. Amongst those whom he patronized was the learned 
septentrional scholar, George Hickes, who accompanied the Duke 
*o Scotland, as his chaplain, in 1677. .Dr. Hickes mentions 

^ British Faitily Antiquity, by Wm. Playfair, Esq. 4to. 1800 : toI III, p 324. 
® Histoiy of Scotland, Sro. 1604: vol IV, p 33. 


the Lauderdale MS. of Orosius in his Catalogue of Anglo- 
Saxon MSS. published in 1688*. From their intimacy, there is 
no doubt that Dr. Hickes had seen this MS. in the Duke*8 
library, and ascertained something of its history, but he only 
enables us to trace it back to the preceding century, by in- 
cidentally stating that it was formerly the property of Dr. 
John Dee. 

Dr. Dee was a celebrated mathematician^ and in great favour 
with Queen Elizabeth. Though holding some absurd opinions 
on astrology, he was a most diligent and liberal collector of MSB.*, 
for, it is said, he expended upwards of three thousand pounds on 
his collection^, a large sum, in those days, for a person of very 
limited income. According to Lilly', Dr. Dee died in 1608, " at 
Mortlake in Surrey, very poor, enforced many times to sell some 
book or other to buy his dinner with, as Dr. Napier, of Linford in 
Buckinghamshire, oft related, who knew him very well." In 
some of his difficulties, it is probable that this fine^old Anglo- 
Saxon MS. of Orosius was sold. As it is not found in the 
catalogue of his MSS., written, as he states, Sep. 6th 1583, 
it must have been disposed of before that year*. It has not 
been ascertained through how many hands it passed before it 
came into the possession of the Duke of Lauderdale. For nearly 
a century, we cannot find any record of it. All that we know is, 
that it had been in the possession of Dr. Dee, who had disposed 
of it before 158*3, when he made his Catalogue. It must have 

9 Liber A. S. in BiiL Lauderdaliaiva. Orosii Uisioria. Hie Cod. olixn fuit peculiuxn 
Jobaxmis Dec, M.D. Vide, Catilogus vctcnun libronim septentrionalium, p 167 : ap- 
pended* to — Grammaticte Islandicsc Rudimenta, per Runolpbum Jonam Islandum ; 
Gzonias 1G88. In 1705 Wanlcj's Catalogus Librorum septentrionalium, tarn manoscrip- 
toruni quam impressorum, was published. With his wonted honesty and accuracy Wanlej 
says, pref. p v, — nihil in hoc Catalcgo Lihrorum Diplomatumve esse descriptum, quod 
manibus oculisque non usurpavi, exceptis libris, qui sequuntur ; scU. Codex ./bannu Duels 
Lcuderioit qui memoratur in pag. 303. etc. As he had not Fcen it, he there merely states 
on the authority of Hickes : In Bibliot/ieca Lauderdaliana S^uper extaboL 1. Orosii 
historia Saxonice, olim peculium Johannis Dee. 

1 Speaking of the Laaderdale MS. Wanlcy says— qui quondam fuerat peculium doo- 
tissimi viri Joannii Dee, M.D. cujus vigilanti curv dcbcnt eruditi, quod multorum Cod. 
antiquorum heneficio adhuc firuuntur, quorum jactura alias deploranda foret. Catal. p 85. 

2 Pref. p Tiii. to Dr. Dee's Diary and Catalogue of his MSS. by James Orchard Hal- 
liwell, Esq., 4to. Camden Society for 1S42. Mr. D'Tsiacli has given a correct view of 
Dr. Dee's character in his ** Amenities of Literature." 

3 Life of William Lilly, written by himself in IOCS. 1 vol 6vo. 1774. 

4 Dr. Dee's Diary and Catalogue of his MSS. by Mr. Halliwell, p 65. 


passed into the hands of the Duke of Lauderdale, probably from 
the Hatton collection, before 1682, as the Duke died in that 
year. We are told it was collated with the Junian titinscript of 
the Cotton MS. by Dr. Marshall *, Rector of Lincoln College, 
Oxford; that must have been done some time before 1685, as 
that is the recorded year of his demise. In 1688 Dr. Hickes 
speaks of it as the Lauderdale MS. ', and Wanley gives it the 
same designation in 1704. 

There are, however, intimations that this MS. was once in the 
Hatton collection ; for what has been called the Hatton Anglo- 
Saxon MS. of Orosius, appears to be only that which is now 
known as the Lauderdale. Hickes, in 1688 ^ says that the 
MS. of Orosius, which was in the Hatton Library not long ago, 
could not then be found. There is not any evidence that either 
he or Elstob had ever seen the, so-called, Hatton MS. ; yet Elstob 
gives various readings from what he calls Codex Hattonianus. 
As every one of these various readings is exactly the same as the 
Lauderdale, it is presumed that the Lauderdale and Hatton MS. 
is one and the same. This MS.^ then, must have been sold 
from the Hatton MSS. before they were purchased by the Bod- 
leian, Oxford, as Hickes could not find it there, nor is it con- 
tained in the MS. Catalogue of the Hatton MSS. in the Bodleian, 
dated 1686. If these facts and intimations be duly weighed, 
they seem to sanction the following conclusions : — ^That this 
MS. passed from the library of Dr. Dee before 1583 ; that it was, 
for some time, in the Hatton library, but was removed from that 
depository, probably by sale, to the Duke of Lauderdale, as it was 
in his library sometime before his death in 1682. 

The subsequent history of this MS. must be traced through 
the connexion that was formed between the Duke of Lauderdale, 
and the family of Tollemache, one of the oldest in Suffolk, and 
of Anglo-Saxon origin, as the name indicates, for Tollemache is 
derived from the Anglo-Saxon tol, toll or tribute^ and maca, a 
mate, companion^ or feUow, one connected with the revenues. The 

6 Wanlej's CataL p B6. 

6 See note 1, Hickes's Catal. 4to. 1688, p 145, and Wanley, p 85. 

7 Notandum quod inter Codd. Hatto^u desiderantur : . . . Orosius^ cum tractatulo de 
mensibos et Chronioo Abitidcnenn, etc, , . . quae omnia non ita pridem extitere in Hattoru 
Bibl. Hi€kei9 CaUd. 4to. Oxon. 1688, p 139. 


Tollemaches have flourished in Suffolk, in uninterrupted male 
succession, from the first anival of the Saxons in England, for 
more than thirteen centuries. Their early arrival with a Saxon 
tribe is indicated by an inscription on the Manor-house at 
Bentley, Suffolk :— 

Before the I^ormans into England came, 
Bentlej was my seat, and ToUemache my name. 

The Duke of Lauderdale, having obtained the highest honours, 
united himself to the ancient family of ToUemache by marrying 
in 1672, for his second wife, Elizabeth, the older of the two 
daughters and co-heiress of William Murray, Earl of Dysart, and 
widow of Sir Lionel ToUemache, of Helmingham Hall, Suffolk, 
the third Baronet. The Duke died without male issue in 1682, 
when the Dukedom and all his other personal honours expired, 
while those of his family devolved upon his brother Charles, 
who then became the third Earl of Lauderdale. 

The Duchess, who was a lady of great enei^ and talent, and 
** whose Uterary accomplishments were beyond her sex*," sur- 
vived her husband fifteen years. Soon after the Duke's death, a 
dispute* arose between his brother Charles and the Duchess, in 
which the valuable library of MSS. and printed books was in- 
volved. When it was found expedient to dispose of the Ubrary\ 

8 Laing's Hist, of Scotland, 8vo. 1804^ vol IV, p 57. 

9 " The Buke's library, which was of considerable extent and yalue, was sold, at suocessiye 
intervals, (see next note) by public auction in London, probably in consequence of the 
litigation which took place between the Duchess and his brother Charles, who succeeded 
to the Earldom." Evelyn, in a letter to Samuel Pepys, dated 12 Aug. 16S9, says i^-'^The 
Duke of Lauderdaile 8 (library) is yet intire, choicely bound, and to be sold by a friend 
of mine to whom they are pawn'd." Evelyn's Memoin, 4to. vol II, p 287 : 8vo. vol IV, 
p Zl9,^The Bannati/ne Mucellany, 4to. Edin. 1836. In thU Miscdlany^ vol II, p 153 
—158, there u — Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum e Bibliotheca Joannis Duds do 
Lauderdale m.dc.zcii., with an Introduction, p 151, 152, by the Right MonouraUe 
J. G, Craiy. 

1 The printed books were sold in London, at two sales in May 1690, but the MSS. 
were not sold for nearly two years, in Jan. 1692, as will be seen by the Titles of the 
following catalogues. — 1, " Bibliotheque de feu Monseigneur le Due de Lauderdale,** &c. 
(French, Italian, and Spanish Books) May 14th 1690, 4to. pp 28.-2, The English part 
of the Library of the Duke of Lauderdale, &c.. May 27th 1690, 4to. pp 16. — 3, Biblio- 
theca Listructissima etc, Cui adjicitur Bibliotheca Manuscripta Lauderdaliana, etc 
Cujus auctio habebitur Londini apud TomU Coffee Mouse, prope Ludgate, adjacentem 
vico vulgo dicto Ludgate HHU, die 25 Januarii 169^, per Jo. Bullord, BibL 4to. A set of 
these Catalogues, from the library of the late ^Ir. Heber, is now in the possession of 
James T. Gibson Craig, Esq. Bannatyne Miscellany, 4to. Edin. 1836, vol II, p 151. 


W^ XDuchess, knowing how highly some of the MSS. were valued 
^^ \lae late Duke, was naturally anxious, from her affectionate 
^^^rd for him, to retain those which he considered his greatest 
tonsures. Among these was the Anglo-Saxon MS. of Orosius, 
'^^ch she rightly judged could not fail to he most interesting . 
and of the highest value to the ToUemaches, one of the oldest 
-Anglo-Saxon families in England. This reservation and cai'e of the 
MS. will account for its not being in the sale of the Duke's other 
MSS., and for its omission in the catalogue of the sale, reprinted 
in the Bannatyne Miscellany, as stated in the preceding notes. 
The Duchess died in 1697, and was succeeded in all her own 
honours by the eldest son of her first husband. Sir Lionel 
Tollemache, who then became second Earl of Dysart. He in- 
herited the Suffolk estates, with Helmingham Hall, and the 
library containing this MS. It descended vnih the Helmingham 
and Cheshire estates in 1837 to its present owner, John Tolle- 
mache, Esquire, M.P., son of the late Admiral Tollemache, and 
nephew of the fifth Earl of Dysart. It has been in the library at 
Helmingham Hall since the death of the Duke, and has been 
little used for more than a century and a half. On July 17th 
1850, 1 wals invited to Helmingham to examine this MS., and 
ascertain how it could be made available in improving the 
Anglo-Saxon text of my proposed edition of Orosius. It was 
then, with a kindness and confidence that I can never forget, 
most unexpectedly placed in my hands, and I had the pos- 
session and unrestrained use of it till July 27th 1854, on which 
day it was returned, and it is now securely kept in the library 
•at Helmingham Hall. 

Having given this brief and imperfect history of the Lauderdale 
MS. of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, it is of 
the first importance to use every means to ascertain its age and 
value as a translation. The writing is a fine specimen of the free 
and expeditious hand, adopted by scribes towards the latter part 
of King Alfred's reign. The letters are rather small, but very 
clear, and the contractions not numerous. The table of contents 
is in rather a larger and bolder hand than the remainder of 
the MS. The letters and accents are all w^ritten in the same hand 
and ink, without any coloured letters or illuminations. The 


only ornamental part of the writing is at the beginning of the 
first five books, where the initial letters are formed in elegant 
devices^, which, being drawn in the brown-black ink of the MS., 
produce a very pleasing effect. From the style and general 
appearance of the writing, the particular form of the letters, and 
of the contractions, this MS. seems to have been written about 
the close of the ninth century, or the beginning of the tenth. 

The two forms of the lettei;y, as seen in their transition state, 
indicate the early date of L. In the first line of PI. I, we have 
ymb hwyrft, where the two forms of y are seen : the early y, 
without a dot, in ymb ; and the transition form, with the incipient 
dot, in hw^rft. The y in hwyrft is formed by beginning the top 
of the first strolce on the right, with a hair line, making it 
gradually thick in the curve, and finer as it descends till it ter- 
minates, as it began, with a hair line. The second stroke is 
taken out of the middle or thick part of the first, and is ter- 
minated, on the right, with a pressure of the pen, forming a dot. 
To make the top of the first stroke agree with the closing dot of 
the second, the pen must be placed there again, and a dot made. 
As it required a quick sight, a steady hand, and great care to 
place the dot exactly at the fine beginning of the first stroke, a 
space was very often seen between the dot and the fine stroke. 
To remove this difficulty, the first stroke of the y was made of 
the same thickness, and the dot placed above to the right. This 
may, perhaps, account for the dot over the y, which subsequently 
came into general use. Every y, in the facsimile of the Cotton 
MS. PI. II, will serve as an example of this y with a point or 
dot over it. 

The contractions in L are generally such as prevailed in the 
ninth centurj^ as may be seen in PI. I. Much stress, how- 
ever, must not be laid on their use, as indicating the date, 
especially where the Runic character or letter*, named el>el, is 
written as a contraction for the word e^el. The names of the 
Runes, or of the indigenous pagan alphabet, like the names of 
the Hebrew letters, are significant words. In this instance, the 
name of the Anglo-Saxon Rune or pagan letter is et>el, which 

2 A specimen, but not the best, may be seen in the initial letter of PL L 

3 L p 103, 4 di Bk IV, ch 5, § 3, p 82, 20 h. 


Signifies native land^ hirtk place. The Runic letter el>el is used 
twice in Beowulf, instead of the word el?el, 1035: 1819*. Other 
Runes* are found in MSS. \vritten at a later period than L. 

The Cotton MS. has been ascribed to the tenth® century ; but, 
from the form and character of the writing, it does not appear to 
be so old as the Lauderdale. The L must be older than C, if the 
latter copied from L ; and some evidence may be adduced to 
make it appear probable that C did copy from L, or that they 
both copied from one and the same old IMS. The former is 
more probable, for the omissions of L are omitted by C. Some 
of the omissions of C are just such as would be made by a 
copier of L, and some of the errors of L seem to be copied by C. 
These points are now to be examined. 

The copy of a MS. would naturally have the same omissions, 
as that from which it was copied. This is just the relation that 
subsists between C and L ; for, in the table of contents, the 
scribe of L neglected to write the title of Book V : Ch. VIII ; 
and this title is omitted by C\ It is therefore probable that one 
of these MSS. was copied from the other. 

There are other omissions, which seem to indicate the MS. 
that was copied from the other. All, \vho have been accustomed 
to copying, must have observed how liable they have been to 
omit intervening words, clauses, and even sentences, when the 
eye has caught the same word or words immediately or at some 
distance below. Such omissions occur in C. — In p 17, 21 h-k 
on )^t sand occur in L, and the scribe of C, seeing the same 
words just below, omits the intervening clause 21 k-22 c, and 
writes the first — on l^ajt sand, 21 h-k^ and goes on and l>c2r 
22 ffh. Tlie following is a still longer and more striking ex- 
ample. The L gives a minute account of the Amazons p 33, 
39 a-p 34, 4 e. The first line of this account ends with earme 
wif, and nine lines forward the line closes with carman wif. The 

4 Mr. KemWe on A. S. Runes, Archaologia, vol XXVIII, p 344.— Hickes's Thes. vol I, 
p 135. 

5 CoJex Exoniensis, p 50, etc. Eickea's Thes. vol II, p 3— 5: Tab. IIIl— VI: Ar- 
clucol. vol XXVm, p 360—365. 

6 *• Kot later thAn the tenth century." Thorpe's Oros. pre/, p vi. In Mr. Planta's 
Catalogue of the Cotton MSS. in the Brit. Mus. fol 1802, p 34, it is assigned to the xith 

7 See the printed A. a text, p 13, 23 a— 24c: and the L,p G: C fol 4, and fol SI b. 



scribe of C, after writing earme wif, caught his eye upon earman 
wif below, and went on, — men hie swa tintredon, omitting the 
whole nine intervening lines, 33, 40 i — p 34, 4 ft : L p 33, 26 a — 
p 34, 3 y : C fol. 23. — It seems to be evident, from these ex- 
amples, that L was not copied from C, for then L would not 
have had the passages omitted by C ; but that C copied fr*om L, 
as the same word or words occur twice in L, below each other, 
so as to catch the eye of the scribe, while they occur only 
once in C. 

This is rendered more probable, when the very errors of L are 
copied by C. In L p 125, the scribe carelessly wrote, — Lapidus 
Mutius wees consul, making the names of the two consuls as one. 
The scribe of C, fol. 79, minutely copied the error of L, instead 
of writing correctly, Lepidus and Mucins wseron consulas*. In 
L p 38, 18 b the scribe first wrote the defective word mjese ; but, 
perceiving his eiTor, he put ian above in small letters, making the 
proper word maesiane; C, observing only the larger and more 
perceptible letters, and passing over the small superscribed ian, 
copied the erroneous word maese*. 

But there may be such omissions, and a copy of such peculiar 
errors as prove, almost beyond a doubt, which was copied from 
the other. Such is the following : — ^At the end of sheet IIII, and 
at the bottom of p 62 of the Lauderdale MS., the scribe had 
only room to write Laecede- ; and in taking another sheet, and 
in beginning the next page, he omitted -monia, the concluding 
part of Laecede-monia, and began p 63 with the next complete 
word ealdor-man ; instead, therefore, of writing Laecede-monia 
ealdor-man, he only wrote Laecede ealdor-man. This was a very 
possible and natural omission of L, at the conclusion of a page, 
when the usual attention was diverted by taking and beginning a 
new sheet. The scribe of C copied the incomplete word Laecede, 
just as L left it, without the same reason for lea\nng it incom- 
plete, as it does not conclude a sheet, nor come at the end of a 
line in C. It seems hardly possible, then, that such a glaring 
mistake could have been made in C, if it had not been copied 
from L^ 

8 See note to Oros. p 98, 10 e-f, and the A. S. printed text 

9 Note, p 37, 16 a. 

1 A. S. printed text, p 54, 28 tf and note : L p 62, 63: C foL 41 b. 


It seems clear, from these examples, that L and C are so 
closely connected as to lead to the conclusion that one was the copy 
of the other. But the more ample text of L could not be copied 
from C, as the deficient clauses and sentences of the latter tes- 
tify. If, then, one was a copy of the other, and L did not copy 
from C, it follows that C copied from L ; and, if the scribe of 
the Cotton did copy from the Lauderdale, the latter must be the 
older, as previously intimated. 

This conclusion is not invalidated by the fact, that a few 
words and clauses, and one short sentence [p 9, 2 a — 3 b], have 
been found in C, and omitted in L. These are merely explana- 
tory, and such as might be inserted by a scribe acquainted with 
the A. S. idiom, such as the wi'iter of the Cotton MS., whose 
alterations from the L seem to lead to the belief that he was an 
Anglo-Saxon, or at least, judging from his orthography, that he 
was familiar with the cultivated language of the West Saxons. 
There ai-e, however, so many instances of great carelessness in the 
scribe of C, as to lead a casual observer to say, it is the " work 
of an illiterate scribe." The various omissions and errors in C 
and L are pointed out in the Notes and Various Readings. 

It is not only the antiquity of the Lauderdale MS. for which 
it is distinguished, but for its use of accents, its grammatical 
forms, and important readings. The accents are neither nu- 
merous nor r^ular; but, when applied, they are generally 
correct In the inflection of words and the construction of sen- 
tences, great care has been manifested. It is more accurate than 
C, in distinguishing the terminations of -an and -on, both in 
nouns and verbs. In C, there is great confusion in these ter- 
minations ; while in L, they are generally correct : thus, where 
C has for the infinitive, standon and habbon ; and for tlie per- 
fect plural, stodan and hcefdan ; for the ac. and dat. pi. ]?one 
sweoronr, fisceran, fugeleran, huntan p 20, 5 ; L has properly 
standan, habban ; stodon and hasfdon; l?one sweoran; fiscerum, 
fugelerum and huntum. — In the pi. of the subjunctive mood, 
especially of the perfect tense, L affords many examples of the 
distinctive termination -en ; as haebben, naebben, haefden, waeren, 
naeren, mosten and mehten. C retains a few of these, as ofer- 
drifen p 30, 27 A, sometimes omitting the n, as mihle Bk I : ch. xiv 


§ 2, p 37, 31 rf: L mehten. — In addition to greater accuracy ia 
gi'ammatical forms, L has often better readings than C. L has 
generally cyning, sometimes contracted cj^ng, while C uses the 
impure and later forms, kyning, kyningc, kyngc, and cynge. — 
L, by a single word, frequently restores the sense to a passage, 
which had been involved in difficulty by the faulty reading of C. 
In Bk V : ch. X $ 4, p 109, 5 J, C has gesettan, appeased^ allayed^ 
as gesette, in Bk IV : ch. xi ^ 6, p 98, 2 c, altering the meaning : 
on turning to L, the true reading is found, ge-iecton added to, 
increased, strengthened^ and thus the sense is restored. 

L, however, has a predilection for the use of certain letters. 
The radical g, after a vowel, an r or 1, is always retained at the 
end of words in L, instead of being changed into h, as in C. 
Thus, L has beag, wag, beorg, burg, and the regular gen. hedges, 
wages, beorges, burge ; w^hile C has beah, wah, beorh, burh, and 
the gen. as above, beages, etc. Also slog slew, bug low, on-wealg 
sound, instead of sloh, huh, on-wealh. — ^L generally substitutes ie 
for i, i, y or y, as fiend, giet, gegierwan, hie, hiene, hierde, 
iernende, for fynd, gj^t, gegyrwan, hi, hy, hine, hyrde, jTnende. — 
The a is often changed into o, especially before m and n : thus, 
L generally writes gelomp, lond, mon, monig, ond, sond, while 
C more frequently has gelamp, land, man, manig, and, sand. — 
L sometimes uses an for on, [L ji? 83, 15 a : 93, 30 % : 130, 3/.] 

Having given a brief history of the Lauderdale MS., and 
advanced some reasons for concluding that it is the oldest MS. 
of Orosius now known to exist, and shewn its superiority in its 
grammatical forms, and the value of its readings, and also 
noticed its predilection for the use of certain letters, we may 
now be permitted to enter upon some minor details, and to give 
a brief notice of the present condition of this MS. 

The parchment of L is clear and good, but age has given it a 
rather dark colour. The size of the parchment is 1 1 J inches by 
7i ; the writmg occupies 8 J in. by 5 J in. each page, consisting of 
31 lines. The MS. is divided into portions or sheets of eight 
leaves. The iiird, p 46 iiir, p 63 v-, p 78 vi-, p 94 -vii-, 
p 1 10 viii-, p 126 and vim th, p 142^ portions or sheets of eight 

2 Tho page?, following the Roman numerals, refer to the pages of the L manuscript, 
uUerv tlie sheet ends. The place, where one sheet of L ends and another Ix^ns^ may be 


leaves are all thus marked at the foot of the last page of each 
sheet ; the x th, j? 143 sheet, however, is marked at the foot of 
its first page, while the ist sheet and xith, which contains only 
seven leaves, are not visibly marked. The whole MS., there- 
fore, consists of ten sheets of eight leaves, and the xith sheet 
of seven leaves, making a total of 87 leaves, (10x8+7=87) or 174 
pages. The sheets are now all complete, except the second. This 
second sheet of eight leaves, from page 15' to 30 both inclusive, 
has unfortunately been torn out, at an early period, and the 
chasm filled up by the insertion of eight leaves of modern parch- 
ment, on which there was a very imperfect transcript from C of 
the missing leaves. The writing was not only incorrect, but so 
small that it filled only twelve of the sixteen pages, leaving four 
blank. Altogether the imperfection of this transcript was so great, 
that I was most anxious to have a facsimile copy from C of those 
pages wanting in L. I was enabled to gratify my desire, and to 
engage Messrs. Nctherclifl and Son to make the facsimiles by 
the liberality of the owner of the L. In using the greatest exertion 
to secure accuracy, every letter was carefully compared with C, 
and revised three times* by myself at the British Museum. 
A facsimile copy was then printed on parchment, which has been 
carefully inserted into the L with this explanatory note written 
at the top of the first facsimile page. — *' The following eleven 
leaves are a facsimile copy of the Cotton MS. They contain the 
same matter as the eight missing leaves, mentioned at the foot of 
the preceding page*, and they are now inserted by Joseph Bos- 
worth, LXi.D.y at the request of John ToUemache, Esq. M.P. 
Helmingham Hall, September 29th, 1856." The insertion of 
this facsimile from the C, makes the L as complete as possible, 

fouad in the notes by turning to L p 46, L |7 62 dc. In the text aboTe *inTd p 46 denote 
that the third then of L ends with page 46 of L. The place in the printed text T/here 
each sheet ends is referred to in the notes, thus page 46 of L refers to 48, 12 c, that is in 
page 43^ line 12, irord c or 3^ the third sheet of L ends, and the fourth begins. 

3 The first leaf of L being filled with irrelevant matter, the paging of Orosius begins 
on the second leaf of the first sheet, hence there are only seven leaves or fourteen pt^pes 
of manuscript in the first sheet, and therefore the paging of the second sheet is from 
I5to30incluaTe. ' 

4 The smallest error or omission of a stroke is noticed at the end of Notes and Various 
Bladings to Orosius. 

5 This note is copied from L and given iu Notes and Various Readings to Book I : ch. 
I, f M : p 20, 18 1;. 


now it has its deficiency supplied from the only MS. of nearly 
its own age. 

The same lithographic artists also prepared facsimiles of the 
three pages of L, comprehending King Alfred's Description of 
Europe, and the first part of Ohthere's voyage*. A few copies of 
these facsimiles of L, and of C, intended chiefly for presents, 
were printed upon tinted paper to resemhle the colour of the 
manuscripts, with the following title : — A description of Europe 
and the voyages of Ohthere an4 Wulfstan, written in Anglo-Saxon 
by King Alfred the Great; containing, — 1 A facsimile copy of 
the whole A. S. text from C, and as far as it exists in L ; together 
sixteen facsimile pages, — 2 A printed A. S. text, based on these 
]\ISS., — 3 Notes and various readings, — i A literal English trans- 
lation and notes, — 5 A map of Europe in the time of Alfred. — 
It was printed in large .4to. to accord with the size of the MSS. 

The first leaf of sheet i does not contain any matter referring 
to Orosius, the paging, therefore, begins with the first page of 
the second leaf, where the MS. of Orosius commences. It ends 
at the bottom of the right hand page of the seventh and last leaf 
of sheet xi, having the last, or left hand page, filled with a nearly, 
obliterated account of the dimensions of Noah's ark, the age of 
the patriarch, and of his sons. Thus, three pages,— the two 
pages of the first leaf, and the last page, — being taken from 1 74, 
— ^the pages in the entire MS. will leave 171 pages filled with 
JMS. of King Alfred's A. S. version of Orosius. 

The first leaf is of the same parchment as the rest of the MS., 
but both of its pages are occupied with irrelevant devices. In 
the first page, there are emblematical representations of the four 
Evangelists, drawn with the pen in the same brown-black ink as 
the MS. Towards the left upper corner, within a circle, formed 
by a rough outline of a coiled serpent, over whose head is a 
small square with the letter t in red, there is a neat outline of 
an eagle with a rough stroke of red under the eye, extending 
to the end of the beak. Above its head is written aquila, ioha, 
that is, lohannes. Within a smaller circle, a little to the right 
of the last, a lamb is represented having the horns, and a square 
between the fore-feet, painted red, and Marcus written ovet its 

6 Orosius, Bk I : ch. I, § 11*14 : /1 18, 20 0—;? 20, 18 c. 


back, and Agnus Dei over its head. A little below, and to the 
right of the circle of Marcus, is an ox, without any circle, but 
with Lucus inscribed on its side. In a single line, below Aquila 
and Agnus Dei, a curious Runic alphabet extends nearly the 
width of the page, each Rune being accompanied with the small 
common letter, that represents the Rune. A little lower, and to 
the left of the middle of the page, there is a parallelogram filled 
with a rough, flourishing and fanciful drawing, some of the most 
prominent parts of which are painted red. Over the parallelo- 
gram is written, — ^Vinea Domini. In the right-hand lower corner, 
is a human figure with a glory surrounding the head, and with 
hands extended holding a globe. The face, the shoulder, and 
the globe are touched with red. Mattheus is written on the neck 
and over the head. The second page contains only an enlarged, 
rude and more recent outline of the figure last described, with 
Fulgens written over its head. 

The MS. upon the whole is in a fab state of preservation, 
though there are a few worm holes, perforating the first eight 
leaves, and some small cuts and injuries in the subsequent leaves. 
There is about an inch torn out of the middle of the foot of page 
33, but it does not touch the writing. In p 39, there is a slit in 
the parchment about f of an inch long, and very nan'ow. It 
must have been an original cut in the skin, as the scribe wTites 
to the left edge, and then skips over the slit, and continues his 
writing on the right side, as if the parchment had been perfect. 
In p 41 there was an original defect in the parchment, which 
has been extended to two inches by a subsequent rend. In 
p 43, there is a small oval hole about one eighth of an inch long. 
The parchment is quite perfect from p 43 to 107. In p 107 
there is another original hole, of oval form, one inch long and 
half an inch wide. In the margin of p 11 5, there is an irregular 
cut about five eighths of an inch by one quarter. At the foot of 
p 119, there is a small rend. In the middle of p 121, there is a 
round hole not quite a quarter of an inch in diameter, which is 
made to represent the body of a frog, the head and other parts 
being neatly drawn in outline round the hole with a pen and the 
. same ink as that used for the MS. On the other side of the 
leaf (p 122) the same hole is surrounded with a fnll, at the upper 


part df which a dog's head is drawn. Twelve lines below, in the 
same 122nd page, round the margin of two small holes, is a very 
good outline of a dog's head and fore-feet, in profile, the upper 
hole representing the eye. These were original defects in the 
parchment, which the scribe attempted to turn mto ornaments. 
A piece about an inch and a half long, and three quarters of an 
inch broad, is torn out of the middle of the margin of p 133. In 
p 148, at the beginning of Book VI, there is not the usual 
ornamental letter, but merely a blank space; indicating that 
such a letter was intended. At the beginning of many of the 
chapters in this book, there are also blank spaces, indicating that 
they were intended to be filled with the same sort of letters, as 
those which were used in the preceding five books. At the foot 
of p 165, there is a rend in the parchment about an inch long. 
In p 169, there is an original cut in the skin about half an inch 
by a quarter. The last leaf is a little shrivelled, apparently from 
having been pasted on the cover, and, at some early period, in 
taking it off, five holes have been made in the parchment. The 
largest is about three quai-ters by half an inch, and at the begin- 
ning, and between the lines 3 and 5 taking away 3 letters in line 
4, leaving only l^u unade, for furhwunade, and the upper part 
of two letters in line 5. The second hole is in line 13, and egg 
shaped, not quite a quarter of an inch long, but taking away the 
corner of the contraction for and, and the h in hiene. The other 
three are very small and do not deface any letters. In other 
respects the parchment is quite perfect, and in good preservation. 

The Cotton MS. Little or nothing has been discovered to 
enable us to ascertain the history of the Cotton MS. of King 
Alfred's A. S. version of Orosius [Tiberius B 1.], before it found a 
secure resting-place in the Cotton library. An Anglo-Saxon MS. 
of Orosius is mentioned in the catalogue of the Glastonbury 
Library of the year 1248^; but means have been wanting to 
trace either the L or C to this library. Dr. Caius, founder of 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, must have seen a MS. 
of Alfred's version of Orosius before 1568 ; for, when speaking 

7 Lther Orosii 2 Latina Lingua; tertiuM inAnglica, [i.e. Saxonica] rrfi«ti sed ItgihUa. 
17anle/a CataL Pref. p viiL 


of Hibernia in the ICing's time, he refers to it, ia his Antiquity of 
the University of Cambridge, 1568, in these words, — 

. . . **Miaie Alphredi reyis^Kiberni vulgo dicehantur ScotL Enm obeaussam, 
vbicungue apud Orosium oecurrebat HihemuSj Aluredua vertit ScotteV 

In ** CataloguB Scriptorum, quibus TdUS est duobus hisce libris Londinensis,*' 
which follows p 360, he cites — " Orosius Hispanus, quern Aluredus vertit*.^* 

Though we cannot assert, that the IMS., which Caius consulted 
before 1568, was that which was subsequently purchased by Sir 
Robert Cotton, we have evidence that it was the very copy, 
which Lambarde employed in translating Ohthere's Voyages, 
published by Hakluyt in 1598 ; for, in the margin, are notes in 
the hand-writing of Lambarde. Further proofs will be subse- 
quently produced, when we come to speak of Ohthere's voyages. 
This MS. of Orosius was probably one of the first possessed by Sir 
Robert Cotton, who is said to have begun his collection so early 
as 1588 or 1590. In this case, it would have been in his hands 
eight or ten years, during which time, Lambarde might have had 
access to it to make the translation for Hakluyt. It is expressly 
mentioned, in the first published Catalogue of the Cotton Li- 
brary m 1696, compiled by Dr. Thomas Smith at the request 
of Sir John Cotton, grandson of Sir Robert \ Dr. Smith de- 
scribes it, — 

** Tiberius, B. L 1 Orosius, Saiouice, ex interpretatione R. Alfred! :" witb 
itco other distinct works, p 22. 

This valuable MS, followed the fate of the Cotton Library*. 
In 1700, an Act was passed to secure the Library for the public 
benefit, in the name of the Cottons. Queen Anne bought Cotton 
House, Westminster, in 1 706, for the Royal as well as the Cot- 
tonian library. The House and Library were vested in trustees, 

8 Be antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiae, etc. ExcTsvm Londini 1568. Very small 
8to. p 233, 9—12. 

9 The 4to. Ed. of 1574 by John Day, p 172, 19—21. 

1 Catalogus librorum Manuscriptonmi Bibliothecse Cottonians. Cui prxmitiuntur 
iHostris Tiri, D. Boberti Cottoni, Equitis Aumti et Baronctti, xita : et Bibliothecse Cot- 
toniaxue historia et synopsis. Scriptore Thoma Suiitho, Ecclesis AnglicanaB Presbytero. 
Oxonii, e Theatre Sheldoniano mdcxovi. 

2 The History of the Cotton Library will be found in Dr. Smith's CaUl. 1606 : Bio- 
graphia Britannica ; and Knight's Biography in the English Cjclopa-dia under Gotten ; 
ftnd in the Pret to Planta*8 Catal. 


for the public. In 1712, the Labmry was removed to Essex 
House, Essex St., Strand, and in 1730 to Little Dean's Yard, 
Westminster, where a fire broke out, on Oct. 23i'd 1731, and 
111 most precious manuscripts were burnt or lost, and 99 ren- 
dered imperfect. What remained were removed to the new 
building, intended for the dormitory of Westminster school, and 
in 1757 they were transferred to the secure keeping of the Britisli 
Museum. The Cotton MS. of Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of 
Orosius, happily escaped the ravages of the fire, and remains in 
a perfect state in the British Museum to the present day. 

The accurate Wanley gives a more correct description of this 
MS. in 1 704 \ than Dr. Smith in 1696. Wanley says,— 

" Tiberius, B. I. Cod, memhr. in foL mtn, in quo eontinentur—T. fol 1. Her 

onginnetS sco boc J>e man Orosius nemnetS. In hoc Cod. prima Ohtheri Periplus 

fol 7 h, hahetur; aecunda autemfol 11 : Wulfstani etiamfol 11 h : from fol 1 to 

lOD b : \rith three other distinct works, which need not be described." See 

Wanley p 219. 

Mr. Joseph Planta, keeper of the MSS. in the British Museum, 
finished his Catalogue in 1796, which was published in 1802/. 
Planta judiciously copies verbatim Wanley 's description of this 
]\IS., but adds, without apparent authority, that it was of the 
xith century, which rather appears to be about the middle of 
the xth^ 

It is one of the very best specimens of Anglo-Saxon writing, 
and is altogether a very beautiful and precious MS., though the 
scribe has made some sad blunders. It deserves a minute de- 
scription. Even at the present time, the parchment, which is 
thick and good, is generally clear and light, for its age. Its size 
is 11 1 inches by 7|. The lines vary a little in length, but they 
are mostly 5^ inches long. From the beginning to folio 33 a 
there are twenty-five lines in a page. In folio 33 a, and from 
thence to the end, there are twenty-seven lines in a page. These 
twenty-seven lines, being closer together, fill the same space as 

3 Huxnpbredi TVanleii Librorum yett. Septentrionalium Catalogus. fol. Oxon. 


4 i Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Cotton Library, deposited in the Britiah 
Museum, etc. 2 vols fol. 1802. p 34, col. 2. 

6 From the character of the writing, I should rather say, it was written about the 
middle of the xth century. See Astle ;> 1 08, No. 6.— Mr. Thorpe says,— •« Not later than 
the tenth century." Pref. to Oros. p VL 


the preceding twenty-five lines. Thus, the writing occupies in 
each page 9 inches by 5|, leaving a margin at the top of | of an 
inch, and at the bottom of If in. : the outer margin is 1| in., 
and the inner margin is only ^ of an inch. 

This beautiful manuscript is written in one hand, except four 
pages and a half, from folio 30 b, p 41, 41 c, to fol 32 b, 13 rf, 
jp 44, 14 A, where thei'e is a change in the form of the letters 
and accents, as ^viD be seen by comparing Plate III with Plate II. 

The accents, which seem to be of the same age as the MS, 
are made with a fine upstroke of the pen, and with a greater or 
a less pressure, forming a large or small dot at the top, as seen in 
Plates in and 11. Thei-e are other accents formed by the up- 
stroke of the pen, and sometimes a little curved, but without a 
dot. These, like the recent alterations in the words, appear to 
have been made several centuries after the original writing, and 
are so^irregular, and often so incorrect, as to be useless. 

^fuch of the punctuation is by a later hand, apparently by the 
same which made the recent and faulty accents and the interlinear 
alterations in the words. The stops, especially those like our 
inverted semicolon, are so incorrect, that they have been omitted, 
as quite useless, or rather because they firequently pervert the 

The JuNiAN TRANSCRIPT of the Cotton MS. [Tiberius B. I.] 
Francis Junius or du Jou the younger, was born at Heidelberg in 
1589, where his father, Francis Junius, was Professor of Divinity, 
and author of many learned works, but he is best known by his 
translation of the Scriptures into Latin in conjunction with Tremel- 
lius. While his son was a child, the professor removed to Holland, 
and occupied the divinity chair at Leyden wuth great credit and 
advantage to the protestants, till his death by the plague in 1 602. 
His son was educated at Leyden, and w^as some time in the army ; 
but at the close of the war, he devoted himself to literature as his 
profession, and in 1620 came to England, where he was occupied 
as librarian to the Earl of Arundel from 1621 to 1651, a period of 
thirty years. He was a most diligent and successful student of 
the Teutonic languages, and sedulous in searching for Anglo- 
Saxon MSB., and in copying them. Among these, one of the 


most valuable is his beautiful transcript of Orosius from the 
Cotton MS. It is written in a very neat, and legible, but in a small 
hand, on 102 pages of a coarse, small folio, paper, llf inches 
by 5|. Its history is soon told, though it is difficult to ascertain 
the time when it was written, probably about 1654. His nu- 
merous MSS- were his richest treasures, kept with diligent care. 
To secure their preservation, he bequeathed them to the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, and after his demise at Windsor, in the house 
of his nephew, Isaac Vossius* in 1678, Orosius was safely de- 
posited, \vith his other MSS. in the archives of the Bodleian. It 
is marked Junius 15. 

There is one great defect in the transcript of Junius, the 
omission of accents. In other respects, he took some liber- 
ties in transcribing, as Elstob, in copying this manuscript of 
Junius about forty years afterwards, and referring to a judicious 
coiTection, makes this general remark, — 

" Obiter notandum ease puto, Junium pro suo judicio, ubi voces obiter 
scribendas esse crediderit, inutasse, et lectionem qus yerissima illi visa est, 
subbtituisse." A note in the margin of EUtoVa transcript ofJuniui^ p 6. 

At the top of the first page of this Junian transcript, is written, 
in the hand of Dr. Marehall. Rector of Lincoln College, from 1672 
to his death in 1685, — 

"Hanc Orosii versionem Saxonicam ex manuscripto Cottoniano descripsit 
darissimus Franciscus Junius, Francisci filius. Fostmodiizn apographum col- 
latum erat cum codice manuscripto e bibliothedL Latherdalianft petito; qui 
olim fuit Johannis Dee M.D. peculium." 

About twenty. five years after Dr. Marshall wrote this, Wanley 
in 1704, gives the following title and description of this tran- 
script, — 

" JVX. 15. Pauli Orosii historia Hoemesta, sive de Miseriia mundi para- 
pbrastice ab iElfredo Sege in linguam Saxonicam traducta. 

" Apographum boc descripsit CI. JuniuSy ex Cod. Cottoniano, qui inscribitur, 
TiBEBiTS, B. I. eundem vero postea contulit vir CI. Tho, MarescJiallus cum 
Cod. Bibliothec® Lauderdaliante^ qui quondam fuerit peculium doctissimi viri 
Joannii Dee M.D. etc. p 85. 

Dr. Marshall, the intimate friend of Junius, and joint editor of 
the- Mceso- Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, of 1665, gave the 
vaiious readings of the Lauderdale MS. in the Junian copy, by 


making dots, or drawing a line under the letters of the word 
in Junius, and writing the letters or word of the Lauderdale 
above. Words or sentences in L, which are not in Junius, have 
their place of omission denoted by a caret, and the omitted words 
are written above the line or in the margin. Letters or words 
above the line or in the margin of Junius are, therefore, the read- 
ings of L given by Dr. Marshall, who also wrote the references 
to the original Latin of Orosius. 

The Elstob transcript of the Junian copy. This is a copy of 
a copy, made by William Elstob, when he was a very young 
man. His literary career was short, but distinguished for its 
energy and success. He was born in 1673, at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, where he received his early education, and was afterwards 
sent to Eton, and from thence to Catherine Hall, Cambridge. 
Being dissatisfied with his position at Cambridge, and the air not 
agreeing with his delicate constitution, he removed to Queen's 
College, Oxford, Dec, 2, 1691. Here he found a society of 
young men, full of literary zeal, devoting themselves to the study 
of Anglo-Saxon. — ^Edmund Gibson, afterwards Bishop of London, 
was one of the most energetic and successful of these students. 
His edition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, with a Latin trans- 
lation and notes, in 1692, was a marvellous work for a young 
man of twenty-three years of age, who had just taken the degree 
of B.A. A succession of the most valuable books in Anglo-Saxon 
was given to the world by men of this learned body. Edward 
Thwaites published his Heptateuchus in 1698 : his Grammatica 
Anglo-Saxonica in 1711: — Christopher Rawlinson, Boethius in 
1698. — Thomas Benson published, Vocabularium Anglo-Saxoni- 
cum, Lexico Gul. Sumneri magna parte auctius in 1701, when 
he was only B.A. — William Nicolson, subsequently archbishop 
of Cashel, wrote the learned preface to Willdns's Leges Anglo- 
Saxonic® in 1719;— and George Smith, in 1722, completed his 
father's splendid folio edition of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, ia 
Latin and. Anglo-Saxon. These distinguished men were all of 
the same college as Mr. Elstob, and most of them being his 
associates and friends, naturally turned his attention from the 
study of the oriental to the northern languages. In 1696 Elstob 


was chosen a fellow of University College, generally associated 
with the name of King Alfred, as its founder. Here he received 
a fresh stimulus td his Anglo-Saxon studies, from his friend 
Humphrey Wanley, who was also a fellow of this college. Mr. 
Elstob had already made very extensive preparations for an 
edition of the Anglo-Saxon Laws ; and, during his residence in 
Univereity College, he transcribed the whole of Orosius, in a 
small 4to vol. 9 inches by 7, consisting of 166 pages. He 
finished it at the age of twc-aty-five, as we learn by comparing 
the date of the following title with the year of his birth : — 




Anglo-SaxoDum Bex doctissimus. 






dom:ini. MDCxcvin. 

In the printed proposals for publishing Orosius, issued by Mr. Elstob in the 
following year, he copies the preceding title, but adds after doctissimus ; ad 
exemplar Junianum, edidit Wilhelmus Elstob, A.M. et Coll. XTuiv. Soc. Oxoniss 
e Theatro Sheldoniano, An. Dom. 3O)Ci0. 

Elstob's transcript is written in a very neat and small hand, 
without any accents. He has even omitted the almost solitary 
accent of Junius on see', and has defaced his transcript by some 
gi'oss elTors^ 

The various readings of L, written in the Junian copy by 
Dr. Marshall, are placed at the foot of each page. Mr. Elstob 
collated his own copy with the Cotton, and noted its readings 
on the outer margin. At the top of the page, opposite the title, 
he gives the following explanation of the marks he used in the 
collations : — 

6 Table of Contents p9,2lab Beadan ss, Bk I : ch I, { VII. 

7 Table of Contents ;> 11, Z5 e-^ see maera Alexander, instead of se Msera Alexander. 
Junius and haye se: Bk lY : ch V. 


** Quaere an voces istae, qu» hnbent lineam Stibii sive Olcastrensis subductam, 
Don idco notantur istiusmodi lme& subnotat&, quod eas Codex Hattonianus 
[Iiauderdalianus P] * non aguoscit. Quseras itidem an qusB line4 Stibii supra 
notantur non eunt ex eodem codice addenda atque supplenda." 

The Rev. Samuel Pegge, D.C.L. concludes, that he wrote notes 
upon the Anglo-Saxon text of Orosius, on these grounds,— 

"Mr.EUtob, speaking of tbe metbod he had used in translating the Homily 
of S. Gregory, says, in writing to his sister, ho had done it . . . iisdem ferd 
Terbifl repositis qusD in Saxonica oh'm transfusa. . . . Eodem plane ratione, qua 
jam pridem Obosiuai a nohU eluctibratum scis*. Whence it would seem, he 
had added a body of notes upon Orosius in a volume separate from the copy he 
bad made of the Saxon Version, for nothing of the kind appears in the copy. 
Perhaps they were intended to be transcribed into the blank leaves at the end 
of the copy, which are numerous »." 

If he ever wrote such notes, not the slightest trace of them 
has yet been discovered. 

An allusion having been made to his sister, the celebrated 
Anglo-Saxon scholar, it would be ungracious to allow her name 
to pass without a short notice. Miss Elizabeth Elstob was ten 
years younger than her brother, who affectionately calls her — 
"dulcis et indefessa studeorum meorum comes ^'* While her 
brother was in Oxford she mostly resided in that city, and joined 
him in his studies. She was justly held in great esteem by the 
most eminent Anglo-Saxon scholars of that age, and published 
in 1709 the Homily on S. Gregory's birth-day with the Anglo- 
Saxon text, and an English translation, with a very learned 
preface and notes. In 1715, she wrote and printed the first 
Anglo-Saxon Grammar in English. A beautiful miniature por- 
trait of her will be found in the initial letter of the Homily and 
of the Grammar. After the death of her brother her cu'cum- 
stances were so reduced, that she had the greatest difficulty in 
supporting herself by keeping a small day school at Evesham in 
Worcestershire. Her depressed condition was made generally 
known by Mr. George Ballard, and Queen Caroline granted her 

8 Is the Hatton MS. the Lauderdale t See reasons for the Bupposition in page xt. 

The dedication of his Latin Version of the Homily on S. Gregory to his Sister ; p iv. 

1 Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica. Nichols, London, 4to. 1790. Antiquities in 
Kent, t-ol L Textus Roffcnsis p 20, note 3. 

2 Wm. Hstob's dedication of his Latin Version of the Homily on S. Gregory to his 
8ister ;pir. , 

x::xiv PREFACE. 

a pension of £20 a-year. After the Queen's death, the pension 
ceased, but the Duchess Dowager of Portland took Miss Elstob 
into her family as governess to her children, where she continued 
till her death, May 30, 1756, at the age of 73, and was buried at 
S.Margaret's Westminster*. 

The dean and chapter of Canterbury presented Mr. Elstob to 
the Rectory of S. Swithin, London, in 1702, where he 'remained 
till his death in 1715, at the age of 42. His copy of Orosius 
and other MSS. came into >he hands of his uncle. Dr. Charles 
Elstob, prebendary of Canterbury; and, when he died in 1721, 
they were purchased by Mr. Joseph Ames, secretary to the 
Society of Antiquaries, London, whose name appears at the top 
of the title page of Orosius. Mr. Ames had an intention of pub- 
lishing it, but he died in 1759, and it was sold the following year. 
Dr. Samuel Pegge says **I bought it at his [Ames's] auction, 
anno 1760*." Dr. Pegge offered it to Owen Manning; but, on 
his declining to print it, Daines Barrington was permitted to 
make the same use of it for his edition published in 1773. The 
MS. was subsequently in the library of Richard Gough, Esquire, 
who bequeathed to the University of Oxford all his printed books 
and manuscripts on Saxon and Northern literature, etc.; this 
IMS. of Orosius ought, therefore, to have been sent with them 
to the Bodleian. By some mistake it was detained and sold 
with Mr. Cough's other books in 1810 or 1812, as we learn 
from a note written by Sir Henry Ellis. " When I bought it at 
Mr. Cough's sale, it was unbound, and duiy, having been passed 
through the printer's hands by Daines Barrington." A note 
WTitten by Dr. Ingi'am in p 167, the first blank page at the end 
of this transcript, tells us, that it was given to him by Sir Henry 
ElHs of the British Museum, on the 11th of January 1813. On 
the death of Dr. Ingram, in 1850, he left it with his manuscripts 
and books to his college, as the following note testifies, written, 
on a blank page at the beginning, by the fiiendly hand of the 
Rev. John Wilson, D.D. F.S.A., now (1858) President, and one 
of the executors : — 

3 Bibliothcca Topog. Britan., toI I, Text. Roffen. p 11—28.— Nichols's Lit. Aoecdotes, 
vol IV, p 112 — 140, with additions by Sir Henry Ellis. — Knight's Cyclop, of Biog. under 

4 Bibliotheca Topog. Britan., vol T, Text. Roff./> 11. 


liber CoUegii Sancto et Individuffi Trinitatis in Academia Oxon ; e legatis 
Jacobi Ingram, 8.T.P. nuper PraBsidentia, 1850. 

It has been neatly bound, and I am indebted to the kindness 
of the President and Fellows of Trinity College for the loan of it, 
and the interleaved copy of Barrington's Orosius, during the 
whole time that my edition of Orosius has been going through 
the press. The interleaved copy contains many valuable notes, 
written by Dr. Ingram, when he was Professor of Anglo-Saxon. 

The Ballard transcript, like that of Mr. Elstob, is copied 
from the Junian MS. ; it is, therefore, merely a copy of a copy. 
It is very neatly written, on thick quarto paper, a little larger 
than what was used by Elstob. The title bears the date of 1 75 1 . 
Mr. Ballard wrote a long preface upon the use and advantages of 
Anglo-Saxon, in which, speaking of his manuscript, he says — 

"The transcript, I have taken, is done from one made by Mr. Junius, in 
Bodley's Archives, which was collated by Dr. Marshall with the Lauderdale 
manuscript. The varioua readings I have added at the bottom of each 
page." p 47. 

Mr. Ballard bequeathed this MS. to Dr. Charies Lyttleton, 
Bishop of Carlisle, then Dean of Exeter, to whom it is dedicated. 
It was left by the Bishcp to the Society of Antiquaries, of which 
he was President ; and it is there safely preserved for the use of 
the Fellows. Through the liberality of the Society, I have had the 
possession of this MS. during the greater part of the time in 
which I have been preparing the present edition. For critical 
purposes, it is of little value, as in following Junius it has the 
fetal error of omitting the accents. It is, however, a work 
manifesting great care and industry, and a lasting monument of a 
man, who raised himself from obscmity, by his zeal and perse- 
verance in the acquisition of knowledge, under great difficulties; . 
for George Ballard, a native of Campden, in Gloucestershire, 
was brought up as a stay and habit maker, and after the la- 
l>our of the day was over, he devoted many hours, stolen from 
sleep, to the improvement of his mind, and to the study of 
Anglo-Saxon, His abilities, diligence, and learning attracted 
the notice of lord Chedworth and his friends, and they generously 
offered him an annuity of £100 a-year ; but he modestly told 
them, that £60 would amply supply aU his wants. He then 



went to Oxford, " for the benefit of tfie Bodleian library ; and 
Dr.Jenner, president of Magdalen College, made him one of 
the eight Clerks, which furnished him with chambers and com- 
mons. Being thus a gremial, he was afterwards chosen one of 
the University bedels." In 1752, he published in 4to. by sub- 
scription — 

'* Memoirs of Britisli Ladies, who have been celebrated for their writings, or 
skill in the learned Languages, Arts and Sciences." This interesting and 
excellent book was republished in 8vo. in 1775, but the impressions being 
small, both editions are now scarce. 

He died, in the prime of life, in 1755. His numerous manu- 
script collections are in the Bodleian Library. 

The Hampson transcript of the Cotton MS. of Orosius. Mr. 
Robert Thomas Hampson had a strong predilection for literature 
and science from his early youth. Deep literary research was 
his delight. Though he could write popular articles with great 
ease and despatch, there was always some allusion to antiquity 
in what he wrote, that indicated the vast resources and great 
research of the writer. The chief part of his early life was 
spent in the acquisition of knowledge ; and, for more than thirty 
of his latter years, he was professionally engaged in supplying 
leading and popular articles to the periodical press. While thus 
employed in writing papers, in a neat and captivating style, on 
the absorbing topics of the day, always on sound moral prin- 
ciples, and full of matter, he never failed to have some literary 
subject before him, which required close and laborious inves- 
tigation. A very short account of his life, and of his chief 
works, published with his name, will be the best evidence of the 
fact. For this purpose I avail myself of the communication of 
one of his literary friends, without touching, in the least, upon 
the political bias of the papers in which he wrote. " Mr. Hamp- 
son was born in Liverpool on July 9, 1793, and belonged to a 
good Lancashire family, which at that time was settled in Man- 
chester. After the termination of the great Continental war, 
during the troubled period when agitation for Reform com- 
menced, Mr. Hampson became correspondent to the Morning 
Chronicle^ then under the management of Mr. Perry, and trans- 

ha:mpson's copy of the cotton ms. xxxni 

mitted regular accounts to that journal of the violent scenes in 
the north of England, of which he was an eye-witness. On the 
expiration of his engagement he wrote for various newspapers, 
and afterwards, for five or six years, assisted the late Mr. Baines, 
M.P., of Leeds, who was collecting materials for his History of 
Lancasldre. For some years afterw^ards he contributed to various 
metropolitan and pro\incial newspapers in the Liberal cause, and 
finally entered into an engagement upon the Morning Advertiser^ 
for which paper he has constantly wiitten for upwards of sixteen 
years. In 1841, Mr.Hampson published his principal work, in 
two volumes, Medii JEoi Kakndarium ; or^ Dates ^ Cliarters, and 
Customs of the Middle Ages, This was followed, in 1846, by 
Origines Patricice; or^ A Deduction of European Titles of Nohility 
and Dignified Offices from tlieir Primitive Sources. Both books 
obtained the highest praise of the press in England and on the 
Continent, and are alike distinguished for an extent of erudition 
and a depth of research which are to be found in few modern 
works. In 1850, Mr. Hampson published a small pamphlet, 
entitled Religious Deceptions of the Church of Rome Exposed^ and 
he is also the author of several minor works, in all of which an 
unusual amount of learning and of reasoning are displayed. 
Philological inquiries formed the especial delight of Mr. Hampson, 
and in that branch of study he succeeded in throwing a light 
upon many points which were liidden in obscurity. He had a 
most extensive acquaintance with languages, and was familiar 
with Scandina^dan, Anglo-Saxon, old Norman, and Sanskrit li- 
terature. A few years ago, he contributed an essay, on the 
Geography of King Alfred, to a work on Anglo-Saxon Uterature 
written by Dr. Bosworth. Mr.Hampson died, at his residence 
in Swinton-street, Gray's Inn-road, London, Feb. 7th 1858. In 
private life Mr. Hampson's habits w' ere veiy retiring, and for many 
years, until within five days of his death, he devoted himself 
almost unintermittingly to study to the gi*eat injury of his 

Though my copy of the Cotton MS. had been thrice collated 
with the original, Tiberius B. I, in the British Museum, I found, 
in fixing the reading of my Anglo-Saxon text for the press, that 
it was fi^quently necessaiy to refer to the original. To save Ibis 


constant trouble and expense, I asked the loan of Mr. Hampson's 
copy, and of the index or vocabulaiy ; that, in case of doubt, I 
might have the authority of his copy in confirmation of my own. 
I give his generous reply in his own words, fix)m his letter of 
March 22, 1853,— 

" With respect to the MSS. pray do me the favour to accept of them. I can 
always Bee Orosius in the Museum, so that, in reality, I have no need of the 
transcript. I should not offer it if I were not certain that it is a correct copy. 
The index or vocabulary is properly Vour own. At least, I took all the expla* 
nations from your dictionary." 

Some apology is due for inserting my reply, but I do so, as I 
know not how I could better introduce Mr. Hampson's own ex- 
planation of the unusual care he took in making his exact copy. 

" I cannot sufliciently express my obligation for the honour conferred upon 
me by the gift of your very neat and valuable transcript of Kiog Alfred's 
A. 8. version of Orosius ; and your most useful Index. They are the most 
acceptable present I could have received. Formerly, I was indebted to you for 
solving many difficulties in Ohthere's Voyages, and the Geography of King 
Alfred, as regards his Qermania, and for very learned and satisfactory illus- 
trations of my brief notes, on these subjects : now, you have increased my 
obligation by handsomely presenting your MSS. to me. They will be kept as 
the greatest treasures; and, when I have completed my A, S. Text of Orosius, 
I will have them bound in ihe beit style.— I will, however, previously SLok you 
for an account of your transcript, that I may give a short history of it, and of 
your other literary works." 

The following is Mr. Hampson's satisfactory answer : — 

" In 1839 or 1S40 I had a copy of Barrington, which I believe had belonged 
to the Eev. Dr. "Whitcker, the historian of Whalley, Eichmondshire, and other 
topographical works. As I did not expect to meet with Barrington on sale, 
and being one of the editors of the Courier, with much time on my hands, I 
made a short hand transcript and returned the book. This did not take up 
much time. On writing it in long hand, I found much to be dissatisfied with, 
such as manifest corruptions of the text, besides interpolations from some MS., 
which I thought was a modern transcript. I, therefore, determined to have a 
fair copy of Tiberius B. I. This was very readily accomplished by comparing 
Barrington with the Cotton MS. and retaining nothing which was not in the 
latter. It is possible that ^ the whole labour occupied the afternoons, and 
very likely some of the evenings of an entire year. When I had made the copy, 
which I am quite happy to learn is of some use to you, I again carefully com- 
pared it with the Cotton MS., correcting the punctuation, and adding the 
accents, some of which, from the fading of the old ink, may not be quite exact. 

The coloured letters are an imitation of the form of the Saxon letters in that 


MS. ; and, I think, ihej ought to be preserred as an ancient mode of dividing 
subjects. The paints used were of a very common kind, sold in shilling and 
half-crown boxes. The red, I think, was red ink, and that colour is used only 
where it was used in the MS. The first letter TJ, which is richly ornamented 
in the MS., was above my skill. I have preserved only the general appearance. 
Some time afterwards, I conceived another design — ^that of publishing the 
copy as you have it, with a glossarial index of the words with Dr. Bosworth's 
explanations, and referring readers to his lexicon for the correlatives in the 
other Teutonic languages ; but this was not all, my intention was to trace as 
many of the words as possible to the Sanskrit, Persic, and Caucasian languages, 
for which I made great preparations, and should have attempted to write an 
essay on the philological part of the subject by way of preface to the glossary. 
This, I imagined, might show makers of etymological dictionaries of English, 
that there is something else to be done than turning over the pages of other 
dictionaries for words of similar form and orthography. I wrote to Mr. Pick- 
ering of Piccadilly about the publication, tut he was fearful that it would not 
defray the cost, being adapted ' only to the few/ I, therefore, abandoned the 
whole project without much regret ; for labour of this kind is never without great 
use to the mind, and it furnishes a pleasure 9ui generis. It is most gratifying 
to me, that you have accepted and found the transcript of service." 

From this detailed history of the two old manuscripts, and the 

four transcripts of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, 

it is manifest that the king's translation has heen highly appre- 

ciatedy from the ninth certury to the present day. It may, th?n, 

be well to ascertain what use has been made of these manuscripts, 

in giving them a wider circulation through the press. The dawn 

of the reformation cast a light upon Anglo-Saxon literature and 

the Church. Archbishop Parker, and Fox, the martyrologist, 

defended their doctrines by an appeal to Anglo-Saxon writers, 

and John Joscetyn, chaplain to the Archbishop, proved the pro- 

testant view of the Sacrament to be that of the early Church by 

publishing in 1567 the first Anglo-Saxon book ever printed — 

" A Sermon on Easter Day,*' in Anglo-Saxon with an English 

version. 'WTiile divines diligently sought for what enabled them 

to defend theur principles, Caius, Lambarde, Camden and Spel- 

man, though not neglecting divinity, had their chief attention 

drawn to the historical works of King Alfred. Orosius attracted 

most notice, because it contained longer specimens of Alfred's 

own writing, than are to be found in any of his other works. 

This was well known to Caius, Lambarde, Spelman etc: they 

observed, that when Alfi^d had translated fi-om Latin into Anglo- 


Saxon all that Orosius had wTitten about Asia and Africa, the 
king, being dissatisfied with what was said about Europe, left 
Orosius, and gave all the particulars he could collect from the 
best authorities of his age, and thus filled up the chasm between 
the time of Orosius and his own, that is, between the commence- 
ment of the fifth century and the end of the ninth. Alfred also 
wrote a minute account of three voj^ages, in the ninth century, 
from the reports of two Northern Navigators, Ohthere and Wulf- 
stan. These important addifions disserve especial notice both as 
to their matter, and as being the original composition of the king. 
They naturally divide themselves into the three following parts. 
1 The Description of Europe. 2 The two voyages of Ohthere. 
3 The voyage of Wulfstan. 

1st. We have [§ 11 and 12] Alfred's description of Europe; or, as he calls it, 
Germania, for at that time Germania comprised the whole of Europe located 
between the Don on the east, — the Rhine and the sea on the west, — the 
Danube on the south, — and the White-sea on the north [See notes 8 and 4]. 

We have so little information concerning the Geography and the political state 
of northern Europe, in the middle ages, that a detail of what the king had col- 
lected from the best sources, in his own age, must be extremely valuable. — He 
first speaks of the East-Pranks, and soon hastens to the Old-Saxons and Angles, 
being most interesting to Alfred as his progenitors, England having derived 
not only its name but the greater part of its inhabitants from these tribes. 
[See note 60]. He then describes other parts of Europe, and passes over into 
the Danish islands ; — and, proceeding east and north, speaks of the Danes, the 
Esthonians, the Swedes, the Finns, and Northmen or Norwegians. He thus 
naturally introduces the personal adventures of a Norwegian Navigator, and 
gives the information Ohthere acquired in his exploring voyages. This brings 
us to the second part of Alfred's description of Europe. 

21y. The two voyages of Ohthere, § 13—19. 

Ohthere was a man of great wealth and influence [§ 15], and he had made 
himself so celebrated by his voyages, as to attract the notice of King Alfred. 
Ohthere is induced to give a detail of his adventures, and such is the sim- 
plicity of the narrative, that it bears the impress of truth. It commences : — 
" Ohthere told his lord. King Alfred, that he dwelt northmost of all Northmen,'* 
in Halgoland on the coast of Norway. — "He said, that, at a certain time, he 
wished to find out how far the land lay due north, or whether any man dwelt 
north of him" [§13]. For this purpose, and for the sake of taking the 
Walrus, he sailed northward, on the coast of Norway, and round the North 
Cape into the White Sea, [§ 13—17 and note 39.] He relates the particulara 
of his voyage, and his strict adherence to truth in his narrative is confirmed 
by his refusing to vouch for any thing of which he could not bear personal 
testimony. He says : " The Biarmians told him many stories both about their 


o^n wS^u, and about the countries wticli vero around them ; but he knew not 
ichai tfo* true, heeauee he did not sec it himself:* 

Oliitete'B second voyage [§ 18, 19] was to the aouth. He saUed from his 
home m Halgoland, along the west and south coast of Norway, to the Bay of 
Christiana, on the south of this land, where ScinDgesheal stood. From thence, 
he sailed to Schleswig in South Jutland, Denmark. 
Sly. Wulfstan's Voyage, [§ 20—28.] 

This voyage was confined to the Baltic, being from Schleswig to Truso in 

Prassift. Forster, in p. 58 of his Northern voyages, hesitates not to say : 

** There was a Jutlander of the name of Wulfstan, who gave an account of his 

travels to the king." "Wulfstan relates many interesting particulars of the 

Esthonians as it regards their mode of living and their funeral rites. 

These narratives have a precision and life, which could only be imparted by 
those who were eye witnesses of what they relate. They give a lively picture 
of the coimtries, and of the people they visited. Their simplicity and evident 
love of truth deepen the impression made by their description of the manners, 
customs, and political condition of the northern nations, in the ninth century. 
Such a faithful and graphic picture cannot be obtained from any other contem- 
porary source. 

These original Anglo-Saxon documents, wiitten by one so 
eminent as King Alfi'ed, claim and have received the attention 
iiot only of Englishmen but of foreigners, as the following detail 
of the various editions, and the notes upon them, will prove. 

Hakluyt, 1598. — These documents were not, at first, pub- 
lished entire, but only such parts selected as were adapted to the 
work, in which they were printed. Ohthere and Wulfstan*s 
voyages were, therefore, very properly first taken, and published 
in the second edition of 

The Principal Navigations, Voiages, TraiBques and Diecoueries of the English 

Xation, by Bichard Hakh7t, Master of Arts, and sometime Student of 

Christ-Churcb in Oxford, Fol. Imprinted at London by * George Bishop, 
Ealph Newberie. and Eob-rt Barker. Vol I, 1598 : vol II, 1599 : vol III, 
IGOO. — ^A new edition with additions, edited by R. H. Evans, Esq. London, 
1809 — 12, royal 4to. 6 vols. 

These Voyages contain an English tmnslation from the Anglo- 
Saxon of AWred's enthe detail of Ohthere's voyages [^ 13—19]. 
The English translator has prefixed the following sentence to 
Ohthere's first voyage. It is the same as the first sentence 
of the second voyage [§ 18], — *' Octher said, that the country 
wherein he dwelt was called Ilelgolandy It then reads on, as in 
our translation [§ 13], — " Ohthere told his lord, King Alfred." — 

xlii TREFACE. 

Hakluyt has only the first part of Wulfstan's voyage, [§ 20] ; for 
he omits the account of the funeral rites of the Esthonians, which 
is more than half of what Wulfstan related to Alfred. Hakluyt 
gives the titles to these three voyages thus : — 

" 1 The Voyage of Octher made to the northeast parts beyond Narwaif^ re- 
ported by himselfe vnto Alfred the famous king of England^ about the yere 8W. 
Vol I, p 4. 

2 The Voyage of Octher out of his countrey of Halgoland into the sound of 
Denviarke ynto a port called Heth-\f which .seemeth to be WUmcr or Bosforke. 
id. p 5. 

3 WohiaM nauigation in the East sea, from Hetlia to Trusco^ which is 
about Lantzigy — Haklugfs extract ends with § 20—" but of mead there is 
plentie." id,p 6, 

It has been supposed that Dr. John Caius, founder of the 
College bearing his name at Cambridge, supplied Hakluyt with 
this translation ; but that is scarcely possible, for Hakluyt, who 
was born in 1553, was only twenty years old and an under- 
graduate of Christ Church, Oxford, at the time when Dr. Caius 
died at Cambridge in 1573, as Master of his own College. This 
translation was not inserted in Haklu)^t's first edition of 1589, 
but in his second of 1598 ; hence it was not printed till twenty- 
five years after the demise of Caius. It is, therefore, not pro- 
bable that Hakluyt should have received the translation from 
Caius, or if he had received it, that it should have been kept twenty- 
five years for his second edition, when, if it had been in his pos- 
session, he might have published it nine years before in his first 
edition. It could not have been translated by Sir John Spelman ; 
for, in his English hfe of Alfred, he quotes the translation of 
Hakluyt, and speaks of the Cotton MS., and says — **This I 
attended sometime to have seen." . . • '* What that record itself 
is, I know not." It is thus clear that Sir John had not even seen 
the MS. Nor was it likely, without his knowledge, to have been 
translated by his father, Sir Henry, who died only two years 
before his son. Arclibishop Parker's death occurred in 1575, 
and his chaplain, John Joscelyn, died before the Archbishop, and 
Fox, the martjTologist, in 1587, — all died before Hakluyt's first 
edition was published. Lisle and Whelock were not sufficiently 
matured scholars for the translation, before 1598 : the first 
Anglo-Saxon work of Lisle was published in 1623, and of 

SOMNEE'S A. S. OP T\TJLFSTAis''S VOYAGE, 1659. xliii 

Whelock in 1644. Junius is out of the question, being only 
nine years old in 1598. Wm. Lambarde, a pupil of Laurence 
Nowell, a contemporaiy of Hakluyt for forty-eight, years, was one 
of the most eminent Anglo-Saxon scholars of that age, and most 
likely to be the translator of these voyages. He had published 
his *ApXouopo/Jua or the Anglo-Saxon Laws in 1568, thirty years 
before the translation of Ohthere's voyages appeared, and was, 
therefore, one of the most competent scholars for the task. 
Being in London, he had ready access to the Cotton MS. of 
Orosius, in which he made marginal and interlinear notes, as 
stated by Elstob *, who, in his transcript of Orosius, quoting one 
of these notes on Angle, i.e. ** Anglia in Germania," distinctly 
states, that it was — " manu recenti Lambardi^* thus shewing 
Lambarde's intimate acquaintance with this part of the ]\IS. 
Mr. Hampson, a man of close investigation, speaking of Ohthere's 
voyages in Hakluj^t, adds, — '* The English version and notes are 
said to have been written by Lambarde *.'" 

I asked his authority for this statement, and in his answer, 
alluding to the identity of some of the notes in Lambarde's hand- 
writing on the MS. and those on the margin of Hakluyt, he 
says — ** I have the fact, that Lambarde translated these voyages, 
from the margin of the old Ed. of Hakluyt's Voyages, vol I, in the 
British Museum." There can, therefore, be little doubt that 
Lambarde was the translator of Ohthere and Wulfstan's voyages, 
first published by Hakluyt. 

SoMNER in 1659 published the latter part of Wulfstan's voyage, 
which had been omitted by Hakluyt [§ 21 — 23]. It is given in 
Anglo-Saxon, with a Latin translation, under the word Gediync 
in his 

DictionariTm Saxonico-Latino-ADglicum, etc. Opera et studio Quliel. Som- 
neri Cantaariensis. Fol. Oxoiiii, Anno Dom. m.dc.lix. 

His extract hegxM trirt— and jJffir is. mid Estuin tJeaw . . . and cnis^ — hy 
wrrcaC }K)ne cylo hine on — Orientalibm etiam mos est . . . afrigore in eos in* 
ducto. Somner omits the last sentence [/> 23, 8 e — 10 eJ] 

Somner has the honour of being the first to publish a part of 

6 ElstoVf transcript of OroFius, p 13, on the right hand margin. 

6 Mr. Hampson*s Essay on King Alfred's Geography and northern voyages of Ohthere, 


xliv PBEFACE. 

these voyages in the original Anglo-Saxon, though that was only 
the latter half of Wulfstan's voyage in the Baltic. 

Alumni Oxonienses 1678. We are indebted for their publi- 
cation in the original Anglo-Saxon, with a Latin translation, to 
the Rev. Obadiah Walker, D.D., Master of University College 
from 1676 to 1688, and to the Fellows of the same college, who 
have given them entire from the Cotton MS. in the appendix to 
their splendid folio bearing thkj title,- — 

JElfredi Magni Anglorum Segis invictissimi vita tribus Libris comprehensa, 
a clarisslmo Dno. Johanne Spelman, Henrici F. primutn Auglice conscripta, 
dein Latine reddita, et annotationibus illustrata ab Alfred! in CoUegio Magnse 
Aulce Universitatis Oxoniensis Alumnis ^. Fol. Oxouii ai.DC.L3acYni. 

In the Appendix VI, weliave these voyages, occupying four pages [205 — 208], 
with this title, — 

** In Prsefatione ad Traductionem Orosii ab Alfredo Bege in Linguam Saxoni« 
cam.'* In Frsefatione is a mistake, as Alfred did not write a preface to Orosius, 
as he did to Gregory's Pastoral, quoted in Appendix III, p 196, 197, by these 
Alumni, but the narrative of these voyages was naturally introduced into the 
first chapter of Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, when the king was 
giving his own description of the north of Europe ; and these voyages are taken 
from this first chapter. They are, for the first time, here printed entire from 
the Cotton MS. 

The -13 are two columns in a page. The left column contains the text, in whrt 
is called the Anglo-Saxon character, as below ; and, in the parallel column on 
the right, there is a Latin translation. The very brief Latin notes are printed 
below across the page. 

The Appendix hegins — 

Ohchaepe faebe hif hlopopbe -Sllppebe /^Htherus dixit Domino suo -ZElfredo 

Kynmcje J)»c he ealpaNop^ manna \J Eegi ; se omnium Northmannorum 

NoptSmep: bube ; p 205. locis maxime septentrionalibas 

Itendi^ habitare. 

3 )>eah man af ecte tpe^en p aetelf pull Et si quia ponat duo vascula cere- 

ealatJ oS8e paecepep' hy jebotJ- -p ofep visiie vel aquae, eflBcere possnnt, ut 

bitJ opep ppopen- pam hic jy pummop utrumque glacietur, sive sit ©stas sive 

pam pincep' p 208. hyems. 

The Anglo-Saxon text is so incorrectly printed, as to lead to the conclusion, 
that the sheets could not have been seen by any one in the least acquainted with 
Anglo-Saxon 2 — )> th and p tr, are very frequently and absurdly used, one for the 
other : thus, we find tep for te}>, pa for J)a, ptoJ)um for pcopum. Other letters 

7 "Alumni, i.e. Maguter tt Socii CoUegii Magna Avtla UnivtriiUUU Oxonxenm,^-^ 
Wanley's Cata). f) 70. 


are iuterchanged, }> fh and p ; p w and p r ; b d and ^ dh ; as,— pafura for 
papum ; J)a&p for J)«p ; hacab for liacatJ, tJeop for beop. The last letter of one 
-word 18 prefixed to the next, as bi Con for biC on, etc. The first word Ohchsepe 
should be Ohthepe. 

This is a very handsome volume, with several well engraved 
portraits of Alfred, and five folio plates of coins. It is an evi- 
dence of what may be done by a College, under the influence of 
an energetic head. We are told by Thomas Hearne*, that the 
translation was made by Christopher Wase, the Esquire Bedel of 
Law in the University, and the notes wiitten by the learned 
Obadiah Walker, Master of the College. Though he was the 
chief writer, he must have been assisted by some of the Fellows, 
who were less acquainted with the subject than the IMaster. In 
a note® these voyages are properly said to have been taken from 
the first chapter of Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version, but in the 
tahle of contents and in the Appendix^ they are carelessly re- 
ferred to the Preface, which does not exist. The translation 
follows Sir John Spelman, who has only extracted from Hakluyt 
the first part of Ohthere's voyage, but the editors have, with 
great judgment, given the entire voyages in an Appendix. As 
Alfred used the English of his day, and Sir John Spelman wrote 
the king's life in English, some regi'et that it was first published 
in a Latin version, and not in its original English. Latin was 
then the current language of the Literati in Europe, and this life, 
with the specimen of Alfred's prose composition in Anglo-Saxon, 
or primitive English, made known to the world, that Alfred was 
not only great as a King, but as a writer. The attention of 
Europe was thus called to the earliest form of the English tongue, 
in the Anglo-Saxon, and the learning of the best Scandinavian 
and German scholars was exercised in the explanation and illus- 
tration of these voyages. The important assistance that we have 
derived from the generous aid of foreigners will be most clearly 
shewn by the following brief account of the chief editions pub- 
lished by them. These are given in their chronological order. 
Before we speak of the editions of Bussaeus, and Langebek, 

8 See the extract from Heame, in the following notice of his c<L of Alired's Hfc, p xIti. 

9 In capite prime Orosii, Note a, f> 113. 

1 In Pr«fiitione ad traductionem Orosii ah iElfredo rc-e in Linguam Saxomcam. 
Appendix FZ, p 205. y 

xli-i PREFACE. 

founded on the Appendix to the Oxford folio, the original Eng- 
lish Ed. hy Sir John Spelman must be mentioned, as it has 
priority in date. 

Spelman 1709. — We have seen that Hakluyt first published 
these voyages in an English translation in 1598, and that the 
attention of foreigners was little excited till 1678, nearly a cen- 
tury afterwards, when the original Anglo-Saxon and the Latin 
translation were published by the Master and Fellows of Univer- 
sity College. While foreigners availed themselves of these and 
the Latin version of Alfred's life, w^e, as Englishmen, could not 
be satisfied without possessing 

" The Life of -Elfred the Great, by Sir John Spelman Kt. from the original 
Manuscript in the Bodlejan Library : "with considerable additions, and several 
historical remarks, by the publisher Thomas Hearue, M.A. 8vo. Oxford, 1709.'* 

Mr. Ilearne will give the best account of his editorial labours, — 

"J have printed this History of -illfred the Great, which I have faithfully 
transcriVd from the Original in the . . . Bodleian Library, . . . Thit Life tca^ 
several years since [1678] translated into Latin hy the ingenious Mr. Christopher 
"Wase, Superior Beadle of the Civil Law in Oxford, and puhlish'd from the 
Tlieater Press in a thin Folio, tcith a Commentary, hy the Reverend and Learned 
Jl/r. Obadiah AValker, Master of JJ axyev^Mj College; hut some Persons having 
hcen of opinion that more Justice would he done to the Author's Memory to hnve 
itjmUialid in the same Language in which if teas written, in cohfplyanee to their 
Sentiments, / have accordingly sent it abroad in it's own Natural Dress, not 
thuUinff but that 'twill meet with a Eeception worthy of it's admirable Author." 
. . . p 22o. 

Sir Jolm Spelman speaks of Alfred and the voyage of Ohthere 
in these terms : — 

"And lo shew the Latitude of the King's Mind and Genius, in all Dimen- 
sions truly Eoyal and August, there is (as I have been informed) in Sir Thomas 
Cotton's Library an old iMcmorial of a Yoyage of one Octher a Dane, [? ^'or- 
wegian] performed at King -Elfred's Procurement, for the discovery of some 
North-East- Passage. Tliis I attended sometime to have seen, but it beiug no 
more than two or three Loaves, and, upon some Eemoval of Books and Papers, 
displaced, and not readily to be found, I had no hope of obtaining it before a 
general Keview and sorting of the Papers. AV hat that Eccord it self is, I know not, 
but to imagine the least, and to judge it to be no more than that which is pub- 
lished concerning Octher by Mr. Hakluyt, and Mr. Purchas, in their Collections 
of Discoveries and Voyages, it yet affordeth thus much, that JElfred, among the 
several Sorts of People that he sought out and procured, entertained one that 

SPELMAN 1709: BUSS-£US 1733. xlvii 

was expert and industrious in Xavigation, whom least \re should think to be 
but accidentally brought unto the King, (only to relate his own Fortunes, in 
which the King had no hand at all) we may obsene, tliat tliat Eelation speak- 
etb of Oether'9 Coming as of an Act of his own Will and Purpose, and not a 
casual Thing. And to shew that his Intent and End of Coming was to offer his 
Serrice to the King, as assured to find him forward in Entertaining Men of his 
Condition, and ready to further his Addiction, whether to Discovery general, or 
to tlie particular of Whale-Fishing, it not only mentioneth JElfred, as Octher's 
Lord and Master, but sheweth, that, upon his Return from his late Discover}', 
be brought some of the Horse- Whales Teeth as a present unto the King. 
Neither is there mention of any casual occasion of his coming, nor is it likely 
in those Times there should have been so particular a setting down of the 
delation that a Stranger made (for the Original is in Saxon) if some particular 
Purpose of the King's and his Desire or Commands had not given Occasion to 
it. The Relation, for so much as concerns our purpose, as it is translated by 
the Publishers, is as followeth." Octlier naifh, that the Country, Sfc, He then 
quotes from Hakluyt [§ 13 — 15]; and ends '^ every man payeth,'^ &c. SpeU 
mans life of Alfred, p 152, § 81.--156, § S7. 

In the beginning of this extract Spelman mentions the library 
of Sir Thomas Cotton, who succeeded to the Baronetcy and the 
Library, on the demise of his father. Sir Robert, in 1631. Sir 
John Spelman died in 1643, this extract must, therefore, have 
been written some time in the twelve years intervening between 
1631 ard 1643. — It may be observed that the countiy of Ohthere 
was Halgoland, on the north coast of Norway, he was, therefore, a 
Norwegian and not a Dane. — Whether Sir John has sufficient 
reason, for supposing that Alfred engaged Octher [Ohthere] to 
make these voyages, must be left for the reader to decide. 

Buss.t:us, 1 733. — This edition is a very inaccurate reprint of 
the Anglo-Saxon text and the Latin translation from the Oxford 
folio of 1678. It is given as an Appendix to Arius Polyhistor, 
and follows Lexicon vocum antiqvarum Arii Polyhistoris, with a 
separate paging. It has the following ample title, given verbatim 
et literatim, — 

Periplus Olitheri, Halgolando-Xorvegi, ut et TTulfstani, Angli, secundum nar- 
rationes eorundem de suis, unius in ulti;uam plagam septentrionalem ; utriusqve 
autem in mari Balthico Xavigatiouibus, jussu JHfredi ^agni, Anglorura refrls, 
Bcculo d Xativitate Christi nono factis; ab ipso rege Anglo-SaxonicS linr»vA 
dc^scriptus; dcmura d Collcgii M^agno? Aulcc Universitatis Oxoniensis Alumnis, 
Latine versus et, unA cum Joli. Spilmaiira vita JElfrcdi Magni, e vetcri codicc 
lii.nnuscripto Bibliotheca; CottonianoB editus; jam vcro, ob antiqvitatem et 

Xlviii PREFACE. 

SeptentrioDalis turn Tcmporis Status Coguitionem, repetitus ac brevibus Notia 
adauctus ab Andrea Bussaeo. Small ^to. pp 1—28. The 2Sthpa^e is the Index. 

It is without date; but it was doubtless printed in 1733, for it is not only ap- 
pended to Sehedcp Arii PolyhUtoris Be lilandia^ but it was printed at tho same 
time, as is evident bj the catchword Pebiplus, being printed at the foot of the 
last page of Lexicon vocum antiquantm Arii Folyhisioris. The paper and the 
type are also the same. The Schedse of Arius Polyhistor has this imprint — 
Haviiia, ex Calcographeo B. Joachimi Schmidtgen. Ao. 1738. 

Bussasus^ begius his short preface to the Periplus of Ohthere thus: — "Peri- 
2)htm Jiunc, qvo tarn in ultima plaga roreali populorumt quam Septentrioni nostra 
vicinarnm gentium^ qvi ante octo sraula^ cum dimidio fere^ status fuerit, curiose 
satis dcscrihitifr, hand ingratum Lectori fore conjido, idqve non minus oh reve- 
rcutiam adversus antiqvitatem, quam Magnum Anglorum Begem ^l/redum, qvi 
ipse regid sud manu chartis commisit qvicqvid ex diligenti ohscrvatione etjideli 
2)ra6cntiq; narratione tarn Ohtheri, Korvegi^ qvam Wulfstani, Angli, iniellexerat 
scitu dignum, suoq; proposito convenientius : de cujus Begiis et raris viriutihus 
non ahsqve ollectamenio Icgi possunt vita Ejus descriptores ; Joh. Asserius, qvi 
regi avyxpovos fuity ct superiori seculS Joh. Spelmannus, Henrici fil, uterqve 
Anglos. Iscqve nllius ingratiis erit, spero, prasertim Danis et ^"orvegis nostris, 
qvodpost tot (States popularis eorum et Helgolandia Korvcgicte qvondam indigena, 
Ohtlierus, ipsos inviset a tanto Bege {qrcfn, HaJcluyto teste^ sponte atqve consulto 
ohtinendi emolumenti alicujus gratid accesscrat) amandatus tain ad piscaturam^ 
qv<B Cc-taria diciiur^ exercendam, qvam ad qv<gi*endam^ si inveniri posset^ hreviorem 
ad Japanenses et Indos Orientales sub circulo Poli Arctici et versus JSuro-Aqvi- 
Icnem:^* etc. 

The Anglo-Saxon text, so inaccurately printed as to be utterly 
worthless, is on the left-hand page, entirely in Roman letters, 
th being put for « and j?. The Latin translation is on the right. 
The columns below represent the pages of Bussaeus^ — 

It begins on 
the Lift page Periplus Ohthziii. Bight page 

OHTHJERE sffide his hla for de JElfrede r\ nTnznrs dixit Domino suo JElfredo 

Kyniucge; |> 4. \J Hegi. p 5. 

It ends-^ 
sam hit sy suramor sam vinter. p 26. sive sit ajstas, sive hyems. p21. 

The notes are much more copious than those of the Oxford 
Edition, and are printed below in two columns in a smaller type. 
The indefatigable and learned Langebek makes the following just 
remark upon the Oxford edition, and upon that by Bussaeus : — 

" Not® vero, qvibus aut Bditores Oxonienses brevioribus, aut Bussmus uberi- 
oribus, hoc opusculum expediunt, nee curioso lectori satisfaciunt, nee dignitati 

2 Andreas Bussaeus is thus addressed by T.N. — Tiro consxdi NclHtssiino^ doctissimo 
Andrea Bussa^.p 19, T6^x^^yf^vediccVL Xon. Maji 5I.DCCJLXXIIL T.N.pSO. 


tanti tamqve excellentis documenti respondent." Sei'iptores Eerum Banicarum^ 
Vol II,p 100. 

The work of Bussaeus was republished thirteen years after- 
wards ; it appeai-s to be the same book, with this new title, — 

** liber Historicus de Islandia, una cum Andr. Busssi versione Latina, etc. 
Accessit Periplus Otberi . . . 4®. Hafni®, 1744." 

Murray 1765. — John Andrew ^Murray, Professor of Medicine 
and Secretary of the Royal Society (der Kciniglichen Societal) at 
Gottingen in 1765, wrote two papers' on the voyages of Ohthere 
and Wulfstan. These papers indicate much research and know- 
ledge of the subject. The first paper is thus introduced into the 
Report of the Society, — 

Den 1 Julias, 1765, Gottingen. — Bey der Versammlung der Koniglichen 
Societat, am 15ten Junii, verlas der Herr Prof. Murray den allgemeinen Theil 
seiner Abhandlung uber drey sebr roerkwiirdige Seereisen, die gegen das Endo 
des 9ten Jabrkunderts, tbeils vom Otber, einem Xormann, tbeils vom Wulfstan, 
eineih Angler untemommen, und vom Konige Alfi^ed dem Grossen, selbst, in 
Angel-Sachsiscber Sprache, gescbrieben vrorden. 

In this first paper. Prof. Munay, after mentioning the preced- 
ing editions of these voyages, makes observations upon Alfred, 
his times and writings. He also speaks of Ohthere and Wulfstan, 
the former as a Norwegian, and the latter as from Anglen or 
Schleswig. He supposes that they were both in the service of 
Alfred, — and that Ohthere was led to visit England either from 
the fame of Alfred, or from the dislike he had to submit to the 
rule of Harald Harfager, king of Norway, or that both Ohthere 
and Wulfstan came to England under the influence of mercantile 

The second paper is thus reported : — 

Den 10, und 12 Augusti, 1765, Gottingen. Den 3ten Augusti war die Ko- 
nigL Societat . . . wieder versammelt. Herr Prof. Murray verlas zuerst den 2teu 
Tbeil seiner Abbandlung. 

In this paper he enters more particularly into the three voy- 
ages, in regular order, occasionally quoting one or two Anglo- 

3 Langebek, after speaking of Bussseus, sajs — Feliciorem longe et cujusyb curiosi atten- 
iione dignam commentationcm Periplus Doster nactus in erudita Nobiliss. Dn. Prof. 
Murrayi Dissertatione, Hegim Scientiarum Academioe Gottingcnsi pnclecta, et in Epbemer. 
OottiDg. Anni 1765, pG25, and 761 sqq. recensita. La nuclei's Scnptores Rcrum Dani- 
carum, vol II, p 107, 


Saxon words, and giving, not their literal translation, but their 
general meaning, interspersed with remarks upon the places, and 
nations, as they occur in the narratives. 

These two papers of Professor Murray were published in the 
Series of Reports of the Royal Society of Gottingen with the 
following title — 

Gottingische Anzeigen von Gelebrten Sacben unter der Aufsicbt der KoDigl. 
Gesellscbaft der Wi^senscbaften. Per zweite Baud auf das Jabr 17Go. Edited 
ly John David JUichaclis : Gotting^u 1765,' tn very small Sro. 

The first paper p 625—629, and the second p 761—772. The 
whole Series of the Royal Society's Reports in the British Museum 
is in 33 volumes, and ranges from the year 1753 to 1823*, 

Barrington, Feby. 22, 1773. The Honourable Daines Bar- 
rington printed the whole of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Version 
of Orosius, from the transcript of Elstob ; and, of course, he 
included Alfred's own description of Europe and of the voyages 
of Ohthere and Wulfstan [^ 11 — 23]. It was accompanied with 
a translation, on which very little reliance can be placed. Much 
more may be said in favour of the Map, and the very copious 
notes prepared by a learned Prussian naturalist, John Reinhold 
Forster, I.U.D : F.R.S. As Barrington did not print separately 
the Anglo-Saxon text of Alfred's description of Europe, and of 
these voyages, further remarks will be deferred, till we speak of 
his edition of Orcsius. 

Langebek, Sep. 15th, 1773. — The celebrated Danish Professor, 
Langebek, in his ** Scriptores Rerum Danicarum," vol II, p lOG 
—123, gives these voyages [$ 11 — 23] with this title — 

" Periplus Otheri Norvegi et Wulfstaui, sive eorum Xarrationes de Buis in 
Bcptcr.trioncm et in Mari 13althico navigationibus." He adopts the text and 
the Latin translation of tlie Aluaiui Oxonienses; and follows them in printing 
two columns in a page. The Auglo-Saxon f is represented by th ; and t5 by d. 
The notes are at the foot, printed in a smaller type entirely across the page. 
Th'.y arc much more copious and valuable than those of Bussaus. 


Ohthjebe 8a>dc his hlafordo JElfrede Outhebus dixit domino sito Alfredo 

Kynincge, tljct he ealra 2kordmanna Begi^ se omnium Nordmannorum locit 

nordmest bude. p 108. maximc sc^ientrionalihus lahiiare. 

4 The ^luscum mark (Eing*s Library) is 252. a 33. 


Ends — And theah man asette tvegen Et si qvis ponat duo vascula cere- 

fffitels full ealad odde ri&teres, by ge- visia vcl aqva, ejficcre posaunt^ ut 

dod, thct other bid ofer froren, sam utrumqve glacietur, sive sit astas sive 

hit sj Bummor sam yinter. p 123. hyems. 

Though the A. S. text is printed much more correctly than in 
Bussaeus, there are still such mistakes, both in the text and notes 
of Langehek, as to prove that he knew very little of Anglo- 

He professes to correct the text, and yet copies the worst blunders of the 
printers in the Oxford folio : — such as, tew for teth teetli^ etc. He has incor- 
rectly printed "on sumum etothum," instead of stowum, and just below, he 
has given it correctly "on sumum stowum" — yet he adds this contradictory 
note, — " Huic et inferius pro sfoivum legeudum rectius, ut paulo supra, btothum.** 
There is no such word, in Anglo-Saxon, as stothum, p 112. 

Barrington, 178L — ^The English translation of the division 
of the world in Orosius [^ 1 — 10], and Alfred's description of 
Europe, and his account of the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan 
[§ 11 — ^23], was reprinted fi'om Harrington's Orosius of 1773, 
and published with his Map, and notes, but vvithout those of 
Forster, in 

Miscellanies by the Honourable Daines Barrington, 4to. Nichols, London 
1781, p 453 — 468. Alluding to this republication, he says, " My principal 
reason, for doing this, is that the number of copies, wliich I published from 
King Alfred's translation, was very small, and consequently canuot have fallen 
into the hands of many readers.** p 453. 

Forster, in 1786, revised his veiy copious and valuable notes, 
which he had written in 1772, for Barrington's translation . of 
King Alfred*s description of Europe and the Voyages of Ohthere 
and Wulfstan, printed in 1773 ; these he republished in German, 
in his History of Northern Discoveries, 1784. This work was 
translated into English, and was entitled, — 

History of the Voyages and Discoveries, made in the North : translated from 
the German of John Eeinhold Forster, I.TJ.D. 4to. London, 178G. 

He introduces the king's description, by stating, that when the Danes vrere 
completely vanquished, ''Alfred spared their lives, and permitted them to 
remain in Northnmberland. By this humane conduct he gained the heart 
even of numy of the Danes. Among others, there was a Northman at his court, 
hj name Ohthere, who had made himself famous by his travels. There was 



another too, a Jutlandcr, of the name of Wulfatan, wbo in like manner gave the 
king an account of his travels into Prussia. All these accounts the learned 
Prince collected with great care; and having purposed to give a translation of 
the Ormesta of Orosius, in the Anglo-Saxon, his mother-tongue, he inter- 
wove in this translation the relations of Ohthere and Wulfstan, with the 
result of the information he had got elsewhere concerning the state of 
the three parts of the world knoim at that period. It is very evident, from 
comparing them together, that Alfred's account of Europe is not that of 
Orosius, but rather that the English Prince has principallj set before us 
the state of Europe as it was in his ^own time. In fact, we are possessed of 
such slender information concerning the Geography of the middle ages, that 
such an exhibition as this is of Europe and the northern regions conformable 
to the ideas of that age, and that from so respectable a source, must be ex- 
tremely valuable. I shall therefore in this place insert that part of it, which 
respects the North of Europe. — 

The Geography of the Northern parts of Europe, according to King Alfred, 
almost literally translated from the Anglo-Saxon, |7 58, 5^. — BarringtotCs Eng- 
lish version of what Alfred wrote ii then introduced [§ 11 — 23], on which Foreter 
mahet tJicse concluding remarks. — The part of EJing .Alfred's Geography, of 
which we have here given a German translation as literal as oould be done 
consistently with the different genius of botii languages, without dispute con- 
stitutes, with relation to the state of the North of Europe in the 9th Century, 
a record of the utmost importance. As JElfred in his youth had been in Borne, 
whither, even at that early period, zeal for the Christian religion carried people 
from every country, he might in all probability have collected in that city the 
materials for his Geography, and his other historical acquisitions, which in those 
times of deplorable ignorance and darkness, give him a very high rank among 
writers. This fragment likewise is a confirmation that the voyages and pre- 
datory expeditions of the northern pirates have very much contributed to the 
illustration of Geography and of the History of Nations, p 74. 

PoTOCKi, 1789. — The following work is la small 8vo. and 
without date ; but it must have been published in or after 1789, 
as the second map was engraved in that year, 

Eecherches sur la Sarmatie. par Jean PotockL Varsovie. i rimprimerie 
Libre. 2 vols bound in one. At the end are these two maps on a large scale. 
The first,—" Carte cyclocraphiqve de la Pom^raniepour Tann^e 900 de I. C. tiree 
principalement de L'Hormesta du Boi Alfred." The Anglo-Saxon names are 
given, as well as the modem. The second map has this title,—*' Carte des Pays 
occupfes par les Patzinaces et les Sobartoasphales En TAnnee 900, de TEr: 
Chr : Grav^ par B : Folino Maj : dan I'A : de P : d Varsovie 1789." 

Seven years afterwards, a new and enlarged edition was published, containing 
tlie Anglo-Saxon, with a French translation, of part of Alfred's description of 
Europe and Ohthere's and Wulfstan's voyages :^ 

" Fragments historiques et g^ographiques sur la Scythie la Sarmatie, et lea 
Slaves, recueillis et comment^s par Jean Potocki. Bnmsvic, 1796, 4 vols. 4to,'» 

POTOCKI, rORTHAN, 1789—1800. liii 

In " Tome second, chapitre 11. De la Pomeranie dans le neuvic^mc Siecle," 
are these quotations : — 

Texte AngUhSaxon. Version Litterale. 

Begins^AnA be northan him is Ap- Et au Nord il y a Apdrede et nord est 

drede : and east north Wylte de man Ics Vylte, que Von appelle Ae/eldan : 
Aefeldan haet. 

j^nib— Burgendas. And be suthan . . les Burgendas et au sudd*eux sent 
Mm sjndon Haefeldan. les Haefeldan. p 25. 

Suite du Texte Anglo-Saxon. Version Litterale. 

Begins^Ohthere seade his hkforde Ohtliere dit h son Seigneur AJJrcde 

Aelfrede Kyninge, thaet he ealra Kifninge. Que de tous les Nbrdmanna, 

Korthmanna nordthmest bude. il haUtoit leplus au Kord, 

Ends-^Let him ealne weg that Cetfe ferre deserte lui restoit it 

Testeknd on theat steorbord. Stearhord. p 27. 

Suite du Texte Anglo-Saxon. Version Litterale.* 

^tfyi«*— Vulfstan seade theat he ge- Wulfstan dit qu*il etoit parti de 

fore of Heathum. Hacthum . . . 

JEiub^forthy hit man heaz Tisle- . . . et de lb. vient le nom, de Visle- 
mutha. mutha. p 80. 

Forth AN, 1800. — ^Professor H. G. Porthan of Abo, in Finland, 
was the first to extract and publish separately the whole Anglo- 
Saxon text of Alfred's description of Europe, and the Voyages of 
Ohthere and Wulfstan [^11 — 23], from Bamngton's edition of 
Orosius. The Anglo-Saxon is printed in Roman letters without 
accents : for > th^ and ^5 c?A, he uses th ; and for p w, he uses v. 
There are two columns in a page : the Anglo-Saxon on the left, 
and an excellent Swedish translation on the right. Very copious and 
valuable notes are printed below across the page. Rask gives the 
highest praise to these notes, as being " a masterpiece of learning 
and acuteness. One cannot sufficiently admire his knowledge 
of the Anglo-Saxon, which differs so much from the Finnish, his 
native tongue." The edition of Porthan appeared in the follow- 
ing celebrated periodical, — 

KongL Vitterhets Historie och Antiquitets Academiens Handlingar. Sjette 
Delen, Stockhohn, 1800. 12mo. p 37— lOG. 

Ho entitles it— Foersoek at upljsa Konung uElfreds Geographiska Beskrif- 
ning oefer den Europeiska Norden. Af Henric Gabriel Porthan Eloquentia) 
Professor yid EoDgl. Acadcmien i Abo. 


Be^ins-^Nn rille ve jmbe Europe N\i vilje vi bestamma Europas gran- 
land gemiere reccan, Bva my eel sva ve sor, det nogaste ji rete. 
hit fyrmest viton. p 4t2. : 

Enda^-Ani theah man asette tvegen Och ehuru man staller.fram tvannye 

ttetels full ealath, ,oth the Tsteres ; hj karl fulla af 01 eller Yatten ; A gora de, 

gedoth thst other bith oferfroren, sam at bagge blifVa med is ofverdragna, det 

hit sy summer, sam vinter. p 106. m& vara antingen sommar eller vinter. 

Ingram, 1807. In this year the Rev. James Ingram, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, — Anglo-Saxon 
Professor, — afterwards editor of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and 
President of his College, published his very valuable " Inaugural 
Lecture on the utiUty of Anglo-Saxon Literature," At the end 
of it, he gave the Anglo-Saxon text, with notes, and an English 
translation with Forster's notes, of Alfred's description of Europe, 
the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, the islands in the Medi- 
ten^anean, and Great Britain, with a Map of Wulfstan's voyage 
[^ 11 — 28]. This embraces a wider field than any of the pre- 
ceding editions. The Anglo-Saxon text is from Junius, and 
without accents. In a note, he speaks thus of Alfred's additions 
to Orosius. 

" We are indebted to King Alfred, and to King Alfred alone, for the accu- 
rate description of nearly all those numerous tribes, with their territories, from 
which has been constructed the immense fabric of the German empire. . . • The 
sources of the Bine and the Danube, as well as the course of those rivers, are 
accurately marked; and let it be remembered, that there is scarcely any 
authentic and accurate information to be derived either from Orosius or from 
any other writer, previous to the time of Alfred, with respect to any country 
of Europe situated beyond the latitude of 55 degrees north. . . • Whatever 
might have been considered by other geographers as the Thile, or extreme 
point towards the north, the Thile of Orosius and of his royal Translator was 
undoubtedly Isljlxd. How far the land of Norway and Sweden (the ancient 
Scandinavia, and the Thule of Pliny, Procopius, and others) extended towards 
the North Pole, was totally unknown, till an obscure navigator of Helgoland 
came to the court of King Alfred in the vikth Cektubt, and delivered to that 
Monarch a faithful report of a voyage of discoveet, which he had made round 
the NoBTH Cape, and to the banks of the Dwina." p 92, note a. 

Beckmann, 1808. A short notice of Kong Alfred, Orosius, 
and of the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, and of his opmion 
of the various editions of the voyages, will be found in No. 87 : 
vol I, p 450—486 of 

Litteratur der aelteren Reisebeschreibungen von Johann Beckmann, Go ttingen^ 


2 Tols 8vo. 1808—1810. Very little is quoted in Anglo-Saxon, which is printed 
in Roman type, apparently from the incorrect edition of fiussffius, with a Latin 
translation. He quotes the passage, which refers to the production of ice in 
sommer as well as winter, in old Prussia. [§ 23]. 

'Rask, 1815. Professor Erasmus Rask of Copenhagen, was 
the next to employ his great talents and learning on this subject 
He had the advantage of Porthan's Swedish translation and 
notes. Rask was the first to accent his Anglo-Saxon text, which 
he accompanied with some conjectural emendations, and with a 
Danish translation and notes, still more copious and valuable 
than Porthan's, He availed himself of the well-known Danish 
Periodical, — 

Det skandinaviske Litteratur-selskabs Skrifter 1815. Elleyte Aargang. 

The title is, — Ottara og ZHfifeens Jcorie Beiaeheretninger med dansk Overstt* 
telse^ hritUke AnrnttrJcninger og andre Oplgsninger^ a/R, JRask [§ 11—23]. 

1 Etng Alfreds egen Beretning. 
Begins — Ku ville ve ymb Europe Tsvl ville vi berette saa meget som vi 
landgemsre reccan sva mjcel svd TO hit paa nogen Maade vide om de evro- 
fjrmest yiton. On the 14. pasiske Landes Enemsrker. On the 

rights page 15. 

Enis-^-TJii. )»eah man asette tvegen • • • og skjont man fremsstter to 
fstels full ealat^ otStSe vseteres, hy ge- Kar fulde af 01 cller yand, er de i 
do^, ^t o])er WS ofer froren, sam hit Stand til at lade det ene frjse til (det 
•^ summor sam yinter. p 62. andet ikke) hvad enten det er Sommer 

eller Yinter. p 63. 

The not^ relating to the text are at the foot, in the same type, numbered 
from 1 to 5li. The [^Oplysend^ Anmcerhiinger'] dissertations are referred to bj 
letters from a to z, « and o from page 64 — 132 indusiye. The whole is com- 
prised in 132 pages. 

It was reprinted by Dr. Rask's son, with some additional notes, 
in the collection he gave of his father's Dissertations in 3 vols 
small 8vo., withthis title — 

Samlede tildels forhen utrykte Afhandlinger af R. K. Rask, 
udgivne efter forfatterens doed af H. K. Rask. Kjobenhavn 
1834. Vol I, p 289— 384. 

Dahlmann, 1822. Dr. C. R Dahlmann, Professor of History 
at Kiel, published the first vol of his " Forschungen auf dem 
Gebiete der Geschichte, in 8vo., at Altona, 1822, In the third 


part of this volume, he gives an interesting description of King 
Alfred's Germania, and a German translation of what the King 
wrote upon it, and of the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, \iith 
ample notes, and dissertations upon points requiring investigation 
[} 11 — 23]. It is merely a Germap translation, founded on 
Forster's, with notes advocating the same views. 

Leo, 1838, selected Bang Alfred's description of Germania 
[^ 11,;^ 34, 18 d—\2,p 39r 2 a], among other extracts, for his 
Anglo-Saxon reading. The Anglo-Saxon alone is printed, with 
the vowels marked after the system of Dr. James Grimm. It 
has this title, — 

Altsacbsische and Angelsachsiscbe Sprachproben. Herausgegeben und mit 
einem erklarenden Yerzeicbniss der angelsacbsischen Worter yersehen Ton 
Heinricb Leo. Halle, small 8to. 1838. 

GiESEBRECHT, 1843. Profcssor Ludw. Giesebrecht gives a Ger- 
man translation of what Alfred wrote in his excellent ** Wendische 
Geschichte,*' 3 vols 8vo. Berlin, 1843. vol III, p 290. As he 
follows Dahlmann in every respect, his work does not require 
further notice. 

Thorpe, 1846. Mr. Thorpe has the merit of being the first to 
print Alfred's description of Europe, and the voyages of Ohthere 
and Wulfstan [^ 1 1—23] from the Cotton MS. It consists only 
of Anglo-Saxon, with an excellent glossary, and was, at the time 
of publication, the best Anglo-Saxon Ifcxt, and the only one in 
which the accents of the manuscript are duly observed. Its title, 
given below, will shew the object of the work, — 

Analecta Anglo-Saxonica: A Selection, in prose and verse, from Anglo-Saxon 
Authors of various ages ; with a Glossary: Designed chiefly as a first book for 
students, by Benjamin Thorpe, F.S.A. London, 12mo. 18i6. Second edition, 
with additions, in which are these descriptions of Alfred. 

Ebeling, 1847- This is simply a neat, and cheap, German 
reprint of the whole first chapter of Orosius [^ 1 — 38], from the 
edition of Barrington. It is the most interesting and valuable 
part of Orosius, as containing Alfred's description of Europe, and 
the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan ; but, as it consists only of 
the Anglo-Saxon text, with some various readings, and a note or 


two at the end, the title and an extract from the preface will give 
all the information that seems desirable. 

Angelss^ludsches Lesebuch, Ton Fricdrich Wilbelm Ebeling, Leipzig, 4to. 
1847. Not approving of the German mode of printing Anglo-Saxon, vrith 
numerous marks and accents over the vowels, he says — ** I have avoided accents, 
because they appear to be a superfluous appendage in the Anglo-Saxon lan- 
guage ; others may maintain their own opinions : at all events, I have avoided 
* dilettantismus,' which wishes to rule, and which has brought, and still brings, 
nothing but confusion into the world." 

Rafn, 1852. The learned and indefatigable Professor C. C. 
Kaih of Copenhagen, has given the voyages of Ohthere and 
Wulfstan, [^ 13—23] in his 

Antiquit^s Russes d*aprds lea monuments historiques des Islandais et des 
anciens Scandinaves. Tome I — II with twenty-three plates, Copenhagen 1850 — 
1S52, imp. 4to. See vol II, § LXXIV, p 458-471. The Anglo-Saxon text is 
printed in two columns, and the Latin version across the page, as below. 

BeginSy — Ohthebe s»de his hid- J>a't he blide on fajm lande nordewear- 
forde .Slfrede cyninge )>aet he ealra dum wi6 ]>a wests® ; 
NorSmanna nortSmest bdde. He cwstS 

Ottabtjs dixit domino suo Alfredo regi, inter omnes Nordmannos scse 
maxime versus septentrionem habitare; id est, in septentrionali parte ejus 
terrs, prope occidentalem oceanum. p 459. 

£mb— and I>eah man dsctte twegen gedo6, jwet 6t5er byt5 dfer froren, sam 
faetels full ealaS ot^Se wseteres, hi hit si sumor sam winter. 

Et si |ais exponat duo vasa cerevisi® aut aquoe, efficiunt ut alterum glacietur, 
sive sit lestas sive hiems. p 470. 

Besides these three voyages, there are short extracts of what Alfred wrote 
about the Moravians, Carinthians, Horiti, and Burgundians, which are supposed 
to be of Slavonic origin, p 471. 

A facsimile of a whole page of the Cotton IIS. [fol 12] is given, but unfor- 
tunately the recent alterations of the MS. have been traced in the same manner 
as the original text : thus, the n, in a recent hand and ink over a, in pj-ca^ [f 12, 
19 A3 is printed as if originally pf cna'S. 

BosAVORTH, 1855. An attentive perusal of the preceding 
editions of Alfred's descriptions must convince every one, that 
we are indebted to Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and even Fin- 
land for the best editors and commentators. Some of the literati 
of Germany, and of the north of Europe, have most successfully 
devoted their talents, industry and learning in the illustration of 


this part of King Alfred's writings, under the disadvantage of a 
very corrupt Anglo-Saxon text. It struck me, that since these 
compositions have excited so much attention in the learned men 
of Europe, they would be gratified by being presented with 
facsimiles of our oldest and best MSS. of what was undoubtedly 
composed by Alfred the Great, and by being thus placed in as 
favourable a position as we are for criticizing them. This was 
one inducement for the publication of the following work. An- 
other was the fact that a part of tTiese voyages existed only* in 
one MS. and that an exact facsimile would, in effect, not only 
preserve and indefinitely multiply this im^uable manuscript, but 
afford ready access to it. It appeared with this ample title, — 

A description of Earope, and the yojages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, written 
in Anglo-Saxon by King Alfred the Great [§ 11 — 28] :— containing — 1. A fac- 
Bimile copy of the whole Aoglo-Sason text from the Cotton MS. and also from 
the first part of the Lauderdale MS. 2. A printed Anglo-Saxon text, based 
upon these MSS. 8. A literal English translation and notes. 4. A Map of 
Europe in the time of Alfred, on which the track of Ohthere and Wulfstan's 
voyages are marked : by the Bey. Joseph Bosworth, D.D., etc 4to. London, 

Much information on the subject of these voyages and Alfred's 
description of Europe, may be obtaiaed fiom other Danish, 
Swedish and German publications, especially from the two fol- 
lowing works — 

Haandborg i den gammel-nordiske G^ografi dier Systematisk Fremstilling 
af do gamle Nordboers geografiske kunstab i Almindelighed, samt de dem 
bekjeiidte Lande og historisk mserkelige Steder i &erdeleshed, udarbejdet issr 
efter islandske kilder af N. M. Petersen. Forste Del. Kjobenhavn 1834. He 
speaks particularly of Alfred^ s Geography in 2 Kap. Europa isser det nordlige, 
efter Kong Alfreds Geografi sampt Ottars og TTlfstens Bejseberetninger. 

Die Deutschen und die Nachtbarstamme, von Kasper Zeuss, Munchen, 1887. 

After this full detail of the various forms in which King 
Alfred's own description of Europe, and the voyages of Ohthere 
and Wulfstan have been published, a short notice of the editions 
of Alfred's entire Anglo-Saxon Version of Orosius, in the order 
of their publication, is required. 

6 There are now two complete copies of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Tersion of Oroehif 
with his own addiUons ; for a facsiinile copy, printed on parchment, has been inserted into 
the Lauderdale M8., thus making it perfect See before, page xxiii. 


The honourable Daines Barrington, fourth son of John 
Shute, Viscount BaiTington of the peerage of Ireland, was the 
first editor of Alfred's entire vereion of Orosius. Daines Bar- 
rington was called to the bar; and, m 1757, made a Welsh 
judge. While, as a lawyer, he published some professional works, 
he amused himself with natural history, and gave to the world 
upwards of twenty treatises and essays, upon this favourite sub- 
ject. He also published works upon antiquities, and one his- 
torical volume. The last was, — 

The Anglo-Saxon Version, from the historian Orosius, by -Elfred the Great : 
together with an English translation from the Anglo-Saxon. 8vo. London, 1773. 

Mr. Barrington shall give his ovm account of his work : — It happened by 
some rather singular accidents, that I have become tlie editor and translator of 
King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of the Historian Orosius ; a detail of these, 
however, would be uninteresting to the reader, whom I shall rather inform what 
he is to expect from the present publication. Preface^ p i. See more in the hid' 
tor^ of the EUtoh transcript, p xxxi. 

I publish this A. S. version from a copy made by Mr. Elstob, well known for 
his eminent knowledge of Northern literature, p xviii. 

I have altered the punctuation very frequently •. I have confined the capital 
letters, at the beginning of words, to distinguish periods, as also the names of 
men and nlaces. I have likewise broken the text, which was continued without 
intermptron, into paragraphs, which, together with some other improvements 
in printing, I hope will contnbute to make the Anglo-Saxon text rather more 
easily understood. 

I must own also, that I have adhered commonly to one and the same method 
of spelling words, which varies almost in every page of the MS. ; at the same 
time that I have now and then printed the word as I found it, because other- 
wise I should have taken upon myself to pronounce decisively, what was the 
onlj true and proper orthography. 

I have, however, always followed the copy religiously in more material inac- 
curacies, and have at the bottom suggested such conjectural emendations as 
occurred, which are entirely submitted to the judgment of the reader. 

I have also inserted the various readings according to the collation in 3Ir. 
ElstoVs Transcript, as well as in that of Mr. Ballard ; several of which, how- 
ever, are most clearly improper, and many others of so little importance, that I 
should not have considered them myself as deserving of any notice. I thouglit, 

6 I had onoe intended to have printed the whole with the modern marks of punc- 
toatSon, which would (as I conceive at least) have made the Anglo-Saxon still more intel- 
ligible ; hut I have been deterred from this by some Anglo-Saxonists, whose advice I 
cannot but defer to. 

I bave^ however, printed the first chapter of the last book in this manner, that the 
leader may judge for himself. 



however, that as I printed from their copies, this disregard of their ooUations 
should not be shewn to the labours of these industrious antiquaries, p xxii. 

The first chapter, which describes the boundaries of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, will be found to contain many particukrs which will illustrate the 
geography of the middle ages, especially in the more Northern parts of 
Eurc pe. p xxiii. 

I have annexed a map, which contains the names of most of the European 
places mentioned in this geographical chapter, and have also traced the vojago 
of Oh there and Wulfstan, in these Northern Seas. The pricked line describes 
Ohthere's voyage, from Halgoland lo the Cwen Sea, and back again ; after 
which, he is supposed to sail for Sciringe^ t^Heal^ whence he went to Heathum. 
p xxiv. 

Whilst I had this part of the first chapter under conbideration, I had an 
opportunity of consulting tlie very learned Mr. John Eeinhold Forster, who 
hath made the Northern geography of Europe his particular study ; and I have 
printed his observations on this chapter by themselves, at the end of the 
work, p iivii. 

"With regard to the English Translation, it is not literal, indeed, which per- 
haps many may have rather expected ; but no further liberties have been taken 
with the original, than from endeavouring to make it intelligible to the readers. 

Where the Saxon word, indeed, or turn of expression, happens to correspond 
with the English idiom, I have generally retained it, though this hath some- 
times obliged me to make use of a term or phrase, which is partly obsolete. I 
thought this proper, to shew the affinity which is still retained between the 
Anglo-Saxon and modern English. I have, therefore, commonly printed such 
words or passages in Italics. 

This, indeed, is one of the principal advantages of translating the Anglo- 
Saxon into the language so evidently derived from it ; which affinity of idiom 
oould not appear, if I had rendered it into Latin. Daines Barrington, February 
22, 1773. p xxxi. 

Under the editorial care of Mr. Thorpe, a new and greatly 
improved edition of Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius 
has been published, in a very cheap form, in Mr. Bohn's Anti- 
quarian Library. The Anglo-Saxon text is printed on the left 
hand page, and Mr. Thorpe's excellent English translation, on 
the right. It bears this title, — 

The Life of Alfred the Great, translated from the German of Dr. E. Pauli; 
to which is appended Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, with a literal 
English translation, and an Anglo-Saxon Alphabet and Glossary; by B. Thorpe, 
Esq., Member of the Boyal Academy of Sciences at Munich. Small 8vo. 
London, 1853. 
. ]Mr, Thorpe will give the best account of his own work : — 

As a fitting and, it is hoped, welcome accompaniment to the translation of 
njy friend Dr. Fauli's excellent Life of Eing Alfred, the publisher has judi- 


ciously selected Orosius, the work of our great "VTest-Sazon Monarch, which 
most loudly called for republication, not only on account of its scarcity and 
cost^ but also because of the glaring inaccuracies, both in the text and 
translation, of the only existing edition. 

The only ancient manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius known 
to exist, is in the Cottonian Library, marked Tiberius, B. I. As far as pen- 
manship is concerned, it is unquestionably a precious and beautiful TolumOy 
though manifestly the handiwork of an illiterate scribe. On account of its 
antiquity [not later than the tenth century], it has, however, been held in a 
degree of estimation hardly justified by its intrinsic worth. This being the 
only source of the Anglo-Saxon text, it is difficult to account for the vari- 
ations existing among the several transcripts. 

The present text is founded on a careful collation of that of Barriugton with 
the Cottonian manuscript. The translation is close and almost literal, though, 
at the same time, readable as an indepeudent work. Preface^ p v, vi. 

The Anglo-Saxon text is much more correct than Barrington's, having been 
collated with the original Cotton MS., but it has this great defect, all the 
accents of the MS. are omitted. Even in the Glossary, where the accent 
at once distinguishes one word from another, it is only marked in mda wicked- 
ne$9, to distinguish it from man man^ and omitted in g<5d yoodf Is ice, etc. There 
are several strange slips in the Anglo-Saxon text, such as copying the typo- 
graphical blunder of Barrington and printing ssb beorh [p 260, 14] instead of 
se beorh. Mr. Thorpe's note, [p 629], upon his saj-beorh is still more extra- 
ordinary, and shews the fallacy and insecurity of conjectural criticism. The 
first misprint of Barrington ssb beorh, and the error of 3Ir. Thorpe's emen- 
dation ss-beorh, or sio sae-burh, would have been seen at once, by a reference 
to the MSS. or transcripts, in all of which it is correctly written se beorh. 
But such slips are rare in Mr. Thorpe's volume ; this, therefore, will not be 
treated with 8:^verity by any who know the difficulty and labour of col- 
lating MSS. 

The particulars of the present edition are now to be specified. 
The first great object was, to use every effort to form as good an 
Anglo-Saxon text as possible, on the sole authority of the two 
old manuscripts, the Lauderdale and the Cotton. The Cotton 
was made the basis of the text, as its style and orthography have 
more the appearance of pure West-Saxon than the Lauderdale, 
which, though older than the Cotton, has a more northerly 
aspect. All possible care was,, therefore, taken to secure a 
correct representation of the Cotton MS. For this purpose our 
text has been collated three times with the Cotton MS, in the 
British Museum. First by me, then by E. Thomson, Esq., and 
lastly by Dr. Wm. Bell, aided by my nephew Wm. Bos worth. 
Every accent was carefully marked, and the manuscript was 


Strictly followed even in the use of 8 and 1>. The text was 
examined for the fourth time most carefully by three persons. 
Mrs. Bosworth read most deliberately and distin^.tly Mr. Hamp- 
son's accurate transcript of the Cotton, Mr. Thomson, at the 
same time, had in his hands the invaluable L, and mentioned 
every variation from C, even in a letter .or accent, and I wrote 
down in my copy every minute particular. In case of doubt, as 
to the accuracy of Mr. Hampson's copy, reference was made to 
the original C, in the British 'Museum. This carefully collated 
copy of C was then compared with L, and where words were 
evidently wrong, or words or sentences omitted in C, the sup- 
posed coiTCct word or sentence was taken from L and inserted 
between brackets in my copy. Whatever, therefore, is between 
brackets in the printed text, is from L, and all the rest is from 
C. On this simple principle our text is formed. All the various 
readings, and accents, and the few corrections of evident mis- 
takes of the scribes inclosed between brackets, are carefully 
explained in the notes and various readings. We are not sure 
that the best word or orthography has always been adopted in 
the text, but whatever want of judgment there may have been in 
the selection, means are given for correction in the various 
readings of the MSS. Whatever may be thought of the present 
text, the value of the minute various readings will ever remain. 

None but those who have been engaged in a similar work can 
imagine the unceasing care and the immense labour required in 
collating MSS., and in writing out the various readings with 
accuracy. Had I anticipated that this part of the work would 
have consumed so much time, I should never have ventured to 
undertake it ; but having begun, no labour, pains, nor expense 
have been spared to secure correctness; for, on this account 
alone, a journey w^as undertaken into Suffolk in September, 
1856, to examine again at Helmingham Hall all the quotations 
from the L; and the greatest vigilance has been exercised in 
superintending the press, that even a wrong accent might not 
escape detection. 

In printing the AnglonSaxon text, Roman characters have 
been used, with the addition of the letters > th, and « dh, the 
former representing the hard, and the latter the soft sound of 


our th. In Alfred's version of Orosius, it is to be regretted, 
these letters are often interchanged. 

The vowels have been carefully accented in the printed text, 
when they were found in C, or in quotations from L, but the 
accents have been omitted when left out by the manuscripts. 
Accents improperly used in C, have been omitted in printing the 
text, but they have always been given in the notes, hence the 
real state of the manuscripts, as regards the accents, is easily 
ascertained. The Anglo-Saxons accented their vowels to denote 
their long sound, as will be manifest by comparing a few Anglo- 
Saxon words with their English derivatives ; — Dal a dale, hal hale, 
tarn tame; fet feet, hel Iieel, her here ; lif life, mil fnile, wid, wide ; 
for fore, Kud numerous other words ending in the English silent e. 
What is this final e, but the mwk or letter denoting the long 
sound of the preceding vowel ? We appear to have derived this 
clumsy mode of expressing the length of the vowels from the 
Normans. They sometimes denoted a long vowel by inserting 
another vowel, or by doubling the short one, as ; A'c an oak, ar 
an oar; brad broad, bat a boat, ran rain; fdl foul, bus house, hoc 
a book, coc a cook, god ffood, gos a goose, ges geese. How much 
more simple is this Anglo-Saxon mode of lengthening their 
vowels, than our present confused and tedious method. We find 
many words distinguished from each other by accents, thus : 
Bat a bat or club, bat a boat ; coc a cock, coc a cook ; ful full, ful 
foul etc. Some contend that the Anglo-Saxon accents are un- 
necessary, and may be omitted, in that case there would be no 
distinction between ful and foul, and ful bat might then mean 
a JvU or foul boat 

The books and chapters exactly follow those of the manu- 
scripts ; but the chapters have been subdivided into paragraphs, 
according to their subjects, and numbered to facilitate reference. 

There has been a great desire to make the English translation 
literal; and, as far as possible, to use only words of Anglo- 
Saxon origin. Words of similar orthography and sound in 
Anglo-Saxon and English, are not universally employed, as the 
English derivative is not always s}monymous with the Anglo- 
Saxon ; but many modern English words are now used exactly as 
they were by our Anglo-Saxon forefathers: the latter are re- 


tained. In short, there has been a constant effort to avoid a 
latinised style, and to make the translation very plain, and 
simple, and as near a representative of the Anglo-Saxon, as was 
practicable ; and thus to impart to the daughter some little of 
the health and chaste simplicity of the mother. 

In the course of this work, I have cheerfully acknowledged the 
particular assistance I have received from literary men, I have 
therefore now only the gratification of recording my obligation to 
the Rev. Dr. Bandinel, the Bodleian Librarian, Oxford, to the 
Under-librarians and to the Assistants, for the free use of the 
Junian transcript of Orosius, and for most ready and friendly 
assistance in every case of difficulty. — To the Rev. Wra. Pulling, 
M.A. F.L.S., Rector of Dymchurch, who, in an uninterrupted 
friendly intercourse of many years, has generously allowed me 
the advantage of his most extensive knowledge of languages ; 
and, in this work, for communicating the best information, from 
Icelandic, Swedish and Danish publications. — ^To E. Thomson, 
Esq., author of ** A vindication of the hymn, Te Deum laudamus^" 
editor of the Anglo-Saxon Paschal Homily of iElfric with an 
English translation, notes, etc., for collating the MSS., correcting 
proofs, and for continued assistance. — To the Rev. H. S. Trimmer, 
Vicar of Marston-on-Dove, for corrections in chronology, etc. — To 
Robert Bigsby, Esq. LL D., author of many valuable works, for 
critical remarks. — ^To Su* Oswald Mosley, Bart. D.C.L., for the 
loan of books, — and to all those friends who have given their 
ready assistance in the progress of the work. 

The LoSge^ Islip, near Oxford^ 
October 16M, 1858. 





In the time of king Alfred, Orosius was so well known as an 
historian, that his name was commonly used instead of the title 
of his work. This is evident, from Alfred's first sentence, — 

** Here heginneth the hook which men call Orosius." 
This compendious history of the world ' from the creation to 
the year A.D. 416, written by Orosius, continued to be held in 
the highest esteem, from the days of Alfred to the invention of 
printing, for it was selected as one of the first works to be com- 
mitted to the press. The first edition appeared in Germany, so 
early as 1471 *. After this, numerous editions' were published by 
the most celebrated printers. It must be interesting to know the 
origin of a work, that has attracted so much attention, and been 
highly valued for so many ages — a work chosen by the first man 
of his age, our Glorious king Alfred, as a book worthy to be 
translated by him into Anglo-Saxon — the EngUsh of his day — to 
teach his people history. The origin and intention of this work 
will be best shewn by a short biographical account of Orosius, 
its author. 

Paulus Orosius was a learned Spanish presbyter, bom in the 
latter part of the fourth century, at Tarragona*, on the coast of 
the Mediterranean. He was educated in Spain ; but, being a 
young man of great talents, the information to be acquired in his 

1 Ab initio mundi usque in pnesentem diem [A. D. 4161: HaTercainp*8 Ororiui 
4to, Lejden 1767, L vii, c 43, p. 587. Apparently the same book published in 1738, with 
only a new title page. 

2 Impressus is liber est. . . Aucustae a. 1471, per Johannem Scbiiszler. Hayer. p. 
XII. lu the same page of Haver, the date is 1470 : . . Florentissimse urbis Augusts . • 
anno a partu virginis Marite salutifero millesimo quadrigentesimo et septuagesimo ; cirdter 
Junii nouas sepcimas. "! 

3 Fabridus says: Prela multum sudavit. Haver, adds: Sspissime prela fatigavit 
Orosius, p. xiiL i 

4 Tarraconensem esse Orosixmi non dubitat Don Paolo Ignazio de pairia Orosii edita 
Uispanice Bardnone 1702, Fol. libro quadrigentanun paginarum, Fabridus, liber iv, c. 3. "^ 



own country did not satisfy his inquiring mind. He had energj' 
enough to overcome any difficulty in the acquisition of knowledge ; 
he did not, therefore, hesitate to go to Africa, to benefit by the 
instruction of S. Augustine, bishop of Hippo Regius, one of the 
most able and voluminous \^Titers of that age. There is great 
difficulty m ascertaining how long Orosius remained in Africa, 
under the instruction of S. Augustine, before he returned to Spahi. 
Some suppose that Orosius did not anive in Africa before A. D. 
414, v.hen the Spanish bishops, Eutropius and Paul, sent him to 
consult S, Augustine about the nature and origin of the soul and 
several abstruse points of doctrine, which were held by the Priscil- 
lianists and the Origenists. Orosius, about that time, wTote on 
the subject, — *' Consultatio sive Commonitorium Orosii ad Augus- 
tinum de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum." In answer to 
which, S. Augustine published — *^ Ad Orosium contra Priscillian- 
istas et Origenistas." These are both in the works of S. 

In A. D. 415, S. Augustine recommended Orosius to proceed 
to Palestine, that he might consult S. Jerome on some particulars 
as to the origin of the soul, which Augustine could not satisfac- 
torily explain. Jerome was then living at Bethlehem, and engaged 
in translating the scriptures from the Hebrew and Greek originals 
into Latin, which is the present \ailgate or authorized version of 
the Roman Catholics. S. Jerome was the most learned man, and 
the most profound critic of the early church. The deference 
paid by Augustine, in sending Orosius to Jerome for a solution of 
what was too difficult for himself, is a proof of the high estimation, 
in which he held S. Jerome's talents and learning. This letter of 
introduction, S. Augustine sent, in his treatise, De ratione animae, 
by Orosius to S. Jerome, to whom it was most respectfully dedi- 
cated. The letter is so honourable to them all, and so descriptive 
of Orosius, that part of it, at least, ought to be inserted. 

**S. Augustine to S. Jerome. — Behold, there has come to me a 
religious young man, in catholic peace a brother, in age a son, in 
rank a co-presbyter, Orosius — of active talents, ready eloquence, 
ardent application, longing to be, in God's house, a vessel useful 
for disproving false and destinictive doctrines which have killed 
the souls of the Spaniards much more grievously, than the bar- 
barian sword their bodies. He has hastened to us from the ocean 
shore — expecting from report, that he might learn from me, 
whatever he wished of those matters he desired to know ; but he 
has not reaped the fruit of his laboiu:. First, I desired him not 
to trust much to fame respecting me : next, I taught him what I 
Dould ; but what I could not, I told him where he might learn, 
md I advised him to come to you. In which matter, on his 


having willingly and obediently acceded to my advice or com- 
mand, I have asked him, on his coming from you, that he would 
take us, on his way home." » 

S. Jerome thanks Augustine, in his answer, for the dedication 
and for sending a copy of the book by so celebrated a man as 
Orosius, whom he gladly received, on account of his merits, as 
well as from the introduction of S. Augustine.* 

That Orosius should have gained the respect and esteem and 
the high praise of two men, like Augustine and Jerome, — ^the 
most eminent of their day for talents and learning, is a proof that 
he was a man of no ordihMry ability, and acquirements. But 
Orosius was as estimable for his disposition and character, as he 
was respected for his talents and erudition. Look at his conduct 
and his writings. — He was a man of great liberality, and benevo- 
lence, considering every country his home^ and every man his 
brother. Though zealous for the truth, and ready, at all times, 
to defend what he believed to be true, he never descended to 
uncharitable personalities, or gave way to hostile feelings even 
against his most bitter opponents.* He had no desire to enter 
upon disputed points, being a humble and practical christian • ; 
but if drawn into discussion, it was his first wish to shew a friendly 
regard for the person of his opponent, and then to bring his 
strongest arguments against his errors. Under the influence of 
these feelings he first came to Africa,** and afterwards went into 

When Orosius was in Palestine, Pelagius and his disciple 
Caelestius, were there, disseminating their doctrines," ^^lth great 
zeal. Orosius was called to oppose them in a sjTiod, held at 
Jerusalem July 30th, A. D, 415, before John, bishop of that 

5 Haver, p. XXVIII, and XXXV.— S. Augustine'i works, letter 165.— Du Pin's Biblio- 
thcca Patrum; or, A new Histor}' of Ecclesiastical writers, Folio, London, 1693, century 
Vth, vol. HI, Part I, p. 156. 

6 Virum honorabilem Orosium, et sui men to, et te jubente suscepi. S. Jerome's ; 
works, letter 9K— Du Pin, vol. Ill, Pt 1, letters 92 and 94, p. 94, 

7 Orosius says of himself, — Inter Romanos, ut dixi, Romanus, inter Christianos 
Chri&tianus, inter homines homo. . . . Utur temporarie omni terra quasi patria. Haver. . 
1. v.c. 2; p. 289. 

S Odisse me fateor haeresim, non hsercticnm. Haver, p. 634. 

9 Vos me participem certaminis vestri esse voluistis, ut a\ixiliator non auctor accedcrem, 
Latebam siquidem in Bethleem, ignotus, advena, pauper. . . . Traditus a patie - 
Augustino, ut timorem Domini discerem, sedens ad pedes Hieronymi : inde Hierunlem ./^^ 
vobis accersentibus vocatus adveni. Dehinc in conventum vestrum una vobiscum, Joannt •* 
episcopo praecipiente, consedi. Haver, p. 590. "-^j 

10 Nunc me, inquam . . . Africa excepit pace simplici, sinu proprio, jure commQai--,^ 
Id. 1. v, c. 2, p. 288. ,^ 

1 1 See the last two paragraphs in page 11, and note 9. • V^ 

12 *• Pelagius mihi dixit, docere sc, hommem posse esse sine peccato, et mandate ^^ 
facile custodire, si velit." Respondit Pelagius, " Hoc et dixisse me et dicere, negarenca^ 
possum." Haver, p. 591. -" Ego dixi hominem sine peccato." Id. p. 600. — -Ecer 


city/* He then ^vrote his celebrated treatise, which he modestly 
calls, "Apologia contra Pelagium de arbitrii libertate." It is 
appended to his History.** 

Orosius remained in Palestine till the close of 415, for he was 
induced by Heros, bishop of Aries, and Lazarus, bishop of Aix, 
to present a memorial against Pelagius at the council, '* held at 
Diospolis, — the Lydda of Holy Scripture, — on the 20th of 
December in that year. 

Orosius returned from Palestine to Africa, in accordance with his 
promise," to visit his friend S. Augustine, bishop of Hippo Regius, 
before he bent his course homeward to Spain. This must have 
been in 416 ; for, in the autumn of that year, Orosius presented to 
the African council of Milevis *' the letters of Heros and Lazarus 
against Pelagius. 

Rome was captured and pillaged in A. D. 410, by Alaric king 
of the Visi-Gothi, Wisi-Gothi or West-Goths, also known by the 
name of Moeso-Goths, from their residence in Moesia. " These 
Mceso-Goths were Christians, under the guidance of Bishop Ulphi- 
las,a man of gi-eat learning and piety, who, with the view of 
leading them to the fountain of his doctrine, translated the New 
Testament from Greek, between A. D. 360 and 380, into the lan- 
guage of the Mceso-Goths — the pure German of that period. It is the 
earfiest specimen of High-German now in existence, an(i prevailed 
in the south or high part of Germany, as the Old-Saxon, the 
nearest relative of the Anglo-Saxon, did in the north or low and flat 
part of that country. *• Great moderation and forbearance were 
manifested by Alaric the Visi-Gothic king and his army in taking 
Rome. Orosius gives a detailed account of the mercy shewTi to 
the Romans by the king of the West-Goths. " Alfred epitomized 
this detail in the following simple style : " Alaric, the most 
Christian and the mildest of kings, sacked Rome, with so little 
nolence, that he ordered no man should be slain, — and that 

Pelagius, qui autus est profiteri, se esse sine macula atque peccato^ Id. GOl. Homo 

qui hoc potest, Christus est. Id. 603. 

13 See the latter part of note 9. — Du Pin's History of Ecclesiastical Writers, Fol. 
London 1693. vol. Ill, Pt 1, p. 221. 

14. Haver, pp. 5S8~(>34. 

15 Tom. II Cone. p. 1529.~Landon's Manual of Councils, p. 207 — 209.— Dupin, vol. 
Ill, Pt 1, p. 221, 222. 

16 Augustinus rogant eum (Orosium) ut abs te [Hieronj-mo, Jerome] veniens per 
BOt ad propria remearet. Haver, p. XXXV. 

17 Tom. II, Cone. p. 1537.— Landon, p. 410.— Du Pin, vol. Ill, Pt I, p. 222:— also p. 
167, S. Augustine's 175th letter. 

18 Bosworth'g Origin of the English and Germanic Languages, VII, 2, 6, 7, 9. p. 114 — 

19 Id. II, 4, p. 13 : V, 1—10, p. 81—83. 

20 Haver. 1. VII, c. 39, p. 573—575. 



nothing should be taken away, or injured, that was in the church- 
es. Soon after that, on the third day, they went out of the city 
of their own accord. There was not a single house burnt by their 
order •" 

This sacking of Rome, however, afforded the Romans a pretence 
for accusing Christianity of being the cause of the affliction and 
i-uin, which nad befallen the empire. These heathens asserted that 
Christianity had been injurious rather than beneficial to mankind, 
alleging, that, before the coming of Christ, the world was blessed 
with peace and prosperity; but that, since they had changed 
their old rehgion for Christianity, nctory had entirely forsaken the 
Romans, and both their glory and empire had dechned ; for, the 
gods, filled \rith indignation to see their worship neglected, and 
their altars abandoned, had visited the world with those plagues 
and desolations, which were still on the increase. " S. Augustine 
wrote his celebrated treatise, "The city of God,*' to shew 
the absurdity of this assertion, and to prove, by historical 
facts, how much the world had been ameliorated by revelation. 
This work, in defence of Christianity, appears to have been imme- 
diately commenced by S. Augustine : it is full of matter and 
profound erudition. It naturally occupied much of his thoughts, 
and was a subject of discussion with his friends, especially with 
Orosius. 'A man, so full of zeal as Orosius, would soon enter 
warmly into the subject, and he was readily induced, at the request 
of his friend, to wTite a work to prove from the facts of general 
history, what S. Augustine had shewn from the history of the 
Church — the city of God — that the preaching of ' peace on earth 
and good will toward men' could never be the cause of increas- 
ing tlie misery of mankind. This is the origin of the compendious 
History of the world by Orosius. It is Avritten, on Christian 
principles, as a defence or an apology of Christianity. The tone 
per\^ading the work is that of a Christian, impressed with a proper 
sense of justice and humanity, deprecating ambition, conquest and 
glory, gained at the expense of human blood and human happiness. 

This History of Orosius was undertaken at the request of S. 
Augustine and dedicated " to him. Orosius commenced writing 
about A. D. 410, when Honorius was emperor of the West, and 
when S. Augustine had finished ten books of his City of God." 

21 See this translation of King Alfred's Orosius, b. VI, c. 38, § 1. 

22 Mosheini's Eccl. Hist., Cent. V, Pt 1, c. II, § 2, 

23 PrjLceplis tuis parui, beatissime pater Augustine. Haver, p. l.Totum tuum [est], quod 
ex te ad te redit, opus meum. Id. p. 3. 

24 Hanc historiam conscripsit Orosius, nimirum post Romam captam sub Honono 
Imperatore, anno Christ! CCCCX. Quum ergo Auffustinus jam decimum de Civitate Dei 
perfecisset, atque jam undecimum conscriberet, turn Orosius noster haec scribere aggressus 


Part of it was composed in Africa," and it was probably finislied 
about A. D. 416, at which date the work closes. 

The highest authorities continued to speak, in the strongest 
terms, in favour of this History. From many others, one only is 
here quoted. Pope Gelasius the First, in a council of seventy bish- 
ops, held at Rome in A. D. 494, praised Orosius as a most learned f 
man, who had, with wonderful bre\ity," ^Titten a work against { 
lieathen perversions. ^ 

The reputation of this History was so great, in the time of 
King Alfred, that he detemiined to transfer the substance of it 
from the original Latin into Anglo-Saxon, for the benefit of his 
subjects ; but in doing this, he often imitated rather than trans- 
lated, and frequently added new illustrative clauses, and sentences 
oi his ovm, and occasionally new paragraphs. At other times, he 
abridged what appeared to him less important, and passed over 
what was not to his purpose. Thus, by omitting the last four 
chapters of the fifth book, and the first three with a few others in 
the sixth, the king brought the substance of the fifth and sixth 
books of the original Latin, into the fifth book of his Anglo-Saxon 
iTork. Alfred^s sixth book is, therefore, the seventh of Orosius, 
in which most of the chapters are much abridged, and the last three 
omitted. Alfred did not think the dedication and the first 
chapter of Orosius adapted for his subjects, he did not therefore 
insert them ; but he still kept up a unity of design in his work, as 
will appear from the following short sketch of it. 

In book I, he gives a geographical description of the whole 

world, then known, with a summary of general history from the 

earliest period to the building of Rome, A. M. 3251, and B. C. 

753— Book II, after a reference to the creation, and the four 

great empires, describes the foundation of Rome, the wars of the 

Romans and Sabines, the affairs of Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, Leoni- 

das, etc. and concludes with the capture of Rome by the Gauls, 

A- M. 3608, and B. C. 396— Book III speaks of the affairs of the 

Lacedaemonians, Persians, Romans, Gauls, Carthaginians, Latins, 

Maecedonians, etc. and ends with the death of Seleucus about the 

year A. M. 3714, and B. C. 290— Book IV contains the history 

of Rome from the wars of Pyrrhus to the fall of Carthage, A. M. 

3853, and B. C. 151.— Book V, including the Vth and Vlth books 

of Orosius, comprises the period from the taking of Corinth to the 

birth of our Saviour, A. M. 4004.— Book VI,— the Vllth of Oro- 

••^ Ftbridus. Haver, p. 4, note 24. — See, also, this edition of Alfred's Orosius, B. VI, 
«• 37, § 1. 

25 Nunc me Africa excepit. Haver. 1. V. c. II, p. 288. 

26 0n)siuni9 viriim eruditissinium, collaiidamus, quia valde necessaria adversus pagan- 
^™n»calumnia8ordinavit, miraque brevitnte contexuit Haver, p. XXVIII. — Dupin, Tom. 
"I» Pi II, p. 175, and 180. 


sius, — ^recapitulates the succession of the four gi-eat empires, and 
continues the history of Rome from the accession of Tiberius 
Caesar, A. D. 14 to A.D. 416, A.M. 4420, including an account 
of the greatest event of the age, the taking and sacking of Rome 
by Alaric in A. D. 410. 

In the first book especially, Alfred introduced much new matter 
and added considerably to the geography of Eiu'ope. 

These geographical additions prove that he had recourse to 
original sourses for information. He then left his author and 
stated, from" the best authorities of his age, all the particulars of 
Europe, that he could collc-ct, filKng up the chasm bebveen the 
time of Orosius, the commencement of the fifth centur}% and his 
ovm, the end of the ninth century. 

This is the only geography of Em-ope, written by a contem- 
porary, and giving the position of the Germanic nations, so early as 
the ninth century. 

Besides this geography of Europe, composed by Alfred, the king 
inserts the very interesting voyages of Ohthere a Non^'egian 
na^^gator and of Wulfstan. Ohthere, "wishing to search out 
how far the land lay due north, or whether any man dwelt to 
the north," " sailed by the coast of Norway round the North Cape 
into the White-Sea;" and afterwards into the Baltic." Wulf- 
stan's voyage was confined to the Baltic. " These voyages were 
written by the king, from the relation of these intrepid na^^gators ; 
for, in the narration, Wulfstan uses a pronoun of the first person 
' pluial.'* 

The simplicity of the narration bears the impress of truth, the 
former beginning thus : — " Ohthere told his lord. King 
Alfred, that he dwelt north-most of all the northmen.'* " — Ohthere 
was a man of great wealth, " and his strict adherence to truth in 
his narrative may be concluded, from his refusing to vouch for 
any thing, of which he could not bear personal testimony. He 
says : *' The Biarmians told him many stories both about their 
o\Mi land, and about the countries, which were around them ; 
but lie knew not whtit was true, because he did not see it Inmse/f.** 

These important additions and separate essays of King Alfred, 
are very interesting, as his original composition ; and valuable, 
because they contain information relative to the geography of 
Europe, not othenvise to be obtained, and because they are authen- 
tic pictures of the manners and of the political condition of a 
great part of the north, in the ninth century. The following 
literal English translation, from the Anglo-Saxon of King Alfred, 

27. See b. I. c. 1, § 13. 28.- Id. § 14—17. 29. Id. § 18, 19. 30. Id. §20-^23 
31. Id. § 20. * 32. Id. § 13. 33. Id. § 15. 34. Id. S 14. 


is, therefore, not a mere translation of what Alfred selected from 
Orosius ; but an English version of the king's own Anglo-Saxon 
additions and essays, with his abridgement, and occasional ampli- 
fication, of the most interesting parts of the compendious universal 
History of Orosius. The most striking of these will be pointed 
out, in brief notes at the foot of the page, and a reference made 
to the original Latin of those parts, which Alfred condensed, 
translated, imitated, paraphrased or enlarged ; for he did not 
hesitate to adopt any of these plans, when he thought that he 
could improve the work, and make it more useful for his people. 
These short notes are only intended for the general reader ; they, 
for the most part, give the result of investigations, rather than a 
detail of the reason or authority for arriving at that result. 

If then new views be given, or old opinions advanced, appa- 
rently without satisfactory evidence being adduced, it is hoped 
that the following reformed Anglo-Saxon text, with the appendage 
of various readings, and more ample notes, will give the required 





[BiJc I : Capitll I— XIV.] 
Hkr onginne5 seo boc \>e man 


I. [H ] ure yldran ealne 6ysne ymbhwyrit on breo todaeldon ; 
*§ 1— 3&, 

II. Hu Ninus, Assyria [cyning], ongan manna aerest ricsian on 
5ysum [middangearde] ; § 1. — And hu Sameramis, his cwen, feng 
to baem rice aefter him mid mycelie [reSnesse] and wraennesse ; 

w III. Hu J)aBt heofonlice fyr forbaernde ]>xt land, on j^aem waeron 
8a twa byrig on getimbred, Sodome and Gomorre ; § 1, 2. 

IV. Hu Telesci and CiarsaS ]>sl leode him betweonum [wun- 
non] ; § 1. 

V. Hu loseph, se rihtwisa mon, ahredde Egypta folc aet f)aem 
w seofon [geara] miclan hungre mid his [wisdome] : and hu hie 

siSSan J>one f if tan dael [aelce geare] eaha hira waestma hyra [cyn- 
inge] to gafole gesyllaS, aefter his [gesetnesse], §1,2.. 

VI. Hu on [Achaie], wear5 micel flod on Ambicsionis dagum 
J>aBS cyninges; § 1, 2. 

it VII. Hu Moyses la^dde Israhela folc from il^lgyptum ofer 6one 
Readan sae; § I, 2. 

VIII. Hu on Egyptura wurdon, on anre niht, L. manna ofslagen 
frani heora agnum suuum ; § 1 . — And hu Bosiridus, se cyning, het 
[don] to geblote ealle 8a cuman, ])e hine gesohton; 2. — ^And 

u ymb manegra o5ra f olca gewin ; 3, 4. 

IX. Hu Cretense and Athinense, Creca leode, him betweonum 
wunnon; 1, 2. 

X. Hu Uesoges, Egypta [cyning], wolde him togeteon [ge] Sone 
suS-dael to, ]>a2t [is] Asia, ge ])one norS-dael, Jiaet sind Sci5j)ie ; 


§ 1. — And hu twegen ae}>elingas wurdon [Sfliemed] of Sci&}7ium ; 
and ymbe [J)a wif, be mon Amozenas net; 2, 3, 4, 5. — And 
ymbe })a] Gotan, ]>e nim fore ondredon, ge Pirrus, se re8a Creca 
[cyning], ge se Maera Alexander, ge lulius se Casere ; 6, 

XL Hu Elena, }>aBS cynges wif, wear8 genumen on Lajcedemo- ^ 
nium l^aere bvrig ; § 1, 2. — And hu Eneas, se cyning, for mid fyrde 
Italie ; 3. * 

XII. Hu Sardanopolus waes se siSmesta [cyning] in Asyria, 
and hu hine beswSc Arbatus, his ealdormon; § 1, 2. — 
6a [wif men] bismredon hiera weras, }>a hie fleon woldon ; 3. — lo 
And hu se firgeotre geworhte anes fearres anlicnesse Saem aej^e- 
linge; 4, 5. 

XI I L Hu Pelopensium and [Atheniensium] J^a folc him be- 
tweonum wunnon; § 1. 

XIV. Hu Laecedemonie and Messiane him betweonum wunnon i* 
for hiera maegdena offrunga ; § 1 — 3 : 4. 

[Boc II : Capitul I— VIIL] 

I. Hu Orosius ssede, ]>dst ure drihten 8one aerestan man swi5e 
ryhtne and swiSe godne gesceope ; § 1. — ^And ymb J>S feower 
anwaldas \>isses [middangeardes] ; 2— -6. m 

II. Hu Remus and Romulus, J>a gebroj^ra, Romana burh ge- 
timbredon on Italium ; § 1 — 3. 

III. Hu Romulus and [Brutus] mid hwelcum mane hi gehal- 
godon Roma ; § 1 — 4. 

IV. Hu Romane and Sabine him betweonum wunnon ; § i$ 
1 — 4. — And hu Cirus wearS ofslagen on SciSSium ; 5 — 8. 

V. Hu Cambisis se cyning forseah 6a Egj'ptiscan deofolgyld; 
5 1. — And ymbe [Dariuses gewinn] ; 2. — And [Xercsis] and 
Leoni8an ; 3 — 9; 

VI. And hu Romanum wear8 an wundor o6ewed, swelce se m 
heofon burne ; § 1 — 5. 

VII. Hu Sicilialeode waeronhim betweonum winnende ; § 1, 2. 

VI I I. Hu Romane besaeton [Ueiorum] 8a burh tf n winter ; § 
1. — And hu Gallic of Senno abraecon Rome burh ; 2 — 6. 

[Boc III: Capitul I— XL] u 

I. Hu sio bismerlice sib and facenlice wear6 betweonum Laece- 
demonium and Persum ; § 1 — 6. 

II. Hu on [Achaie] wear6 eor6-beofung ; 1:2. 

III. Hu se micla man-cwealm wear8 on Rome, on twegra con- 
sula daege ; § 1 , 2.— And hu Marcus Curtius besceat on 6a gyniend- * 
an eor6an ; 3. 

IV. Hu Gallic oferhergodon Romana land o8 J^reo mila toj^aere 
byrig; § 1. ; 

CONTENTS. Book II: Ch. V— XI: Book IV; Ch. I— VI. 11 

V. Hu Cartaine asrendracan comon to Rome, and him fri8 
gebudon ; § 1 : 2 — 5. 

VI. Hu Romane and Latine wunnon him betweonan ; § 1. — And 
hu fin nunne wearS cuco bebyrged ; 2 : 3. 

* VII. Hu Alexander se [cyning] wan wi5 Romanum, }>ae8 Ma- 
ran Alexandres eam ; § 1 . — And hu Philippus, ]>sds Maran Alex- 
andres faeder, feng to Macedonia rice; 2 — 5. — ^And he him 
geceas Biszantium ^a burh ; § 6 : 7> 8. 

VIII. Hu Caudenes Furculus, sio stow, wearS swi8e widmaere 
■• for Romana bismere ; § 1,2:3. 

IX. Hu se Maera Alexander feng to Macedonia rice; § 1 — 5. 
— ^And hu he bet sumne [bisceop] secgan, on hys gewill, hwa his 
faeder waere ; 6. — And hu he Darium bone [cyning] oferwan ; 
7 — 9: 10 — 18. — AndhuhesylfwearSmidfattreacweald; 19, 20. 

" X. Hu, under twam consulum, woldon feower ]>a, strengstan 
]>eoda Romane oferwinnan; § 1, 2. — And hu se micla man- 
cwealm gewearS on Rome ; 3. — And hu hi him heton gefeccan 
t6 Escolapius bone scin-lacan mid baere scin-laecan naeddran 
4 : 5, 6. 

* XI. Hu, under twam consulum, wurdon Somnite and GalUe of 
Senno baere byrig Romanum wiSerwinnan; § 1. — And hu Alex- 
andres neretogan hyra lif on unsibbe geendedon sefter Alexandres 
deaSe; 2—12. 

[BocIV: Capitul I— XIII.] 

» I. Hu Tarentine gesawon Romana scipo on Sam sae yrnar, J)a 
hi plegedon on hyra Theatrum ; § 1 — 6. 

II. Hu }7a manegan yflan wundor wurdon on Rome; § 1, 2. 

III. Hu man geseah rinan meolc of heofenum, and weallan 
blod of eorSan ; § 1 : 2, 3. 

* IV. Hu on Romane becom mycel man-cwealm ; § 1. — And hu 
Caperone, sio nunne, wear5 ahangen ; 2. — And hu 5a burh-leode 
on Cartaina bliotan men hira godum ; 3. 

V. Hu Himelco, Cartaina cyning, for mid fyrde on Sicilie ; § 1. 
— And hu Hanna an man waes anwaldes girnende; 2. — And 

* hu Cartaine hierdon, ]>sdt se Maera Alexander haefde [aJ)rocen] 
Tiruni |>a burh ; 3 : 4, 5. t 

VI. Hu Sicilia folc and Pena wunnon him betweonan; § 1. — 
And hu Romane besaeton Hanniballan, Pena [cyning] ; 2, 3. — And 
hu Calatinus, se consul, for mid fyrde to Camerinan Sicilia byrg ; 

^•4. — And hu Punice gesetton eft ]7one ealdan Hannibalan j^aet 
be mid scypum wiS Romane wunne; 5. — And hu Romane 
foron on Africe mid brim bund scypa and ]}ritigan ; 6. — And 
hu Regulus, se consul, ofsloh ]m ungemetlican naeddran ; 7. — 
And hu Regolus gefeaht wi5 ]iry Pena cyningas, on anum ge- 


feohte ; 8, 9. — ^And hu Emilius, se consul, f6r on Africam mid 
})rim hund scypa; 10, 11. — And hu Cotta, se consul, oferher- 
gode Sicilie; 12. — Hu twegen consulas foron on Affrice mid 
^rim hund scipa, ond hu, on }>reora consula daege, com Hasterbal, 
se niwa [cyning], to Libeum bam iglande; 13, 14. — And liu» 
Claudius, se consul, for eft on Punice; 15. — And hu [Caius], se 
consul, for on Affrice, and on })am [s&] forwearS ; 16. — And hu 
Lutatia, se consul, for on Affrice mid J)rim hund scipa; 17. 

VII. Hu se ungemetlica fjT-bryne wear5on Rome; § 1. — And 
hu Gallic wurdon Romanum wi5envearde ; 2. — And hu Sardinia lo 
wunnon on Romanum, sw,a hi Pene gelaerdon; 3. — And hu 
Orosius sasde ]>aBt he waere cumen to })am godan tiduni ]>e Ro- 
mane eft fore gulpon ; 4. — And hu Gallic wunnon on Romane, 
and Pene on o6re healfe ; 5. — And hu twegen consulas fuhton on 
Galhum ; 6 — 8. — And hu maenig wundor wjeron [gesewene] ; k. 
9. — And hu Claudius, se consul, ofsloh Gallia [XXX.M.] 

VIII. Hu Hannibal, Pena cyning, besset Saguntum Ispania 
burh; § 1. — And hu Hannibal, Pena cyning, abraec ofer Perenei 
]>a beorgas ; 2. — And hu Scipia, se consul, gefeaht on Ispanium ; 
3. — And hu manie w^undor gewurdon on })8ere tide ; 4. 10 

IX. Hu Hannibal beswac twegen consulas on hira gefeohte; 
§ 1. — And hu Romano him gesctton tictator, and Scipian to 
consule; 2. — And hu Romane sendon Lucius, J)one consul, on 
Gallic mid })rim legion ; 3 : 4 — 6. 

X. Hu Marcellus, se consul, for mid scip-here on Sicilie ; § 1 : u 
2 — 6. — And hu Hannibal gefeaht wi6 Marcellus, bone con- 
sul, ]^ry dagas; 7. — And hu Hannibal bestael on Marcellus, 

t)one consul, and hine ofsloh; 8. — And hu Hasterbal, Hanni- 
)ales bro8or, for of Ispanium on Italic; 9: 10, 11. — And hu 
Cartainum wearS fri5 alyfed fram Scypian, ])am consule ; 12. m 

XI. Hu Romana aeftere gewin wear5 geendod; § 1. — And hu 
Sempronius, se consul, wearS ofslagen on Ispania ; 2 : 3 — 5. 
— And hu Philippus, Macedonia cyning, ofsloh Romana aerend- 
racan ; G: 7. — And hu ]>aet Macedonisce gewin gewear5; S. 
— And hu Enilius, se consul, oferwan [Perseus^ })one cyn-w 
ingl ; 9. 

XII. Hu RomajHun wearS se majsta ege fram Sceltiferin, 
Ispania folce ; § 1 : 2, 3. 

XIII. Hu paet j)ridde gewin wearS geendod Romana and 
Cartaina [cyninge] : § I — 5. « 

[Boc V : Capitul I— XV.] 

I. Hu Orosius spraec ymb Romana gylp, hu hi manega folc 
oferwunnan; ana hu hi [monege cyningas] beforan hiora triura- 
phan wi5 Roinewerd drifon ; § 1 : 2, 3. 

CONTENTS. Book V; Cii. 11— XV: Book VI; Cii. 1— II. 13 

II. H(i, on anum geare, wurdon }ja twa byrig toworpene, 
Cartaina and Corintlnim;. § 1. — And hu Feriaatus, se hyrde, 
ongan ricsian on Ispanium ; 2, 3. — And hu Claudius, se consul, 
geflymde Gallic; 4 : 5 — 7. — And hii [Mantius], se consul, genam 

ifri5 wifi Ispanie; 8. — And hu Brutus, se consul, of sloh Ispania 
syxtig |M.] manna; 9. — And hu an cild wear5 geboren on 
Rome; 10. 

III. Hu Romane sendon Scipian on Ispanie mid fyrde; § 1 — 3. 
-j-And hu Craccus, se consul, wan wi6 ba o6re consulas o6 hi 

"hine ofslogan; 4. — And hii 6a |)eo\vas [wunnan] wyS J)a hla- 
fordas; 5. 

IV. Hu Lucinius, se consul, se 8e eac waes Romana yldesta 
bisceop,f6r mid fyrde ongean Aristonucuse J)am [cyninge] ; § 1. — 
And hu Antiochus, [Asia cyning], wilnode Partha anwaldes; 

"2.— And hu Scipia, se betsta Romana \>egn, maende his earfe5u 
to Romana wytum ; 3. — And hu E])na fyr upp afleow ; 4:5. 

V. Hu [Romane] heton eft getimbrian Cartaina; § 1. — And 
hu se consul [Metellus] oferwan }?a Wicingas ; 2. 

VI. Hu [P'auius], se consul, ofercom [Betuitusan], Gallia 
I «C)Tiing; § 1. 

VIL Hu Romane wunnon wi5 Geo\vyr5an, Numedia [cyn- 
inge]; §1. 

[VIII. Hu Romane gefuhton wi5 Cimbros, and wi5 Teutonas, 
and wis Ambronos; § 1.] 
« IX. Hu Romane agunnon unsibbe him betweonan upahebban, 
on }>am fiftan geare, ]>e Marius waes consul ; § 1, 2. 

X. Hu, ufer ealle Italit, wear6 ungefevlic unsib on ]mm syxtan 
geare, pe lulius, se Casere, waes consul ; § 1 : 2 — 4. 

XI. Hu Romane sendon [Sillan], J}one consul, ongean Metre- 
vdatis [Partha] cyning ;^§ 1 : 2 — 4. 

XII. Hu Romane sealdon [luHuse], bam consule, syfan [le- 
gian] ; § 1 — 3. — And hu Inlius besa?t Tarcwatus, [Pompeiuses] 
latteow, on anum faestene; 4, 5. — And hu lulius gefeaht wi5 
Potholomeus ]>riwa ; 6 — 9. 

u XIII. Hu Octauianus feng to Romana anwalde hyra unwil- 
lum ; § 1 : 2, 3. 

XIV. Hu Octauianus, se Casere, betynde lanes duru; § 1 — 4. 

XV. Hu sume Ispanie leode waeron [Agustuse] wiSerwmnan ; 
§ 1 : 2, 3 : 4, 5. 

^ [Boc VI : Capitul I— XXXVIIL] 

I. Hu Orosius waes [sprecende]*ymbe })a feower anwaldasSara 
feower heafodrica j^isses middangeaides ; § 1 — 7. 

II. Hu Tiberius feng to Romana anwealde, se Casere, aeftcr 
[Agustuse] ; 1 — 3. 


III. Hu [Caius] wearS Casere feower gear ; § 1 — 4. 

IV. Hu Tiberius Claudius feug to Romana amvealde ; 1 — 4. 

V. Hu [Nero] feng to Romana anwalde; 1. 

VI. Hu Galfa feng to Romana anwalde, se Casere ; 1, 2. 

VII. Hu Fespassianus feng to Romana anwalde ; 1. $ 

VIII. Hu Titus feng to Romana anwalde ; 1. 

IX. Hu Domitianus, Tituses broSor, feng to Romana an- 
walde; 1. 

X. Hu Neruafeng to Romana anwalde ; I — 3. 

XI. Hu Adrianus feng to Romana anwalde ; 1, 2. le 

XII. Hu [Antoninus pius] feng to Romana anwalde ; 1. 

XIII. Hu Marcus [Antoninus] feng to Romana anwalde mid 
[Aureliuse],his breSer; 1 — 3. 

XIV. Hu Lucius feng to Romana anwalde ; 1. 

XV. Hu Seuerus feng to Romana anwalde ; 1, 2. i$ 

XVI. Hu his sunu feng to rice [Antoninus] ; 1. 

XVII. Hu Marcus feng to Romana anwalde; 1. 

XVIII. Hu Aurelius feng to Romana anwalde ; 1. 

XIX. Hu [Maximinus] feng to Romana anwalde ; 1. 

XX. Hu Gordianus feng to Romana anwalde; 1. 20 

XXI. Hu Philippus feng to Romana rice; 1. 

XXII. Hu Decius feng to Romana rice; 1. 

XXIII. Hu Gallus feng to Romana rice; 1, 2. 

XXIV. Hu Romane gesetton twegen Caseras; 1, 2. 

XXV. Hu Claudius feng to Romana rice; 1. 25 

XXVI. Hu Aurelius feng to Romana rice : 1. 

XXVI I. Hu Tacitus feng to Romana rice; 1. 

XXVIII. Hu [Probus] feng to Romana rice; 1. 

XXIX. Hu Cams feng to Romana rice ; 1. 

XXX. Hu Dioclitianus feng to Romana rice ; 1 — 9. 30 

XXXI. Hu Constantinus feng to Romana rice, mid his twam 
brobrum; 1 — 3. 

aXXII. Hu luuianus feng to Romana anwalde.; 1, 2. 

XXXIII. Hu [Ualentinianus] feng to Romana rice; 1 — 3. 

XXXIV. Hu Ualens feng to Romana rice; 1 — 4. » 

XXXV. Hu Gratianus feng to Romana rice; 1. — ^.\nd hu 
Brittannie namon Maximum heom to [Casere] ofer his willan ; 2. 

XXXVI. Hu Deodosius feng to Romana anwalde; 1. — And 
hu [Ualentinianus feng] eft to rice ; 2. 

XXXVII. Hu Archadius [feng] to Romana rice, and Honorius 4« 
to baem West-rice ; 1 — 3. 

XXXVIII. Hu God gedyde Romanum his miltsunge 1 — 3, 




[Boc I : Capitul I.] 

1. Ure yldran ealne 6ysne ymbhwyrft 6yses middan-geardes, 
^cwaejj] Orosius, swa swa Oceanus ymbligeS utan, 6one man 
'garsecg hateS,] on 6reo todaeldon ; and h^ ba J)ry daelas on 
5 oreo tonemdon, — Asiam^ and Europam, and Attricam : J^eah 8e 
sume men saedon ]>mt ]>8dr nseran butan twegen dselas, — Asia^ 
and J^aet oj^er Europa. 

2 Asia is befangen mid Oceanus — ]>s^m garsecge — su}?an, and 
norSan^ and eastan; and swa ealne J)ysne middangeard fram 
10 baem east-daele healfne behaefS. ponne on J)8Bni noro-daele, J^aet 
IS Asia, on ba swiSran healfe, in Danai baere le, })aer Asia, and 
Europe [hiera land-gemircu togaedre licgaS;] and ponne of 
]>aere ilcan le Danai, su5 andlang Wendelsals ; and bonne wiS 
westan Alexandria J)aere byrig, Asia and Affrica togaeaere licgaS. 
I* 3. Europe — hio onginS, swa ic aer cwaeS, of Danai J^aere le, sio 
is ymende of norS-daele of Riffing J)aem beorgum, J>a sindon 
neah J^aem garsecge, \>e mon hateS Sarmondisc; and sio ea 
Danai ym6 ^anon su5-rihte, on west-healfe Alexandres herga, 
on in Rochouasco Saere Seode. Hio wyrc6 )>aet fenn, pe man 
to hatep Meotedisc ; and J)onne f6r6 mid micle flode, neah J^aere 
byrig J)e man hSteS Theodosia, wy6 eastan fit on 6a sse floweS, 
be man haet Euxinus ; and J)onne mid langre nearonesse, su6 
pSnon be eastan Constantinopolim Creca byrig ligeS, and]>onne 
tor8 ]7enon (it on Wendel-sae. — Se west-suo-ende Europe land- 
is gemirce is in IspSnia westeweardum aet J>aem garsecge, and 
maest aet }>aem iglande, J^aette Ga8es hatte, ^aer sc^t se Wendel- 
sae up of Jjaem garsecge ; })aer [eac] Ercoles syla standa5. On 
psem ilcan Wendel-sfe, [ond hire on] west-ende, is Scotland. 

IC KING ALFRED'S OROSIU8 ; Book I : Cii. I § 6— 8. 

4. Aff rica and Assia hyra laiul-gemyrco onginnaS of Alexandria, 
Egypta byrig ; and li6 ])set land-gemaere suo |>anon ofer Nilus J)a 
ea, and swa ofer iEthiopica westenne o)) ))one su5-garsecg ; and 
l^aere Aff rica nor5-\vest gemaere is set J^aem ylcan Wendel-sae, \>e 
of ]>ssm garsecge scyt, J)8er Ercoles syla standaS; and hyre « 
riht west-ende is set j^aem beorge, J)e man Athlans nemneS, and 
aet j^aem iglande |>e man haet Fortunfitus. 

5. Scortlice ic haebbe nu gesaed ymbe |>a |)rj'' daelas ealles 
8yses middangeardes ; ac ic wille nu, swa ic aer gehet, J)ara 
|>reora land-nca gemaere reccan, hu h^ mid hyra waetrum lo 

6. Asia ongean paem middele, on j^aem east-ende, J)aBr licgeS 
se mu6a ut on }?one [garsecg,] j^aere ea ]>e man hateS Gfindis, 
bone [garsecg] mon haet Indisc. Be su]^an baem muSan, [wi5 
pone garsecg, is se port J)e mon haet Caligardamana.] Be i* 
su|)an-eastan J)am porte is baet igland Deprobane, and J)onne be 
norSan j^aem, Gandis se muoa, J^aer paer Caucasis se beorh endaS, 
neh Jjaem garsecge, J)aer is se port SamerS. Be norSan baem 
porte, is se mu5a jiaere le |>e man nemneS [Ottorogorre, pone 
garsecg] man haet Sericus. «• 

7. J?aet sint Indea gemaero, J^aer J^aer Caucasus se beorh is be 
norSan, and Indus seo ea be westan, and seo Reade sae be suSan, 
and [garsecg] be eastan. On Indea lande is feower and feower- 
tig Seoda, butan j^aem iglande Taprabane, )>aet haeffi on him tyn 
byrig, butan oSrum manegum gesetenura iglandum. Of J^aere e 25 
Indus, |>e be westan eallum j^aeni lande 116, betux J)aere e Indus, 
and l^aere J)e be westan hyre is Tigris hatte, |>a flowaS buta su5 
on J)one Readan sse, and betweoh j^aem twam ean synd J>as land 
Oracassia, and Parthia, and Asilia, and [Persi5a,] and Media ; 
J>eah |>e gewrita oft nemnan ealle J)a land Media, o56e Asiria ; «> 
and]7a land sindon swy5e beorhte, and j^aer synd swy5e scearpe 
wegas and stanige. para landa norS-gemaero syndon aet Jjaem 
beorgum Caucasus ; and on su5-healfe seo Reade sae ; and on 

!)aem lande syndon twa mycele ea I})aspes and Arbis. On }?aem 
ande is [XXXII] ))eoda : nu hat hit man eall Parthia. » 

8. ponne west fram Tigris Jjaere ea 06 Eufrate J)a ea, ]>onne 
betweox J)aem ean syndon J}as land Babylonia, and Caldea, and 
Mesopotamia. Binnan }?aem landum syndon eahta and twentig 
Jjeoda. Hyra nor5-gemaero syndon aet ]>aem beorgum Tauro 
and Caucaso, and hyra su8-gemaero licga5 to }?am Readan sae. «• 
Andlang baes Readan saes,— baes daeles ]>e j^aer nor5 sc^t, — ^li5 }>aet 
land Araoia, and Saben, and Eudomane. [Of] baere ea Eufrate, 
west o|> 6one Wendel-sse, and norS forneah 00 6a beorgas, 8e 
man Tauris haet, 06 J)aet land be man haet Armenie, and eft su8 
o5 Egypte, manega }}eoda syndon J)aes landes ; J)aet is ComagenS, « 


and [Fenitia,] and Damascena^ and Coelle, and Moab, and Anion 
and IdCimei, and ludea, and Palestina, and Sarracene ; and J>eah 
hit mon heet eall Syria. Donne be norftan Syria sindon J)a 
beorgas, \>e man Tauros haet ; and be norBan \>xm beorgum syn- 
5 don^land Capadocia^and Amienie : and bio Armenia is be eastan 
Capadocia ; and be westan Capadocia, is \>8dt land ]>e man haet 
seo Laesse Asia : and be norSan Capadocia, is ])a2t gefilde, \>e 
man h»t Temeseras ; bonne betux Capadocia, and J)aere Lsessan 
Asiam is past land [Cilicia,] and Issaurio. Seo Asia, on selce 
whealfe, hio is befangen mid sealtum waetere, baton on east- 
healfe. On north-healfe is seo sae Euxinus; and, on west* 
healfe, seo sae |>e man haet Proponditis, and Ellaspontus ; and 
Wendel-sae be su6an. On J)aere ylcan Asiam, is se hyhsta 
beorh, Olimphus. 
« 9. Seo Egyptus, 8e us near is, be norSan byre is baet land 
Palestine, and be eastan byre Sarracene Saet land, and be wes- 
tan byre Libia ))aet land, and be suftan byre se beorh, 5e 
Climax [mon haet]. — Nilus seo ea, byre sewylme, is neah baeni 
clife Jjaere Readan s^s; peah same men secgan \>2dt nyre 
» aewylme sy on west-ende Affrica, neah baem beorge Athlans , 
and }>onne ful-ra5e jiaes sie east yrnende on |>aet sand; [ond 
)K>nne besince eft on ))aet sand], and |)aBr [neh] sy eft flowende 
up of }>ajm sande, and ]>aer wyrcS mycelne sse : and \>ser heo 
aerest upwyl]>, by hStaS |>a [land] men Nuchiil, and sume men 
» Darfi ; and j^onne of \>xm sffi ]>3sr hio up of })aem sande [scyt,] 
heo is east ymende fram east-daele, |)urh Ethiopica westenne, 
and bser man haet ba eS Ion o5 5one east-dael ; and |)aer j^onne 
wyro to nudum sae ; and J)jer J^onne besinc5 eft in on BS eor5- 
an ; and }>onrie eft norS })anon uppasprincS, neah J^aem clife 
» wi6 bone Readan Sfe, |>e ic aer beforan saede. ponne of J>aem 
aewylme, man haet J^aet waiter Nilus J^a ea. And J)onne for5 
[}>onan west] ymende, heo toliS on twa ymb an igland, |)e 
man haet Mereon; and })anon norS bugende, ut on 8one 
Wendel-s». ponne, on paeni wintrigum tidum, wyr8 se muSa 
-is fordrifen foran fram Jjaem norftenium windum, pact seo eS bi5 
flowende ofer eall Egypta land ; and hio gedeS mid \>sem flode 
swifte J)ycce eor6-waestmas on Egypta land. — Sio fyrre Egyp- 
tus li6 east andlang |>{es Readan sjes, on su8-healfe ; and, on 
east^healfe^ [ond on su8-healfe] p?cs landes, li5 [garsecg] ; and, 
4% on byre west-healfe, is seo us neare iEgyptus : and, on jjaem 
twam iEgyptum, [sindon] feower and tw'entigbeoda. 

10. Nu haebbe we awriten f^aere Asiam suo-dael : nu wille 

we f6n to byre norft-daele ; J)aBt is Sonne of paem beorgum [be 

men haet] Caucasus, pe we aer beforan si)raecon, pa 6e be 

*^ norSan Indea syndon ; and hio onginnaS aci est eastane of \>2cm 


IH KING ALFKEDS OkO»lU&, Boom 1, Cm. 1 | !0— 12. 

parsecge ; and j^onne licgaS west-rihte o5 Armenia beorgas, 
[])e] l^a land-lcode hi hataS Parcoadras : ])ser of })aem beorgum 
wyl6 seo ea su5weard [Eufrates] ; and of jjaem beorgum ]>e 
man Parcoadras haet, licgaA })a beorgas west-rihte, \ie man 
Tauros haet, o5 Cilium Jjaet land, ponne be nor5an baem* 
beorgum, andlang J)8bs garsecges, o}) ))one nor5-east-ende oyses 
middangeardes Jjaer Bore seo e& scyt ut on 8one garsecg; and 
]?anon west andlang })aes garsecges, [o})] 6one s«e, J)e man haet 
Carpia, ]>e J>8Br upscyt to btem beorgum Caucasus ; baet land 
man haet ba ealdan SciSoian, and Ircaniam. paes landes is '• 
|)reo and leowertig beoda, wide tosetene for unwaestm-baer- 
nesse |>aejs landes. ponne lie westan j^aem sae Caspia, 06 Do- 
nais 5a ea, and 06 baet fenn \>e man haet Meotedisc ; and 
5onne su5 o5 })one Wendel-s», and o)) 8one beorh Taurus; 
and norS 06 8one [garsecg], is eall SciJ)))ia land binnan, |>eah *• 
hit man tonemne on twa and on britig beoda. Ac 8a land on 
east healfe [Danais], be jjaer nean synaon,Albani hy synd ge- 
nemned in latina; ana we hy hata8* nu Liobene : — Nu hasbbe 
we scorthce gessed ymb Asia land-gemaere. 

11. Nu wille we ymb Europe land-gemaere reccan, swamycel " 
swa we hit fyrmest witon. — Fram j^aere efi Danais, west 08 Rm 
8a eg, (seo wyl8 of })aem beorge jJe man Alpis haet, and ym8 
|)onne nor8-ryhte on }?aes garsecges earm, \>e baet land utanymb- 
li8, J)e man Bryttannia haet) ; — and eft suo ob Donua ]>a ea, 
(l^aere aewylme is neah J)aere ea Rines,and is siSoan east }Tnende " 
wis [nor})an] Creca land tit on })one Wendel-sae) ; — and nor8 
o\> l^one garsecg, J}e man Cwen-sae' haet: binnan jiaem syn- 
don manega 8eoda ; ac hit man haet eall, Germania. 

12. ponne wy8 nor8an Donua sewylme, and be eastan Rine 
syndon East-Francan ; and be suSan him syndon Swaefas, on •• 
o]?re healfe J^aere eS Donua; and be su8an him, and be eastan, 
syndon Baeg8-wgre, se dael pe man Regnes burh haet; and 
rihte be eastan him syndon Berne; and east-norS sindon 
Dyringas; and be nor8an him s}ndon Eald-Seaxan, and 
be norSan-westan him syndon Fi-^san; and be westan Eald-" 
Seaxum is iElfe-mu8a })aere ea and Frysland ; arid j}»non, 
west-nor8 is pxt land, })e man Angle haet, and Sillende, 
and sumne dael Dcna; and be nor8an him is Apdrede, and 
east-norS Wylte, 8e man [Haefeldan] haet; and be eastan him 
is Wineda land, J)e man haet Sysyle ; and east-su5, ofer sumne *• 
dael, Maroaro ; and hi Maroaro habbaS, be westan him, Dyrin- 
gas, and Behemas, and Baegvvare healfe ; and be su8an him, on 
o5re healfe Donua J)aere eg, is J)aet land Carendre, su8 08 8a 
beorgas ]>e man haet Alpis. To ]?aem ilcan beorgum licga5 
Baeg8-wara land-gemaer?, and Swaefa ; and })onne9 be eastan •• 


Carendvan lande, begeondan J)seni westenne, is Pulgara land ; 
and be eastan ])vem is Creca land ; and be eastan Maroaro- 
laiide is Wisle-land ; and be eastan jjaem sind Datia, J)a }^e iu 
waeron Gotan. Be [norftan-eastan] Maroara syndon Dalamen- 

»san, and be eastan Dalaniensam sindon Horithi, and be nor- 
8an Dalomensam sindon Suq)e, and be westan him sindon 
Sysele. Be norSan Horiti is MiegSa lond, and be nor5an 
M»g5a lande [sindoiij Serniende, o5 8a bdorgas Riffin. — And 
be westan Su5-Denuin is })aes garsecges earm, ]>e \i\> ymb- 

!• utan J)aet land Brittannia ; and be nor5an him is J^ses saes earm, 
|)e man haet Ost-s» ; and be eastan him, and be norSan him, 
syndon NorS-Dene, aeg}>aer ge on ])jeni maran landmn,ge on ]>SQm 
iglandum ; and be eastan him syndon Afdrede ; and be su5an 
him is .'Elfe-mu8a j^sere ea, and JEald-Seaxna sum dael. Nor5- 

w Dene habbaS him be norSan |)one ilcan saes earm, \>e man Ost-s« 
haet; and be eastan him sindon O^ti 5a leode ; and Afdraede be 
sufian. Oiti habbaS be nor5an him }?one ilcan saes earm, and 
Winedas and Burgendas; and be su5an him sindon Haefeldan. 
Burgendan habba5 ])one ylcan saes earm be westan him, and 

» Sweon be norSan ; and be eastan hhn sint Sermende,and be suSan 
him Surfe. Sweon habbaS be suSan him 5one svch earm Osti ; 
and be eastan him Serniende ; and be nor5an [him] ofer 5a 
^^estennu is Cwen-land; and be we >tan-nor5an him sindon 
Scride-Finnas, and be westan Nor6-menn. -^ 

» 13. "Ohthere saede his hlaforde,^Elfrede [cyninge],)>aet he ealra 
Nor8-manna norSmeSt bade. He cwae5 ]>xt he bude on ])aem 
lande norSeweardum \vi5 5a west sae. He saede 5eah J)aet )>aet land 
sy swySe lang nor5 })anon ; ac hit is eall weste, buton on 
leawum stowum, sticcema?lum wicia5 Finnas, — on hunta5e on 

•• Jl^intra, and on sumera on fiscoSe be 5aBre sae. He saede ])8Bt 
"5» *t sumum cyrre, wolde fandian hii lange ]^aet land nor8- 
rihte laege ; o55e hwaej)er aenig man be norSan |>aem westene 
°"de. pa for he norS-rihte be j'aem lande : let him ealne \yeg 
'3Bt weste land on }?aet steor-bord, and ]>'d wid see on baec-bord, 
f7 dagas. pa waes he swa feor nor5 swa })a hwsel-huntan 
yfrest fara5. pa for he pa, gyt nor5-ryhte, swa [feor swa] he 
'^ibte, on l^aem o])rum brim dagum, geseglian. Da beah })aBt 
land ))aer east-ryhte, o55e sio sae in on ^aet land, he nyste 
hwaej7er ; buton he wiste j^aet he ]^aer bad westan windes, o55e 

«hw6n nor8an,andseglede J^anon east be lande, swa swa he mihte 
on feower dagum geseglian. pa sceolde he [J>aer] bidan ryhte 
norfian windes ; for5an }?aet land ]^aer beah su5-rihte, o55e seo 
sae in on baet land, he nyste hw ae]7er. Da seglede he j^anon 
8u5-rihte oe lande, swa swa he mihte on fif dagum geseghan. 

a pa laeg paer fin mycel ea up in [on] J)iet land : ]>a cyrdon hy 


20 KING ALFREDS OllOSiUS; Book I : Cu. I f 14—16. 

up in on 6a ea, forJ)aBiTi hy ne dorston forS be j^aere efi seglian 

for unfriSe, forStem J^aet land waes eall gebun, on o5re healfe 

])aBre eg. Ne mette he »r nfin gebun land, sy55an he fram 

hys agnum hame for ; ac him waes ealne weg weste land on 

^aet steor-bord butan fisceran, and fugeleran, and huntan, and » 

iset [waeron] ealle Finnas ; and him waes & wid sae on j^set baec- 

3ord. Da Beormas haefdou swiSe well gebiin hyra land, ac hi 

ne dorston J^aer on cuman; ac Sara Terfinna land waes eall 

weste, butan ]>Qir huntan gewicodon, o56e fisceras, o56e fu- 

geleras. !• 

14. Fela spella him saedon 6a Beormas, aegj^er ge of hyra 
agenum lande, ge of })aem [randum], J^e ymb hy utan waeran : 
ac he nyste hwaet baes so6es waes, for6aBm he hit sylf ne ge- 
seah. pa Finnas, nim j^uhte, and J}a Beormas spracon neah 
Sn ge6eode, Swi6ost he for 8yder, to-eacan jJaes landes sceaw- i* 
unge, forSaem hors^hwaelum, for5aBm hi habbaS sw75e aej^ele 
bSn on hyra to}?um : ba te6 hy brohton same j^aem [cyninge] ; 
and hyra hy d bift swioe god to scip-rapum. Se hwael bi5 micle 
la^s^ J)onne o5re hwalas : ne bi6 he lengra Sonne syfan elna 
lan^; ac, on his agnum lande, is se betsta hwael-huntaft : ]>a» 
beoo eahta and feowertiges elna lange, and J)a masstan, fiftiges 
elna langc ; |)ara, he saede, J}aet he syxa sum ofsloge syxtig on 
twam dagum. 

15. He waes swy5e spedig man, on baem aehtum, })e heora 
speda on beo5, j^aet is, on wildrum. He haefde ]>3l gyt, 6a he » 
J>one cyninge sohte, tamra deora unbebohtra syx bund, pa 
deo- hi hata6 hrSnas : )>ara waeron syx stael-hranas, &a beo6 
swySe dyre mid Finnum, for&aem hy fo&)>a wildan hranas mid. 
He waes mid \)ve\\\ fyrstum mannum on J)aem lande, naefde he 
]ieah ma 6onne twentig hry6era, and twentig sceapa, and twen- w 
tig swyna ; and l^aet lytle psdt he erede, he erede mid 
horsan : ac hyra fir is maest on J)aem gafole, J)e 5a Finnas him 
gylda5 ; y>tt?t gafol bi5 on deora fellum, and on fugela fe6- 
erum, and hwales bane, and on baem scip-rapum, ]>e beo5 of 
hwaeles hyde geworht, and of seoles. /Eghwilc gylt be hys ge- » 
byrdum : se byrdesta sceall gyldan fiftyne mearSes fell, and fif 
hranes, and an beran fel, and tyn ambra fe6ra, and berenne 
kyrtel o65e yterenne, and twegen scip-rapas ; sdgper sy syxtig 
elna lang, oJ)er sy of hwaeles hyde geworht, o})er of sioles. 

IG, He saede 6aBt nor5-manna land waere swv|>e lang and swy6e 40 
smael, Eal J^aet his man aj)er o86e ettan o68e erian maeg, J?aet 
liS wi6 6a sae ; and ]>aet is J>eah, on sumum stowum, swyoe clu- 
dig ; and licga5 wilde moras wi6 eastan, and wi6 upp on emn- 
lange ])aem bynum lande. On Jjaem morum eardia6 Finnas ; and 
|)cct byne land is easteweard bradost, and symle swa nor6or swa <» 


smslre. Eastewerd hit maeg bion syxtig mila brad, obbe 
hwene braedre ; and middeweard ])ritig o&fte bradre ; and noroe- 
weard, he cwaeS, ]7ser hit smalost waere, psdt hit mihte been 
yreorsL mila brad to ]78em more ; and se m6r sy5})an, on sumum 
5 stowum» swa brad swa man maeg on twam wucum oferferan ; 
and, on sumum stowum, swa brad swa man mseg on syx dagum 

17. Donne is to-enines Jjaem lande su5eweardum, on o6re 
healfe \>Bds mores, Sweoland, ob paet land norSeweard; and 

!• to-emnes J^aem lande norSeweardum, Cwena land, pa Cwenas 
hergia5 hwilum on 6a nor6-men ofer 8one mor. nwilum \>sl 
noro-men on hy ; and ]>aBr sint swiSe micle meras fersce geond 
})a moras; and beraS \>sl Cwenas hyra scypu ofer land on, 6a 
meras, and ]>anon hergia& on 8a nor6-men. Hy habba6 swy8e 

IS lytle scypa, and swy8e leohte. 

1 8. Ohthere saede paet sio scir hatte Halgoland, J^e he on 
bude. He cw8e6 ]^»t nfin man ne hude be nor6an him. ponne 
is fin port on su6eweardum psem lande, J>one man haet Sciringes 
heal, pyder he cwae6, Jxet man ne mihte geseglian on anum 

jt monSe, gyf man on niht wicode, and alee dsege haef de fimbyme 
wind ; and, ealle 6a hwfle, he sceal seglian be lande : — and, on 
\>xt steor-bord him, bi8 aerest [Isaland], and ]7onne 8a igland 
pe synd betux [Isalande] and }>issum lande. ponne is ]?is land 
o8 he cym8 to Scirincges heale ; and ealne weg, on J^aet baec-bord 

M Nor8weg. Wi6 su6an |)one Sciringes heal fyl8 swy8e mycel 
sae up in on 8aBt land : seo is bradre }?onne aenig man oferseon 
maege ; and is Gotland on o8re healfe ongean, and si88a Sill jn- 
de. Seo sse Ii8 ma^nig hund mila up in on j^a&t land. 

19. And of Sciringes heale, he cwaeS ]>?et he seglode on fif da- 
n gan, to J>aem portc ]>e mon haet aet H»J>um, se stent betuh 

Winedum, and Seaxum. and Angle, and hyr8 in on Dene. Da he 
biderweard seglode fram Sciringes heale, }>a waes him on J>aBt 
oaec-bord Denamearc ; and, on J^aet steor-bord, wid ssi }>ry 
dagas; and, p& twegen dagas aer he to HaB|>um come, him waes 
» on J)aBt steor-bord Gotland, and Sillende, and iglanda fela. On 
J^aem landum eardodon Engle, aer hy hider on land [comon]. 
And hym waes 8a twegen dagas, on 6aBt baec-bord, }>a igland, 
pe in Denemearce hyra8. 

20. Wulfstan saede ]^aet he gefore of H8e8um,— ^aet he waere 
^ on Truso on syfan dagum and nihtum, — ^]iaet^aet scip waes ealne 

weg ymende under segle. Weono8land him waes on steor- 
bord ; and on baec-bord him waes l.anga Ian J, and L»land, and 
Falster, and Sc6n eg ; and J)as land eall by ra6 to Denemearcan. 
And J)onne Burgenda land waes us on baec-bord, and ]>§, habbaS 
ii him sylf cyning. ponne aefter Burgenda lande, waeron us J^as 

22 KING ALFR£D*S OROSIUS; Book 1 : Ch. I f 20^22. 

land, l^a synd liatene ajrest Blecinga eg, and Meore, and Eow- 
land, and Gotland, on baec-bord; and|>as landhyraS to Sweon. 
And Weonodland waes us ealne weg, on steor-bord, o5 Wisle- 
mu6an. Seo Wisle is swyfte mycel efi, and hio toli5 Witland, and 
Weonodland; and Saet Witland belimpeft to E'stum ; and seo « 
Wisle li6 ut of Weonodlande, and li6 in E stmere ; and se Est- 
mere is huru fiftene mila brfid. ponne cymeS Ilfing eastan in 
Estmere of Seem mere, 6e Truso standeS in staSe ; and cumaS ut 
samod in E 'stmere, Ilfing eastan of Eastlande, and Wisle suSan 
of Winodlande ; and Jionne benimS Wisle Ilfing hire naman, and lo 
Hge5 of l^aem mere west, and norS on s^ ; forSy hit man haet 
Wisle-mu5a. paet Eastland *is swySe mycel, and |>8er bi5 swy5e 
manig burh, and on telcere byrig bi8 cyningc ; and J^aer bi5 swy8e 
mycel hunig, and fihca5 ; and se cyning and^ }>a ricostan men 
drincaS myran meolc, and ]^a unspedigan and J)a ]>e6wan i» 
drincaft medo. paer bi8 swy5e mycel gewinn betweonan him ; 
and ne bi5 Saer naenig ealo gebrowen mid E'stuui, ac J^aer bi5 
medo gen6h. 

21. And ]>edT is mid E "stum 5eaw, bonne ])aBr biS man dead, 
pjfit he H5 inne unforbaerned mid his magum and freondum «o 
monaS, — ^gehwilum twegen : and |>a [cyningas] and ba o6re 
heah-5ungene men, swa micle lencg swa hi maran speda nabba5, 
hwilum healf-gear, j^aet hi beo5 unforbaerned ; and licga5 bufan 
eor6an on hyra husum : and ealle ]>d hwile, ])e j^aet lie bi5 inne, 
J)aer sceal beon gedrync, and plega, 08 8one daeg, \>e hi bine « 

22. ponne, by ylcan daege, hi hine to })aBm Sde beran wylla5, 
]7onne todaelao hi his feoh, })aet j^aer to lafe bi8 aefter Jjaem 
gedrynce, and j^aem plegan, on fif o88e syx, hwylum on ma, 
swa swa J)aes feos gndefn biS. AlecgaS hit 8onne forhwaga m 
on anre mile }?one maestan dsel fram baem tune, ]7onne oSerne, 
8onne J^aene j^riddan, o]>]>e hyt eall aled bi8 on ])aere anre 
mile ; and sceall beon se laesta dael nyhst ])Sdm tune. 8e se deada 
man on li8. Donne sceolon beon gesamnode ealle 8a menn, 
8e swyftoste hors habba8 on j^aem lande, forhwaega on fif » 
milum, o88e on syx milum, fram jiaem feo. ponne aernaS hy 
ealle toweard |>aem feo : 8onne cyme8 se man, se ]}act swifte hors 
hafaS, to Jiaem aerestan daele, and to ])vevn maestan, and swa aelc 
aefter oSrum, o\> hit bi8 eall genumen ; and se nim8 J)one 
laestan dael, se nyhst })aem tune, ^aet feoh ge^meS : and ]?onne <• 
ride8 aelc hys weges mid 8an feo, and hyt motan habban eall ; 
and for8y J^aer beo8 J)a swiftan hors ungefoge dyre. And 
bonne hys gestreon beo8 })us eall aspended, J)onne byrS man 
nine ut, and forbaemeS mid his waepnum and hraegle : and 
s4vi8ost ealle hys speda h^ forspendaS, mid })an langan legere « 


]?ass deadan mannes inne, and }>a»s |)e hy be Jjaeni wegum 
al^cga5^]>e Safrcnidan toaernaS, andnimaS. 

23. And baet is mid Estum |>eaw, ])aet ])Sir sceal selces ge- 
fteodes man been forbaerned ; and, gyf })ar man Sn ban finde5 

s unforbasrnedt hi hit sceolan miclum gebetan. — And j^aer is mid 
E *astum fin maegS^ J)8Bt hi magon cyle gewyrcan ; and ]>y j>aBr 
liogaS ]>a deadan men swa lange, and ne fuliaS, j^aet hy wyrcaS 
|>oiie cyle hine on : and, peah man asette twegen faetels full 
eala8, o55e waeteres, hy gedoR J^aet oJ)er bi8 oferfroren, sam 

It hit sy sumor, sam winter. 

24. Nu wille we secgan be suSan Donua J^aere eS ymbe Creca 
laiid, [|>e] lib wyS eastan Constantinopolim, Creca byrig, is se 
sJB Proponaitis : and be norSan Constantinopolim, Creca 
byrig, scyt se s^-earm up of Jjaem sae west-rihte, ]>e man haet 

uEuxmus; and, be westan norSan j^aere byrig, Donua mu6a 
bare efi scyt su6-east ut on 8one sre Euxinus ; and, on su6- 
nealfe, and on west-healfe ]>aBs muftan, sindon Moesi, Creca 
leode; and, be westan J^aere byrig, sindon Traci; and, be 
eastan baere byrig, Macedonie : and, be su])an jjaere byrig, 

» on su5-nealfe ^aes saes eamies, \>e man haet Egeum, sindon 
Athena, and Corintus |)a land : and, be westan-suoan Corinton, 
is Archie ]>aBt land, ast J)aem Wendel-sae. pas land syndon Creca 
l^de. And be westan Achie, andlang ]?aes VVendei-sses, is Dal- 
matia ])aet land, on norS-healfe Jja^s saes ; and be norftan Dal- 

» watia sindon Pulgare, and Istria : and be su5an Istria is se 
^Vendel-sse, be man haet Atriaticum ; and be westan |>a beor- 
&^, \>e man naet Alpis ; and be nor5an j^aet westen, j^aet is betux 
Carendan and Fulgarum. 

25. ponne is Italia land west-nor5 lang, and east-su5 lang ; 
*♦ —and hit beli6 Wendel-sse ymb eall utan buton westan-norSan. 

-^t )}aBm ende, hit belicgaS 8a beorgas, J>e man haet Alpis : ))a 
J^ginnaS westane fram J^aem Wendel-sae, in Narbonense jjaere 
^ode and endia5 eft east in Dalmatia paem lande, aet }}aem sae. 
. 26. pa land pe man haet Gallia Bellica. — Be eastan |)aem 

» K sio efi, pe man haet Rm, and be suSan |)a beorgas ]>e man 
^^\ Alpis, and be westan-su5an se garsecg, ]>e man haet Brit- 
f^nisca; and be norSan, on o5re healfe )>aBS garsegges earme 
IS Brittannia ]7aet land. Be westan Ligore is -^quitania land ; 
and be supan .^quitania is J)aes landes sum dael Narbonense ; 

*• and, be westan-suSan, Ispania land ; and be westan garsegc. 
Be siiSan Narbonense is se Wendel-sse, J)aBr J^aer R6dan seo efi 
ut scyt; and be eastan him [Profentse], and be westan him 
[Protentse] of er 6a westenu, seo us nearre Ispania ; and be west- 
an him and norftan Equitania, and WSscan be norSan.^ Pro- 
« fentse haefS be norSan hyre |>a beorgas, ]>e man Alpis haet, and 

24 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS ; Book I: Ch. I | 27-31. 

be su5an hjTC is Wendel-s« ; and be norSan hyre and eastan 
synd Burgende, and Wascan be westan. 

27. Ispania land is ))ry-scy te, and eall mid fleote utan ymbhaef d, 
ge eac binnan ymbhaefd ofer 5a land, aegj^er ge of })aBm garsec- 
ge, ge of Sam Wendel-sae : fin Saera garena li6 su8-west ongean » 
baet igland, ]>e Gades hatte ; and o))er east ongean j^aet land 
Narbonense ; and se Sridda nor8-west ongean Brigantia Gallia 
burh, and ongean Scotland, ofer 6one saes earm, on geryhte 
ongean Jjsene muSan J>e mon haet Scene, Seo us fyrre Ispania, 
hyre is be westan garsecg, and be norftan ; Wendel-sre be suSan ; !• 
and be eastan seo us nearre Ispania; be norSan ]jaere synt 
Equitania ; and, be nor5an-eastan; is se weald Pireni, and be 
eastan Narbonense, and be su5an Wendel-sae. 

28. Brittannia baet igland : — hit is nor6-east lang, and hit is 
eahta hund mila lang, and twa bund mils brad, ponne is be i« 
suSan him, on o5re healfe ]?aes sses earmes, Gallia Bellica ; and 
on west-healfe, on o))re healfe baes sees earmes, is Ibernia Jjaet 
igland ; and, on norJS-healfe, Orcadus J^aet igland. Igbernia, 
J^aet we Scotland hata5, hit is on aelce healfe ymbfangen mid 
garsecge ; and for86n ]>e si6 sunne ))aer gaeS near on setl, ]7onne «• 
on o6rum lande, j^aer syndon lySran wedera, }>onne on Brittan- 
nia. ponne be westan-nor5an Ibernia is |>aet ytemeste land, paet 
man naet Thfla; and hit is feawum mannum cuS, for 5aere 
ofer-f)Tre. — Nfi haebbe we gesaed ymbe ealle Europe landt 
gemaero, hu hi tolicgaS. » 

29. Nu wille we ymbe Affrica, hfi 6a land-gemaero tolic- 
gaS. — Ure yldran cwaedon past hi6 waire se Sridda da^l pyses 
middangeardes : naes nfi forSfim pe paes landes swa fela waere, 
ac forSam pe se Wendel-s« hit haefS swa todaeled ; forSan pe he 
brycS swiSor on Sone suS-da&l, ponne he do on pone norS-dael ; » 
and sio hsete haefS genumen paes suS-daeles mare, ponne se 
cyle paes norS-daeles haebbe ; forSon pe aelc wiht maeg bet wyS 
cyle, ponne wiS haete ; for Sam pingon is Affrica, aegper ge on 
landum, ge on mannum, laesse Sonne Europe. 

30. Affrica onginS, swa we aer cwaedon, eastan westwerd « 
fram Eg}T)tum, aet paere ie pe man Nilus haet. ponne is sio 
eastemeste peod haten Libia Cirimacia ; hire is be eastan sio 
us nearre -^gyptus; and be norSan Wendel-s«, [and be 
suSan se6 peod], pe man haet Libia iEthiopicum ; and be westan 
Syrtes Maiores. « 

31. Be westan Libia iEthiopicum, is sio us fyrre iEgyptus ; 
and be suSan se garsecg pe man haet iEthiopicus; and be 
westan Rogathitus. Tribulitania, sio piod pe man oSre naman 
haet A'rzuges : — Hio haefS be eastan hyre pone Sirtes Maiores, 
and Rogathite pa land ; and be norSan pone Wendel-sae, pe 41 


man haet Adriaticum^ and }ja ]7eode \>e man haet Sirtes Minores ; 
and be westan Bizantium, ob bone sealtan mere ; and be suftan 
hyre Ngtabres, and Geothulas, and GaramSntes, o5 5one 

32. Bizantium sio J^eod, J^aer se beorh is Adrumetis, and 
Seuges, and sio J^iod J^aer sio mycle burh is Cartaina, and 
Numedia sio J^eod, Hi habbaS be eastan him j^aet land Syrtes 
Minores, and bone sealtan mere ; and be norSan him is Wen- 
del-sae; and oe westan him Mauritania; and be suSan him 
Uzera |>a beorgas; and be suSan ]>am beorgum J)a simbel-^ 
farendan iEthiopes, 06 8one garsecg. — Mauritania: — Hyre is 
be eastan Numedia ; and be norSan Wendel-s« ; and be westan 
Malua sio eS ; and be suSan Astrix, ymb 8a beorgas, |)a to- 

^aelaS }>aet [wsestmjbaere land and baet dead wylle sand, ]>e 
sy]7j7an li5 su6 on J)one garsecg. — Mauritania, ]>e man oj^re 
naman haet Tingetana : — Be eastan hyre is Malua sio efi, and 
be norSan Abbenas, ]7a beorgas, and Calpis, oj^er beorh, }>aer 
scyt se ende up of bam garsecge, betuh ban twam beorgum 
eastweard, J^aer Ercoles syla standa5 ; and oe westan him is se 

*• beorh Athlans, o5 8one garsecg; and suj^an 8a beorgas J>e 
man haet iEsperos ; and be suSan him Aulolum sio }>iod, 08 
8one garsecg. — Nu haebbe we ymb Affrica land-gemaerco 

33. Nu, wille we secgan ymb J)a ^gland, ]>e on J^a \Vendel- 
"ssd sindon.— Cipros })a3t igland, hit H8 ongean Cilicia, and 

Issaurio, on J)am saes earme, J)e man haet Mesicos ; and hit is 
an hund mila lang and fif and hund-syfantig, and an hund 
mila brad and twa and twentig. — Creto \>tet\ igland, him is be 
eastan se sae ]>e man Afratium haet ; and w^estan and be nor8ari 
•• Creticum se sae ; and be westan Sicilium, ]>e man o8re naman 
haet Addriaticum : hit is fin hund mila long and hund-syfantig, 
and fiftig mila brad. 

34. Dara iglanda, J)e mail haet Ciclades, |)ara sindon )>reo 
and fiftig : and be eastan him is se Risca ssc ; and be su8an se 

•• Cretisca ; and be nor8an se Egisca ; and be westan Addriati- 


35. Sicilia }>aet igland is 8ry*scyte. On aelces sceatan ende 
sindon beorgas : bone nor8-sceatan man haet Polores ; ])aer is 
seo burh neah Mesfina : and se su8-sceata hatte Bachinum ; 

•• baer neah is sio burh SiracussSna : and Jjone west-sceatan man 
naet Libeum, J^aer is sio burh neah ]>e man haet Libeum. And 
hit is an hund and syfan and fiftig mila lang, su8 and norS ; 
and se Jnidda sceata is an hund and syfan and hund-syfantig, 
west lang. And be eastan }>aem lande is se Wendel-sae, ]>e 

" man haet Adriaticum ; and be su|)an, J^am man haet Affricum ; 



26 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book I: Cii. II | 1, 2. 

and be westan, J)e man haet Tir^num ; and be norSan is se see, 
]>e negjjer is ge nearo ge hreoh, wi6 Italia bam lande. 

36. Sardina and Corsica ))a igland todasleS an lytel saes eann, 
se is twa and twentig mila brad. Sardina is ]^reo and pritti mila 
lang, and twa and twentig mila brad. Him is be eastan se Wen- » 
del-sae, J>e man baet Tirrenum, ]>e Tiber sio ea utscyt on ; and 
be suSan, se sse ]>e li5 ongean Numedia lande ; and be westan 
* a twa igland, \>e man haet Balearis ; and be norfian Corsica 

aet igland. 

37. Corsica, him is Rome burh be eastan ; and Sardinia be lo 
suSan ; and be westan J7a inland Balearis ; and be norSan Tus- 
cania })8et land. Hit is syxtenemila lang, and nygan mila 

38. Balearis, J)a tu igland, him is be norSan Affrica, and 
Gades be westan, and Ispania be norSan. — Scortlice haebbe we i* 
nu gesaed be 'pana [gesetenum] iglandum, ]>e on 6aem Wendel- 
sae sindon. 

[Boo I : Capitul II.] 

1. JE\ bfiem ))e Rome burh getimbred waere J^rim bund 
wintra, ana 5usend wintra, Ninus, Asyria kyning, ongan manna » 
aerest ricsian on Bysum middangearde ; and, mid ungemaetlicre 
gewilnunge anwaldes, he waes heriende and feohtende fiftig 
wintra, oo he haefde ealle Asiam on his geweald genyd, su6, 
fram J^aem Readan sse, and swa nor5, o)) }?one sae, ]>e man haet 
Euxinus ; butan )>aem be he eac oft-raedlice f6r mid miclum 2* 
gef 3ohtum on Sci55ie, oa nor5 land, J)a Be gecwedene syndon 
8a heardestan men-; }ieah by syn, on ]jyson worold-gesael))on, 
J7a (insped^estan ; and by 56, under 8aem be he him on winnende 
waes, wuraon gerade wig-craefta, J)eah hi aer hyra lif bylwetlice 
aljrfden. And h^ him aefter J>aem grimme forguldon }?one «• 
wig-cracft, ]>e hf aet him geleomodon; and him 5a wear5 
emleof, on hyra mode, J^aet by gesawon mannes blod agoten, 
swa him waes ]>ara nytena meolc, ]>e by maest bi libba5. And 
he Nmus Soroastrem, Bactriana cyning, se cu5e manna aerest 
dry-craeftas, he hine oferwann and ofsloh ; and }>a aet nyhstan » 
he waes feohtende wi5 Sci55ie on ane burh, and ])aer wearB 
of-scoten mid anre flane. 

2. And aefter his dea5e Sameramis his cwen fengc aegj^er ge 
to J)aem gewinne, ge to })aem rice ; and bio ]}aet ylce gewin, ^e 
bio hine on bespon mid manigfealdon firen-lustum, twa and^ 
feowertig wintra waes dreogende. And byre 5a gyt to lytel 
buhte })8es anwaldes 6e se cyningc aer gewunnen haefde ; ac 
nio mid wiflice ni6e waes feohtende on |>aet underiende folc 
iEthiopiam, and eac on Indeas, ]>& nixL man ne sir ne syBBau 


mid gefeohte ne gef6r buton Alexander. Hio waes wilniende mid 
gewinnum pddt hio hf ofers^viSde, 8a heo hit 5urhteon ne 
mihte. Sio gitsung ]>g, and ]}a gewin waron grimlicran ))onne 
h^ nu syn, forSon hy hyra nane bysene aer ne cuSan, swa men 
5 nu witon ; ac on bilwitnesse hyra lif alyfdon. 

3. Seo ylce cvven Sameramis, sy55an j^aet rice waes on byre 
gewealde, nales j^aet an J^aet hio [5yrstende] waes on symbel 
mannes blodes; ac eac swelce mid ungemetlicre wraennesse 
manigfeald geligre fremmende Avaes, swa |)aBt aelcne })ara pe hio 

10 geacsian myhte, Jjaet kyne-kynnes woes, hio to byre gespon for 
byre geligernesse ; and sy55an hio by ealle mid facne beswac to 
dea&e ; and ])a, aet nehstan, byre agene smiu bio genam byre to 
geligere ; and, forSon pe bio byre firen-luste f ulgan ne moste, 
butan manna bysmrunge, bio gesette ofer eall byre rice, ])8dt 

M nan forbyrd naere aet geb'gere betwuh nSnre sibbe. 

[Boc I : Capitul III.] 

1. iEr Sam ]>e Rome burb getimbred waere J)usend wintra 
and an bund and syxtig, |)aet waestmbaere land, on )>aem So- 
dome and Gomorre, 8a byrig, on waeron, bit wear8 fram beo- 

» fonlicum fyre forbaerned. past wags betub ArSbia and Palestina : 
6a manigfealdan waestmas waeron, forj^am swi)>ost 8e lord^nis, 
sio eS, aclce geare j^aet land middeweard oferfleow mid fotes 
Jrfcce flode ; and bit ))onne mid 8Sm gedynged wear8. 

2. pa waes baet folc J^aes micclan welpn ungemetlice bru- 
» cende, o8 Saet nim on se micla firen-lust on innan aweox ; and 

him com of j^aem firen-luste Godes wraco, ]}aet be eal }?aet land 
mid sweflenum fyre forbaernde ; and se8San 8aer waes standende 
waeter ofer ]?am lande, swa hit j^aere eS flod aer gefleow ; and 
|>jes daeles se [dsel], se jjaet flod ne gi'ette, ys gyt to daeg 
»«• waestmberende on aelces cynnes blaedum ; and 8a syndon 
swy}>e faegere and lustsumlice on to seonne ; ac, ]}onne big 
man on band nym8, ))onne weorSaS big to acxan, 

[Boc I : Capitul IV.] 

1. JEr 8aem ]>e Rome burb getimbred waere Susend wintra 
»and bund-syfantig, Tbelescises and Ciarsathi ba leode betub 
him gewin upbofon, and jjaet drugon op hi mid ealle ofslegene 
waeron, butan swi8e feawum. And swa beah \>sdt j^aer to lafe 
wearS J^ara Tbelescisa, hi biora land oi-geafan, and geforan 
RoSum, }>aBt igland, wilniende ]>vet hi aelcum ^ewinne o8flogen 
40 haefdon ; ac hi Creacas j^aer onf undon, and ni mid ealle f or- 

2tt RING ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book I : Cb. V f 1,2. 

[B6c I : Capitul V.] 
1. JEx ftam J>e Rome burh getimbred vvaere eahta hund 
wintra, mid Egyptum wearS syfan gear se ungemetlica eor8- 
wela ; and hi aefter Saem waeron on })an ma^stan hungre, oftre 
syfan gear. And him J)fi loseph, rihtwis man, mid godcunde f ul- c 
tumegehealp : — From Saem losepe S6mpeius,seh8eJ)ena scop, and 
his cniht lustinus waeran 8us singende : — Joseph, se ]>e [gingst] 
waes hys gebro5ra, and efic gleawra ofer hi ealle, baet him 6a 
ondraedendum f)aBm gebroSrum, hy genamon losepn and bine 
gesealdan cipe-monnum, and hi bine gesealdon in Egypta land. '^ 
Da saede he Sompeius, J^aet he J>aBr dr)^-craeftas geleornode ; 
and, of ]>a'm dry-craeftum, ba^t he gewunode monige wundor to 
^wyrcenne; and j^aet he milite swa wel swefn reccan; and eac 
J>aet he of 5aem craefte Pharaone J^aem cyninge swa leof wurde. 
And he snede |)aBt he of j^aem dry-craefte geleornode godcundne ^* 
wisdom, ]>aBt he Jjbbs landes waBStmbaernesse J)ara syfan geara 
cer beforan saede, and J)ara o]>era syfan geara waedle, J>e }>aer 
ffifter com ; and hu he gegaderode on J^an aerran syfan gearan 
naid hys wisdome, }>aBt he, J>a aefteran syfan gear, eall j^aet f olc 
gescylde wi5 J)one miclan hunger ; and saede ^aet Moyses waere ^ 
^aes losepes sunu; baet liim waeran fram hym dry-craeftas 
gecynde ; for5on be ne monige wundor worhte in Egyptum ; 
and for Jja^m [woiej, J)e on ]7aet land becom, se scop waes secgende 
))aet Egypti adrifen Moyses fit mid hys leodum ; for5on saede 
Sompeius and ]>a Egyptiscan bisceopas, J^aet j^a Godes wundor, " 
be on hiora landum geworden waeron, to J)on gedon baet hi 
niora agnum godum getealde waeron, }>aBt sint diofol-gilo, nales 

})am so5an Gode, forfion }>e hiora godu syndon dry-craefta 
areowas. And ]>a3t folc nii gyt }>aBt tacn losepes gesetnesse 
aefterfylgeafi, J)aet is, J^aet hi, geara gehwilce, }>one fiftan dael^o 
ealra hiora eorS-waestma |)iem cyninge to gafole gesylla5. 
2. Waes se hunger, on 5aes cyninges dagum, on Egyptum, 

t)e mon haet Amoscs, beah 8e hiora beaw waere J^aet hi ealle 
liora cyningas hetan Pharapn. On oaere ylcan tide ricsade 
Baleiis, se cyning, in Assirin, f)aer aer waes Ninus. On |)aem s* 
leodum, ])e mon A Vgi haet, ricsade A pis, se cyninge. On }>aere 
tide, naes nfi mS cyninga anwalda, butan ]>ysan ])nm ricum ; ac 
syf)}7an waes sio bysen of him ofer ealle world. Ac ]>aet is to 
wundrianne, ]inet ^a Egypti swa lytle ]>oncunge wiston losepe, 
}^aes ]>e he hi aet hungre ahredde, J)aet hi hys cyn swa rafie « 
geunaredon, and hy ealle to nydlingum him gedydon. Swa 
eac is gyt on ealre Wsse worulde ; J)eah God langre tide wille 
hwam hys willan to forlaetan, and he J)onne J)aes eft lytelre tide 
polige, ^oet he sona forgyt jjaet go a J)aet he aer haefde, and 
ge8enc5 j^aet yfel J^aet he J)onne haefS, « 


[B6c I : Capitul VL] 

1. Mr Saem J>e Rome burh getimbred waere eahta hund 
tvintra, and tyn gearan, ricsode Ambictio, se cyning, in Athena 
Creca byrig. He wses se ]7ridda cyning, ]>e aefter Cicrope, 
Jisent) cyninge, ricsade, J>e aerest waes Jjaere burge cyning. On 

»J>«s Ambictiones tide wurdon swa mycele waeter-flod geond 
ealle world, — and })eah niaest in Thas£ilia, Creca byrig, ymb 
Jia beorgas, Jje man haet Pamaslis, Jjaer se cyning Theuhaledn 
ricsode, — ^ddt forneah eall Jja*t folc forwearft. And se cyningc 
Theuhaleon ealle bfi J)e to nim mid scypum oSflugon to baem 

10 beorgum, he hi paer onfengc, and hi J)aBr afedde. Be paem 
Theuhale6n wabs gecweden, swilce mon bispel saede, J^aet he 
waere mon-cynnes tydriend, swa swa Noe waes. 

2. On ]7aem dagum waes se maesta man-cwealm in ^Ethiopian, 
Affrica leode ; swa baet heora feawa to lafe wurdon. — Eac, on 

14 baem dagum, waes paet Liber Pater oferwan ha underigendan 
Indea 5eode, and hi forneah mid ealle fordyae, aegjjer ge mid 
druncennysse, ge mid firen-lustum, ge mid man-slyhtum : J^eah 
hi liine eft aefter hys daege heom for God haefdon ; and h^ sae- 
don J>aet he waere ealles gewinnes waldend. 

M [Boo I : Capitul VII.] 

1. /Er Sam J)e Rome burh getimbred waere eahta hund 
'wiiitra, and fif wintrum, gewearS ]?aet Moyses laedde Israhela 
folc of Egyptum, aefter Jjtem manegum wundrum, J)e he ]>aBr 
gedon haefde. — ^paet waes ]?aet forme, J)aet hyra waeter wurdon 

« to blode. — ^pa waes |)aet aeftene, j^aet froxas comon geond eall 
Egypta lanci, swa fela J^aet man ne mihte nan weorc wyrcan, ne 
n&nne mete gegyrwan, }7aet })ara wyrma naere emfela baem 
mete aer he gegearwod waere. — pridde yfel waes aefter pani, 
}>cet gnajttas comon ofer eall ]?aet land, ge inne ge ute, mid 

»o fyr-smeortendum bitum, and aegSaer ge |)fi men ge Sa nytenu, 
unSblinendlice piniende waeron. — pa wajs ]?ffit feorSe, ]>aBt ealra 
scamlicost waes, paet hundes fleogan comon geond eall J)aet 
man-cyn ; and by crupon J)aem mannum betuh J)a ]7eoh, ge 
geond eall |}a limu, swa hyt eac well gedafenode, J)aet God 8fi 

w maestan oferinetto geni5rode mid J)aere bismerlicestan wrace and 
Jjaere unweorSlicostan.— pffit fifte waes hyra nytena cwealm. 
— paet syxte w«s, Jjset eall folc waes on blaedran, and J>S waeron 
swi5e hreowlice berstende, and J>a worms utsionde.— paet sy- 
fe5e wjes, ]?aet 5ser com hagol, se w»s wi5 fyre gemenged, }>aBt 

<ohe aegj^er slob ge 6a men ge 5a nytenu, ge eall j^aet on ]?aem 
lande wjes weaxendes and growendes.— pat eahtofte waes, J)aet 
g«rstapan comon, and fraeton ealle J^a g»rs-ci5as, ]?e bufan 


J>aBre eorSan waeron ; ge furfton J)a gaers-ciSas, and pa, wyrtru- 
man sceorfende waeron. — paet nygofte waes, ]>8Bt baer com hagol 
and swa mycel ]?ysternesse, ge dseges ge nintes, and swa 
gedrefedlic J^aet hit man gefelan mihte. — ]>est teo5e waes, J^aet 
ealle &a cnihtas and ealle 5a maedena^ ]>e on })aem lande frum- s 
cennede waeron, wiwdon on anre niht acwealde; and, J)eah 
^aet folc nolde {er Gode abugan, hy hwaeftre })S hyra unSances 
lim gehyrsume waeron : swa swy5e swa hi aer Moyse and hys 
:olce Jjaes utf aereldes wyrndon, swa micle hy waeron geornran 
J)aet hi him fram [flugen.] Ac seo hreowsung, ]>e him ]>& ge- lo 
wearS, swySe ra8e on wyrsan gej^anc gehwyrfed. Hraedlice 
se c}Tiingc \>S. mid his folcJ him waes aefter fylgende, and hjr 
gecyrran wolde eft to Egyptum. Se kyningc Pharon haefde 
syx hund wig-waegna, and swa fela })aes o8res heres waes, ]?8et 
man maeg ]>anon oncnawan, J^a him swa fela manna ondredon » 
swa mid Moyse waeron : baet waes syx hund }7usenda manna ! 
Hwae5re God J)fi mi clan Pharones menge gelytlode, and hyra 
ofermcetan ofennetto genySerode; and, beforan Aloyse and 
hys folce, he 8one Readan sse on twelf wegas adrigde; J^aet 
hi, drigan fotan, ))aene sae oferferdon. pa psdt gesawon ]>sl 20 
Eg>"pte, hy 5a getrymedon hyra dryas, Geames and Marabres, 
and getruwedon mid hyra dry-craeftum, j^aet hi on 5one ilcan 
weg feran meahtan. Da hi }>fi on innan baeni sa-faerelde 
waeron, \>a gedufon hi ealle, and adinincon. Daet tacn nu gyt 
is orgyte on ]>aes saes staSe, hwaer J^ara wig-waegna hweol » 
6n gongende waeron. paet de5 God to tficne eallum mon- 
kynne, baet J^eah hit ^vind o55e s»s flod mid sonde oferdrifen, 
J)aet hit oeah bi5 eft swa gesyne, swa hit aer waes. 

2. On }>aere tide, waes sio ofermycelo haeto on ealre worulde, 
nales |)aet fin }>aet men waeron miclum geswencte, ac eac ealle m 
nytenu swy5e neah forwurdon; and 5a suSmestan ^Ethiopian 
haefdon bryne for 5aBre haete; and SciWie }7a norSmestan 
haefdon ungewunelice haeton. pa haefaon monige unwise 
menn him to worde, and to leasung-spelle, }>aet sio haete naere 
for hiora synnum ; ac saedon ]>aet hio waere for Fetontis for- « 
scfipunge, fines mannes. 

[BocI: Capitul VIII.] 

1. Mr 5aem be Rome burh getimbred waere syx hund 
wintran and fif, m Egyptum, wearo on finre niht fiftig manna 
ofslegen, ealle fram hiora agnum sunum; and ealle 5a men 40 
comon fram twain gebro5ran. pa })is gedon waes, })a gyt ly- 
fedan 5a gebro5ra. Se yldra waes haten Danaus, \>e baes yfeles 
ord-fruma waes ; se wear5 of his rice adrsefed. Ana on A>ge 
paet land he fleonde becom. And his se cyning J)»r Tenelaus 


mildelice onfeng ; })eah he hit him eft mid yfele forgulde, ]?a 
he hine of his rice adraefde. 

2. On Jjaem dagum on Egyptan waes J^aes kyninges J)eaw 
BosiriSis, Jjset ealle J)a cuman, ]>e hine gesohton, he to blote 

• gedyde, and his g;odum bebead. — Ic wolde nu, cwaeS Orosius, 
psdt me 5a geSndwyrdan, ]>a J)e secga5 baet J)eos world sy nu 
wyrse on 8ysan Cristendome, }>onne hio aer on J^aem h^- 
Jjenscype, waere, })onne hi swylc geblot and swylc morft donde 
waeron swylc ic her aer beforan saede. Hvvsir is nfi on asnigan 

10 Cristendome, betuh him sylfum, Jjaet mon him Jjurfe swilc 
ondraedan, Jjaet hine mon aenigiim godum blote! o8Se hwa?r 
syndon ure godas, ]>e swylcra mgna gjTnen, swilce hiora 
wssron ! 

3. On J?aem dagum Perseus, se cyningc, of Creca lande in 
i> Asiam mid fyrde for, and on fta fteode winnende waes, oj) hi 

him gehyrsume waeron ; and J^aere J)eode o]?eme naman asc6p 
be him syluum, swa hi mon sy56an het Persi. 

4. Ic wat geare, cwaeS Orosius, Jjaet ic his sceal her fela ofer- 
hebban, and })a spell J^e ic secge ic hi sceal gescyrtan, — for5on 

f]>e Asyrie haefdon LX wintra and an hund and an J)usend, 
under fiftigan cyninga rice, — ]^aet hit nfi buton gewlnne naes, 
oJ> baet Sar5an6polim ofslegen wearS, — and se anwald sift&an 
on MaeSe gehwearf. Hwfi is J^aet \>e eall 5a yfel, be hi donde 
vraeron, asecgean maege o55e areccean ! — Eac ic wille geswigian 

15 Tontolis, and Philopes,)?ara scondlicestena spella ; — hu manega 
bismerlica gewm Tontolus gefremede, sy55an he cyningc 
^^s . — ymb ]^one cniht ]>e he neadinga genSm GanemS]>is ; — 
and hu he his agenne sunu his godum to blote acwealde, and 
hine him sylf si66an to mete gegyrede. — ESc me sceal aSreotan 

M ymbe Philopes, and ymbe Tardanus, and ynib eaha }>ara 
Troiana gewin to ftsecgenne, for56n on spellum and on leo5- 
um hiora gewin cuj^e sindon. Ic sceall efic ealle forlaetan, ]^a 
be of Perseo and of Cfithma gesaede syndon ; and eSc ]7a ]>e of 
Thebani, and of Spartani gesaede syndon. Eac ic wille geswi- 

« gian J>ara mSn-daeda )?ara Lemnia5um, and Ponthionis, Jjaes 
cyninges, hu hreowlice he wear6 adraefed of Othinentium, his 
agenre j^eode; and A'tregsas and Thiges]?res hu hi heora 
faederas ofslogan, and ymb hiora hetelican forlignessa, ic hit 
eall forlaete. Eac ic hit forlaete Adipsus, hu he aegj^er ofsloh 

4«ge his agenne faeder, ge his steop-feder, ge his steop-sunu. 
On J?aem dagum, waeron swa [ungemetlicaj yfel, J^aet ^fi men 
sylf saedon, — Jjaet hef ones tungul hiora yfel f lugon. 

[B6c I : Capitul IX.] 

1. Mr 5am 5e Rome burh getimbred waere syx hund wntrum 

32 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book I: Ch. X, f 1, 2. 

and syxtygum, wearS J^aet ungemetHce mycle gefeoht betweoh 
Cretense, and Atheniense, J^aem folcum. And })a Cretense 
haefdon ftone grimlican sige, and ealle pa aej^elestan beam )?ara 
Atheniensa hy genamon, and sealdon Jjsem Minotafiro to 
etanne, J^aet waes nealf mann healf leo. ^ • 

2. On ]>Bdm dagum waes J^aet [Lapithe] and Thesali waeron 
winnende him betweonan. ponne ba [Lapithe] gesavvon The- 
saK ))aBt folc, of hiora horsan, beon feohtende \vi6 hi, ]>ont\e 
hetan hi hi Centauri, baet syndon healf hors, and healf men ; for- 
oon 'pe hi on horse feohtan ne gesawon ser ]>§u >• 

[Boc T: Capitul X.] 

1. Mr Saem 5e Rome burh getimbred waere feower hund 
wintran and hund-eahtatigum, Uesoges, Egj'pta cyning, wees 
winnende of suS-daele A^siam, 08 5e him se maesta dael wearS 
under5eoded. And he Uesoges, Egypta cyning, wees sy85an i« 
mid fyrde farende on Sci58ie on 5fi norS-daelas, and his serend- 
racan beforan asende to Jjaere Jjeode, and him untweogendlice 
secgan het, pest hi o5er scoldon, — o55e ]?aet land set him alysan, 
oS8e he hi wolde mid gefeohte ford6n and forhergian. Hy him 
]>& gescad>vislice andwyrdon and cwsedon, — " Jjaet hit gemShlic «o 
waere, and unrihtlic beet swa oferwlenced cyning sceolde win- 
nan on swa earm folc swa hi waeron/* Hetan him 5eah j^aet 
findwyrde secgan, — psdt him leofre waere wi8 hine to feohtanne 
Jjonne gafol to gvldenpe. Hi J^aet gelaeston swa, and sona 8one 
cyningc geflymaon mid his folce, and him aefter folgiende** 
waeran, and ealle Egypta aweston, butan ]>Bdm fen-landum 
finan. And J)a hi hamweard wendon be westan Jjsere eS Eu* 
frate. Ealle A^siam hy genyddon J^aet hi him gafol guidon, 
and pxr waeron fift^ne gear psdt land hergiende and westende, 
op hiora wif him sendon aerend-racan aefter, and him saedon, *• 
" ]>aet hi o8er dydan : — oj)be ham come, oJ})?e hi him woldan 
ooerra wera ceosan.** — Hi pa j^aet land forleton, and him hSm- 
weard ferdon. 

2. On Jjaere ylcan tide, wurdon twegen aej^elingas aflymde of 
Sci88ian, Plenius and Scolopetius waeran hatene ; and geforan » 
bast land, and gebudon betweoh Capadotiam and Pontum, neah 
oaere laessan AsiSm ; and Jjaer winnende waeron, ob past hi him 

}7aer eard genamon ; and hi baer, aefter hraedlice tioe, fram baem 
and-leodum J>urh se£ira 6fslegene i^iirdon. pfi wurdon hiora 
wif swa sgrige on hiora mode and swa swi81ice gedrefed, aegj)er « 
ge }7ara ae]>elinga wrf, ge J)ara oj^erra manna, pe mid him ofsle- 
gene waeran, }7aet hi waepna naman, to p6n ^aet hi heora weras 
wrecan 8ohtan ; and hi 8fi hraedlice aefter ]^aem ofslogan ealle 8a 
waepned-menn, pe him on neaweste waeron. For86n h^ dydon 




f £3 

^ c H t 

^ § s tl ^ s--^ * *> 

i S 5 ^ ** 6 




swfi, }>e hi woldon J)flet J)a o5re wif waeran emsarige heom, Jjaet 
hi sy})})an on him fultum hsefdon^ J^aet hi m& meahton hyra 
weras wrecan. Hi 6a ]>sl wif ealle togaedere gecyrdon, and on 
" aet folc winnende waeron, and J)a waepned-men sleande^ ob hi 
aes landes haefdon mycel on hiora anwealde. pa under oaem 
gewinne, hy geniLman fri5 wi8 8a waepned-men. SyftSan waes 
hiora fteaw, baet hi, aelce geare ymbe twelf monaS, tosomne 
ferdon, and paer 5onne beama stryndon. Eft }7onne J)a wif 
heora beam [cendon], bonne feddon hi ba maeden-cild, and 
'• slogon }>a hyse cild : ana J^aem maeden-cildan hi fortendon J^aet 
swy})re breost f oran, baet hit weaxan ne sceolde, J^aet hi haef dan 
by strengran scyte ; forSon hi mon bet on Creacisc Amazan£[s, 
paet is on Enghsc f6rt€nde. 

3. Hiora twS waeran heora cwena, Marsepia and Lampida 
*• waeran hatene. H^ hyra here on twa todaeldon ; — oJ)er aet 

h&n beon hiora land to healdenne, — o}7er utfaran to \vin- 
nanne. Hf sy58an ge-eodon Europam, and Asiam J)one 
maestan dael, and getimbredon Effesum ]?a burh, and monige 
o8re on baere laessan Asiam; and sij)}>an hiora hSres 5one 

■• maestan aael ham sendon mid hiora here-h^5e, and }>one 
o8erne dael J^aer leton baet land to healdenne. paer wear5 
Marsepia, sio cwen, ofslagen, and mycel J^aes heres ]>e mid 
hyre baeftan waes. paer wear5 hyre dohtor cwen Sinope. Sio 
ylce cwen, Sinope, to-eacan hyre hwsetscype and hire moni- 

** fealdum duguftum, hyre lif ge-endode on maegShade. 

4. On Jjaem dagum waes swa mycel ege fram baem wifman- 
nan, Jjaet Europe ne A'sia, ne ealle ba neah {leoaa, ne mihtan 
aj^encan, ne acraeftan, hu hi him wiostandan mihtan, 8er5on hi 
gecuron Ercol })one ent, baet he him sceolde mid eallan Creaca 

•• craeftum beswican. Ana }>eah ne dorste he geneSan }>aet he 
hi mid fyrde gefore, aer he ongan mid Creaca scypum, ^e mon 
Dulmdnus hset, pe man seg5 })aet &n scip maege an }>usend 
manna : and ]>a nihtes on ungearwe hi on bestael, and hi swiSe 
forsloh and fordyde : and hwaej^ere ne meahte hi J^aes landes 

»* benaeman. On })aem dagum, J>aer waeron twa cwena, }>a 
waeran gesweostra, Anthiopa and Orithia; and J^aer wearS 
Orithia gefangen. ^Efter hyre [feng] to |)apm rice Pentesilia, 
si6, on |)aem Troianiscan gefeohte, swi5e maere gewearS. 

5. Hit is scondlic, cwaeS Orosius, ymb swylc to sprecanne 
•• hwylc hit j^a waes, \>i swfi earme wif [and swa elSeodge haefdon 

gegan J>one craeftgestan dael, and ]>a hwatestan men ealles 
bises middangeardes, J^aet waes Asiam and Europe, pa hie 
fomeah mid-ealle aweston, and ealda ceastra and ealde byrig 
towurpon: and aefter Baem hie dydon aegj}er ge cyninga ricu 
**settan, ge niwu ceastra timbredon; and ealle J)a worold, on 


34 KING ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book 1: Ch. XI f 1. 

liiora agen gewill onwendende waeron, folneah C. iiintra. 
And swa geniune men waeron aelces broces, j^aette hie liit fol- 
neah to nanum facne, ne to nanum laSe naefdon, ]^8ette pa 
earman \nfmen hie swa tintredon.] 

6. And nfi 8a ]>a Gotan coman of 5ani hvvatestan mannan » 

GerniSnia, J^e aeg 
Alexander, ge lu! 
ondredon, j^aet hi 

>er ge Pirrus, se ve5a Creaca cyningc, ge 
ius, se craeftiga Casere, hi ealle from him 
li mid gefeohten sohte. — Hu ungemellice ge 
RomwSre ! bemurcnia5 and besprecaS, [j^aet] eovv n(i wyrs sie 
on ]>ysan Cristendome, Jjonne J^aem J)eodum J}a ware, foroon b& lo 
Gotan eow hwon oferhergodan, and eowre burh abraecon, and 
eower feawe ofslogan ! And*, for hiora craeftum and for hiora 
hwffitscype, eowra selfra anwaldes eowres un5ances habban 
mihtan, ])e nu lustlice sibsumes fri5es, and sumne dael landes 
set eow biddende syndon, to J)on Jja^t hi eow on fultume beon i» 
moton. And hit &r ftysan genoh aemetig laeg and genoh weste 
and ge hys nane note naefdon. Hu blindlice monige ))eoda 
spreca5 ymb )?one Cristendom, Jjaet hit nu wyrse sy ponne hit 
aer waere; — ]>3dt hi nellaS gebencan, o55e ne cunnan, hwaer 
hit gewurde aer 52em Cristendome, l^aet aenig |)eod o8re hyre «o 
willum fri5es baede, buton hyre J^earf waere ; o55e hwaer aenig 
5eod aet o8re myhte fri5 begitan, oppe mid golde, oftSe mid 
seolfre, oppe mid aenigan feo, butan he him under5eoded waere. 
Ac sySSan Crist geboren waes, ]>e ealles middan geardes is sibb 
and fri5, nales J)aet fin baet men hi mihtan alysan mid fe6 of » 
5eowdome,ac eac Seoaa him betweonan, butan Seowdome, 
gesilsume waeran. Hu wene ge hwylce sibbe ]>sl weras haef • 
don aer 8aem Cristendome, bonne hiora wif swa monigfeald }^el 
donde waeron on Sysan middangearde ! 

[Boc I: Capitul XL] w 

1. iEr Sam 5e Rome burh getimbred waere feower hund win- 
tran and |)ritig wintra, gewearS baet Alexander, Priamises sunu, 
baes cyninges, of Troiana j^aere oyrig, genara jiaes cyninges wif 
Monelaus, of Laecedemonia Creaca byrig, Elena, Ymb hi 
wearS })aet maere gewin, and ]>a miclan gefeoht Creaca and» 
Troiana ; swa Jjaet Creacas haefdon M. scipa j^ara miclena dul- 
muna ; and him betweonura gesworan, Jjaet hi naefre noldan on 
cy55e cuman, aer hi heora teonan gewraecon. And hi 8a tyn 
gear ymb 8a burh sittende waeron and feohtende. Hwg is J^aet 
ariman maege hwaet J^aer moncynnes for\vear8, on vegpre hand, «• 
baet Omerus, se scop sweotelicost, saede ! For86n nis me Jiaes 
pearf, cwaeS Orosius, to secgenne, forSon hit langsum is, and 
eac monegum cuS. peah swa hwilcne mon swa lyste baet 
witan, raede on his bocum, hwilc ungetima, and hwilce tiber- 


nessa, 5Eg))er ge on nion-slyhtan, ge on hungre, ge on scip- 
gebroce, ge on nnsllcre forsceapunge, swa mon on spellum sego. 

2. pa folc him betweonum fuUe tyn winter \>a, gewinn 
wrecende waeron : geSence Sonne J)ara tida, and nu }>yssa, 

• hwaejjer him bet lycian ! 

3. Da sona of Sam gefeohte waes dper aefter fylgende. 
Eneas mid hys fyrde for of Jjaem Troaniscan gefeohte in ItS- 
liam; ]>Bdt maeg man eac on bocum sceawian, hu manega 
gewinn, and hu manega gefeoht he Jjaer dreogende waes. 

[Boc I : Capitul XIL] 

1. JEt 8aem Se Rome burh getimbred waere feower and 
syxtig wintra, ricsade Sar]?andp61us, se cyning, in Asiria, J^aer 
Ninus se cyningc aerest ricsade, and SarSanapulus waes se si5- 
mesta cyningc, \>e on l^aem lande ricsode. He waes swiSe 

*• furSumlic man, and hnesclic, and swySe wraene, swa baet he 
swi5or lufade wifa gebaera, }>onne waepned-manna. yaet ba 
onfunde Arbatus his ealdor-man, ]>e he geset haefde oier Me- 
5as J>aet land, he ongan sirwan mid ]>am folce J)e he ofer waes, 
hii he hine beswican mihte, and aspeon him fram ealle, ]?a ]>e 

•• he ondred }7aet him on fylste beon woldon. pa se cvning baet 
onfunde, )?aet him man geswicen haefde, he b& hme sylfne 
forbaemde; and sy55an haefdon Mae5e onwald ofer Asirie. 
Hit is unySe to secgenne hii manega gewin sySSan vva^ran be- 
tuh MseSum, and Caldeum, and SciSoian ; ac ]>aet mon maeg 

•• witan, |>onne swa ofeminetlicu ricu onstyrede waeron, hu manige 
missenlice mon-cwealmas on ]>am [gewinnum] gewurdon. 

2. JEher 5cBm ricsade Fraortes, se cyningc in Me5en. 
^fter 5em Fraorte ricsode Diodes, se Maepia rice swiSe gemi- 
clade. iEfter Sam Diocle feng Astiai to rice, se njefde naenne 

•• sunu ; ac he nam his nef an him to suna of Persan ]>aere Seode, 
Cirus waes hSten ; se JjS mid ]?on ]>e he geweox, him ]?a ofSin- 
cendum and J)am Perseum, })aBt hi on his eames anwalde 
waeron, and on Sara MeSa, hi gewin uphofon. He Sa Astiai se 
cyngc beSohte swiSost to Aq)elles his ealder-men, J^aet he, 

•* mid hys craefte, his nefan mid gefeohte wiSstode ; forSon ])e 
se cyngc ne genlunde J^ara manegra teonena, \>e hiora aegj^er 
oSrum on eer dagum gedyde ; and hu se cyningc bet hys sunu 
ofslean, and hyne sySSan ]>aem faeder to mete ge^yrwan. 
peah hiora gewinn ]>d gesemed waere. He Sa se ealder-man 

*• mid fyrde for ongean Jjaem Perseum, and sona ]>tBs folces ]>one 
maestan dael fleonde mid ealle forlasdde, and mid searwe J^aem 
Perseo cyninge on Snwald gedyde; and, on ]>am gefeohte, 
MaeJ>a craeft and hiora duguS gefeol. 

3. pa se cyning ]7set facn onfunde, ]?e se ealder-man wiS 

36 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS, Book I: Cm. XU. f 4, 5. 

hine gedon haefde, he 5eah gegaderode ]7one fultum, pe he )>& 
mihte, and wi5 J^am nefan fyrde gelsedde : And he Cirus, Persa 
cyningc, hsefde ]7riddan dael hys fyrd baeftan him, on pxt 
gerad, gif »nig wcere J^e fyr fluge, \>e on J>aBm gefeohte waes, 
^onne to ]78em folce pe bser bsttan wees, ))8et hine mon sloge » 
swa ra5e swa mon hiora lynd wolde. pa }>eah hwaejiere geby- 
rede him, beet hi hwset hwara geb%an to fleonne. Hi \f6, 
hiora wif him ongean yrnende [waeron; and] h^ swi5e torn 
w^rdon, and ahsedon ; gif hi feohtan ne dorstan, hwider hi 
fleon woldon : — J^aet hi ooer gener naefdon, baton h^ on hyra lo 
wifa hrif gewiten. Hi 6a hrsdlice, sefter }>aBm J>e p& wif hi 
swa scancUice geraeht hs^fdon, gfewendon eft ongean ))one 
cyning, and ealne hys here geflymdon, and hine syune gefen- 
gon. He ])& Cirus ageaf \>xm cyninge hys eame ealle ^a &re 
\>e he aer hsfde, butan psdt he cyngc naere : and he psdt waes » 
eall forsacende, for&on pe him Aqiellas, se ealdor-man, ser to 
biswice wearft mid hys agenre ]7eode. Ac him Cirus his nefa 
gesealde IrcSniam 5a ]>eode on anwald to habbenne. paer 
wear5 Mae]7a onwald geendod : ac Cirus mid Perseum to baem 
anwalde feng. Ac JS& b^rig, \>e on monegum ]7eodum Maeoum >o 
&r gafol guidon, wurdon Ciruse to monegum gefeohtum. 

4. On Jjaem dagum wilnade sum aej^elingc to ricsianne in ' 
Argentine, baere ]7eode, Falores waes haten. He waes of [Si- 
cilia] l^aem lande, and mid ungemetlicre pinunge he waes jaet 
folc cwilmende, to 5on J^aet hi him anbugon. — \>a waes ^aerw 
sum arge6tere, se mihte d6n missenlica anlicnessa. He bk se 
geotere gebead J^aerj aej?elinge, forSon \>e he him c\\eman 
bohte, Jjaet he him aet J^aere pinunge fylstan wolde, ]>e he J^aem 
lolce donde waes. He ]>& swa dyde, and geworhte anes fearres 
anlicnesse of Sre to 86n, ))onne hit hfit wacre, and mon 8a so 
earman men on innan d6n wolde, hu se hlyn maest waere, 
J>onne hi j^aet susl J^aer on browiende waeron ; and eac J>aet se 
eD]>elingc a)g})er h»fde se his plegan, ge his gewill, ]7onne he 
Sara manna tintrego oferhyrde. pS ^aet )>fi onheet waes, and 
eall gedon swa se geotere J^aem »beHnge ar behet, se ae)}elingc 33 
|)»t pa sceawode, and cwaeS : — ** paet j^aem weorce nanum men 
&r ne gerise bet to fandienne, })onne J)am wyrhtan J>e hit 
M'orhte,**^ — Het hine J^a niman, and Jjaer on bescufan. 

5, For hvvi [bespreca5] nu men J)as Cristenan tida, and 
8ecga5, baet n(i wyrsan tida syn, J^onne y& waeran, p& J)eah [pe] 40 
h\\& waere mid j^am cyningum, on hiora gewill yfel donde, 
J)(et hi swa 6eah aet him ne meahton mid by nane fire findan ? 
And nu cyningas and Caseras, J^eah [\>e] hwS wi5 hiora willan 
gegylte, hi J>eah for Godes lufan, be ^aes gyltes maeBe, forgif- 
nesse do5, u 


[Boc I : Capitul XIIL] 

1. JEr Sam fte Rome burh getimbred waere- })ritig wintra 
wass J)8Bt Pelopensium and Athenientium, Creaca J^eoda, mid 
eallum hiora craeftum, him betweonum winnende waeron ; and 

« hi to }S6n swi5e forslegene wurdon on aegSre hand, j^aet heora 
fegwe to lafe wurdon. On J>aBre ylcan tide, waeron eft oJ)re 
sifte |)a wifmen winnende on A^siam, \>q aer on Sci86ian waeron, 
and hi swySe awestan and forhergodan. 

[Boc I : Capitul XIV.] 

10 1 . JEr 5aem 8e Rome burh getimbred wsere twentigum wiu- 
trum, Lsecedemonie and MesiSne, Creaca leode. him betweonum 
winennde waeran twenti wintra, forSon MesiSne noldon J)aet 
Laecedemonia maegden-men mid hiora ofreden, and hiora go- 
dum onsaegden. Da aet nyhstan hi haefdon getogen eall Creaca 

15 folc to J>aBm gewnnum, \>a Laecedemonian besaeton |)a burh 
[Maesiane] tyn winter ; and a5as gesworan, baet hi naefre nol- 
.dan aet ham cuman, aer hi J)a?t gewrecen haefdon. Da raeddan 
hi him betw*eonum,and cwaedon, Jjaet hi to ra5e woldon f ultum- 
lease beon aet hiora bearn-teamum, Jja hi Jjaer swa large ))ohton 

20 to beonne, and [J)aet] mid hiora weddum gefaestnod haefdon ; 
and Jjaet hi hiora feondum bet dyde ]^onne wyrs. Mid bam 
gecwaeden }>S, []>aet] ]>a, be aer aet }>aem aSum naere, Jjaet pa. nam 
[gelendon], and be eallan hyra wHfum [bearna striendon]. 
And 8a dpre sittende waeran ymb 5a burh, o5 hi hy gewunnene 

M haefdcm ; Jjeah hi him lytle hwile gehyrsume waeron. 

2. Ac gecuran him aenne scop to cyninge of Atheniensem ; 
and eft mid f^rde fdran wi5 ])a Messene. pa hi him nela^hton, 
J>a getweonode hi hwaej^er hi wi5 him [maehten]. Se hiora 
cyning ongan 5S singan and giddian ; and mid bam scop-leo5e 

30 hiora mod swiSe getrymede, to 56n baet hi cwaeuon J^aet hi Me- 
si^na folce \vi&standan [mehten] : neora 5eah wurdon feawe 
to lafe on a8re hand; and Jjaet Creaca folc fela geara him 
betweonan dreogende waeron, aegber ge of Laecedemonia, ge of 
MesiSne, ge of Boetium, ge of Athenientium ; and monige o5ra 

» 5i6da to ]7am ilcan gewinne getugon. 

3. Nu is hit [scortlice] ymb j^aet gesaed, ]>aet aer gewearS aer 
Rome burh getimbred waere, J^aet waes, fram fr}^m8e middan- 
geardes, feower 5usend wintra and feower hund and twa and 
hund eahtatig; and, aefter 5aem ])e hi6 getimbred waes, waes 

♦o ures drihtenes [acennes] ymb syfan hund wintra and tyne. 
Her enda5 sio forme boc, and ongin5 sio aeftere. 


[B6c II : Capitul L] 

1. Ic wene, cwseS Orosius, Saet nSn wis man ne s^, butan he 
genoh geare wite, Baet God Jjone cerestan man rihtne and 
go^dne gesceop, and [eal] man-cynn mid him. And for&on be 
he baet go'd forlet, ]>e him geseald waes, and wyrse geceas, hit 
God sybban langsumlice wrsecende wses ; aerest on him [self um,] * 
and syooan on his bearnan„geond ealne Sysne middangeard, 
mid monigfealdum brocum and gewinnmn : ge eac J)as eorSan, 
J)e ealle cwice \vihta bi lihba5, calle hire waestmbaero he gely- 
tlade. Nu we witan j^aet ure drihten us gescop : we witan edc 
baet he ure reccend is, and us mid [ryhtlicran lufan] kifa5 *• 
ponne aenig mon. Nu we witan ]>aet ealle anwaldas from him 
syndan : we witan efic, ]>sdt ealle ricu syndan fram him ; for56n 
ealle anwaldas of rice syndon. Nu he 5ara laessena rica rec- 
cend is ; hu micle swiSor wene we j^aet he ofer j^a maran sy, 
]>e on swa ungemetlicum anwealdum ricsedan. " 

2. A"n waes Babylonicum, J^aer Nmus ricsade : — paet oj^er 
waes Creaca, J^aer Alexander ricsade : — Dridda waes Alfricanum, 
J^aer Phtolome ricsedon : — Se feorSa is Romane, ]>e gyt ricsi- 
ende sindon. pas feower [heafod-ricu] sindon [on feower" 
endum] )?yses middangeardes, mid unasecgendlicre Godes 
tacnunge. past Babylonicum waes ]>vet forme, and on easte- 
werdum : — ^paet aeftere waes Jjaet Crecisce, and on norSewer- 
dum. — poet Jjridde w aes paet Affricanum, and on suSeweardum. 
1?aet feorSe is Romane, and on westeweardum. Babylonisce " 
^aet aereste, and Romane J)aet siSmeste, hi w^aeran swa faeder 
and [sunu], J)onne hi hiora w'illan mo tan well wealdan. paet 
Crecisce and J)aet Affricanisce waeran swa sw^a hi him hyrsu- 
medon, and him underSeoded waere. paet ic wille eSc gescfid- 
wislicor gesecgan, J)aet hit man geonior ag^tan maege. •• 

3. Se aeresta cyning waes Ninus hfiten, swa we aer beforan 
saedan : J)a hine mon [ofslog], J)a feng Sameramis his cwen to 
J)aem rice, and getimbrede ]>vl burh Babylonie, to bon j^aet hio 
w-aere heafod eallra Asiria ; and hit fela wintra si5oan on baem 
stod, o5 \>vet ArbStus Me5a ealdor-man SarSanapolum Babylonia -* 
cyningc ofsloh. pa wearS Babylonia and Asiria anwald 
ge-endod, and gehwearf on MeSas. On ])aem ylcan geare, \)e 

{ns waes, Procos, Numetores faeder, ongan ricsian in Italia J^aem 
ande, Jjaer eft Rome burh getimbred wear5. Se Prdcos waes 
Numetores faeder and Mulieses, and waes SiluiSn earn. Sio *• 
Sfluie waes Semuses modor and Romules, \>e Rome burh ge- 



timbredon. — paet wille ic gecySan, J^aet })a ricu of nanes mannes 
mihtum swa gecraeftgSde ne wurdon, ne for iianre wyrde 
butan fram Godes gestihtunge. 

4. Ealle stfler-wTiteras secgeaS, Jjset Asiria rice aet Ninuse 
• begunne ; and Romana rice ajt Proc6se begunne. Fram bflem 

aerestaa geare Ninuses rices, o\> J^aet Babilonia burh getimored 
waes, wseran feower and syxtig wintra : efic of baem ilcan geare 
6e Pr6cos ricsode in Itfilia waeran eac swylce feower and 
syxtig wintra, aer nion Rome burh getimbrede. py ylcan 

''' geare }>e Romana rice weaxan ongan, and myclian, on Procos 
dsege j^aes cyninges, 6y ylcan geare gefeol Babylonia and eall 
Asiria rice and hiora anwald. iEfter Bsem be mon hiora 
cyningc ofsloh SarSanopolum, si56an haefdon Caldei J)a land 
geb(in on freodome, J)e nyhst ]?aere byrig wceron, ]>eah [pe] 

** M&8e haefde })one anwald ofer hi, 08 oaet Cirus Persa cyning 
ricsian ongan, and ealle Babylonia aweste, and eall Asirie and 
ealle Maeoe on Persa anwald gedyde. paet ]>a swa gelamp J)aBt 
on Jjaere ylcan tide pe Babylonia J^eowdome onfeng fram Uiruse 
}>aBm cyninge, }>8Bt [Roma] alysed wearft of Seowdome pan, 

•• unrihtwisestena cyninga and Sara oferraodgestena, pe mon het 
Tarcuinie ; and pa J^aet east-rice in Asiria gefeoU, })a eac }?aBt 
west-rice in Romana ards. 

5. Gyt sceall ic, cwaeS Orosius, manigfealdlicor sprecan wi5 
5a J>e secgaS, j^aet M anwaldas syn of wyrda maegenum gewor- 

■• dene, nales of Godes gestihtunge. H(i emlice hit gelamp ymb 
8as twa heafod-ricu, Asiria and Romana, swa swa we &r saedon, 
J^aet Ninus ricsade on [8on] east-rice twa and fiftig \vintra; 
and aefter him his cwen, Saineramis, twa and feowertig wintra; 
and on middeweardmn hyre rice hio getimbrede Babylonia ]>a 

••burh. Fram Jjaem geare pe heo getimbred wearS, waes hyre 
anwald ))usend wintra and an hund and syxtig and fulneah 
feower, ser hio hyre anwaldes benumen wurde and beswicen 
fram ArbSte hyra agenum ealdor-men, and Me8a kyninge; 
peah sy88an ymb pa burh lytle hwile freodom waere butan 

•• anwalde, swa we aer saedon, fram Caldei J)am leodum. And 
swa eac swylce wearS Rome burh ymb M wintra, and an hund 
and syxtig and fulneah feower, bset Eallrica, hire ealldor-man, 
and Gotona cyning, hyre anwaldes hi beniman woldan. And 
hio hwaej)ere onwealh on hire onwalde sefter p8dm J)urhwunade. 

*• Deah aeg]>er 8yssa burga ]^urh Godes digelnessa pus getacnad 
\vurde : — iErest Babylonia, purh hyre agenne ealdorman, J)a he 
h^re cyningc besvvac ; swa eac Roma, ]^a hi hire agen ealdor- 
man, and Gotona cyning, hyre gnwaldes beniman woldon ; hit 
Eeah God for hiora Cristendome ne geSafode, — na8er ne for 
iora Caseras, ne for hyra sylfra; ac hi n(i g^t [ricsiende 

40 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book II : Ch. II | 1. 

sindon], oeg}>er ge mid hiora Cristendome, ge mid hiora 
anwalde, ge mid hiora Caseran. 

6. pis ic sprece nu for Saem \>e ic wolde \>set M ongefiton, 
l\>e J>S] tida ures Cristendomes leahtriaS, hwlc miltsung siSSan 
W8BS sySj^an se Cristendom waes ; and hu manigfeald wol-baer- s 
lies ]>BdYe worlde aer Saem wjes ; — and eac Jjaet hi oncnawen hu 
gelimplice ure God, on J^aem aerran tidum, J)a anwaldas and 8a 
ricii sette, — se ylca se 8e gyt settende is, and wendende aelce 
anwaldas and aelc rice to his willan. Hli gehc angin Y& twfi 
byrig haefpon, and hu gelice hiora dagas waeran, asgber ge on lo 
bvem g6^de, ge on 8aem yfele ! Ac hiora anwalda enaas waeran 
swi5e ungelice; for56n 5e Sabylonie mid monigfealdum un- 
rihtum and firenlustum mid hiora cyninge, buton aelcre hreowe, 
libbende waeron, Jjaet hi hit n& gebetan noldan, aerSon hi God 
mid }>aBm maestan bismere ge-ea&medde ; ]}a he hi [aegftres] be- is 
nam, ge hiora cyninges, ge heora anwealdes. Ac Romane mid 
hiora Cristenan cyninge Gode 5eowiende waeran, paet he him 
for 8aem aegSres geu5e, ge hiora kyninges, ge heora anwaldes. 
For Baem magan hiora spraece gemetgian p& }>e Baes Cristen- 
domes wn5erflitan sind, gyf hf gemdnan willaS hiora yldrena w 
unclaennessa, and hiora [wol-gewmna], and hiora moni^ealdan 
unsibbe, and hiora unmiltsunge, ]>e hi to Gode haefdon, ge eac 
him selfum betweonum ; J^aet hi nane mildheortnesse }>urhteon 
ne mihton, aer5on him sio b6t of Jjaem Cristendome com, ]>e hi 
nfi swiSost taelaS. w 

[B6c II : Capitul II.] 

1. Ymb feower hund winti-a, and ymb feowertig, J^aes ]ie 
[Troia] Creaca burh awested waes, wearft Rome burh getim- 
bred, fram twam gebroSran, [Reinuse and Romuluse] ; and 
ra6e aefter 8an, Romulus hiora angm geunclaensode mid his » 
broSor siege ; and eac sy}7})an mid his hiwunge, and his gefe- 
rena : hwylce bysena he j^aer -stellende waes, mid Jjaem be hi 
baedan Sabine J)a burh- ware, J^aet hi him geuSan heora dohtia 
him to wifum to haebbenne, and hi heom baera bena forwym- 
don. Hi swa 5eah hiora un&ances mid swicdome hi begeaton, » 
mid J^aera J)e hi baedan J^aet hi him fylstan mostan, J^aet hi hiora 
godum \>e v5 blotan meahton. pa hi him ]>aBS getiSodan, J)a 
haefdan hi him te wifum, and hiora faederum eft agyfan noldan. 
Ymb J^aet wear5 J^aet maeste gewn monig gear, oj) ]>e hi for- 
neah mid ealle forslegene and forwordene waeran on aegbere 40 
healfe ; J^aet hi mid nanum J>inge ne mihtan gesemede wyroan, 
aer J)ara Romana wif , mid hiora cildum, ymende waeran gemang 
[5aem] gefeohte, and hyra f aederum [waeron] to fotum feallende, 
and biddende J^aet hi, for 5ara cilda lufan, }>aes gewinnes sumne 


endc gedyden. Swa weor81ice, and swa mildelice» was Rome 
burh on frutnan gehalgod, mid broBor blode, and mid sweora, 
and mid Romuluses eame Numetores, \>one he eac ofsloh, )>a 
he cyningc waes, and hym sylf sy88an to psdvn rice fengc. — 

«Diis gebletsode Romulus Romana rice on fruman, — mid his 
bro&or blode }>one weall^ and mid 8ara sweora blode J>a 
cyrican^ and mid his eames blode }>aet rice. And si&5an his 
agenne swe6r to deaSe beswac, }>a he hine to him aspeon^ and 
him gehet \>aBt he his rice wi& hine daelan wolde^ and hine 

10 under baem ofsl6h. 

2. He 5a Romulus aefter 85^san underfeng Cirinensa ge^vlnn, 
bara burh-warana ; forSon ]>e he 8a gy t lytel land-rice haefde, 
buton baere byrig anre. For5on J)e Romulus and ealle Rom- 
ware oorum folcum unweor8e waeron, for8on ])e hi on cniht- 

uhade wa^ran o8ra manna n^xllingas. Da hi }>a haefdon 
Cirinensa }>a burh ymbseten, and baer mycelne hunger }>oliende 
wasran, \>a gecwaedan h^, baet him leofre waere, ])aet hi on 
8aem ynn8imi hioralif ge-endade, ))onne hi baet gewinn forletan, 
o88e fri8 genaman. Hi paer 8a winnende waeran, o8 hi 8a 

»burh abraecon; and aefter ]>scm wi8 8a land-leode on aelce 
healfe finablinnendlice winnende w^seran, o]> hi }>aBr ymbutan 
haefdon monega byrig begitene. 

3. Ac })a cj-ningas, 8e aefter Romuluse ricsedan, waeran 
forcfi8ran and eargran ))onne he waere, and J^aem folcum laSran 

M and ungetaesran, op p£et Tarcuinius, ]>e we acr ymb saedon, ]>e 
hiora eallra fraco8ost waes, — aeg8er ge eargost, ge wraenost, ge 
ofermodgast, — [ealra] bi ra Romana wif, J)a ]>e he mihte, he to 
geligre genydde; and his suna ge))afode, J)aet he laeg mid 
Latinus wife, Lucretie hatte, Brutuses sweostor, ]>a hi on 

»• f^rde waeron ; beah ]>e hi Romana brymuste waeron to ])aem 
cyninge, Hio pa Lucretie hy sylfe for 88em acwealde. pa 
baet Latinus hyre [wer] geahsode, and BrCitus byre broSor, pa 

lorleton hi 8a fyrde, ]>e hi bewitan sceoldan ; and })a hi ham 
coman, ])a adraefdon h^ aeg8er ge 8one cyning, ge his sunu, ge 
» ealle ba ]>e paer cyne-cynnes waeran, of 8y rice mid ealle. 
Him o& PLomane aefter ))aem [latteowas] gesettan, })e hi Con- 
sulas heton, }7aet hiora rice heolde an gear fin man. 

[B6c II : Capitul IIL] 

1. iEfter 8aem ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes twa bund 
io wintra and feower, }>aet Brutus waes [se] forma consul. Ro- 
mulus hiora forma cyning, and Brutus heora forma consul, 
wurdon emnre8e. 

2. Romulus sloh his broSor and his efim and his swedn 
Brutus sloh his fif sunfi and his wifes twegen bro&ra forBan \te 



hf spraecon Jiaet hit betere wjcre, j^aet Romane eft heora cyne- 
cynne onfengon, swa hy ser lia?fdon ; forSam he h^ het gebin- 
dan, and beforan eaUum ])am folce mid besman swingan^ and 
sy86an mid cexum hyra heSfod of aceorfan. 

3. Tarcmnius \>&, ]>e jer Romana cyning wses, aspe6n Tuscea » 
cyning him on fultum, Poi-senna w aes hgten ; ]>a2t he ]>e ea5 mihte 
winnan \vi5 Brutuse, and wi5 eallum RoniSnum. He }>a 
Brfitus gecwaeS annwig vvi8 J^aene cyning embe heora feond- 
scipe : ac him Tarcmnus o5enie }>egn ongean sende, Arrunses 
sunu Jjaes ofermodigan ; and heora faer aegBer o8erne ofsloh. lo 

4. iEfter J)Sm Porsenna and Tarcumus, ]>a cyningas, emb- 
saetan Romeburh, and h^ eSc begfeSton, ]>aBr Mutius naere, &n 
man of baere byrig: he h^ mid his wordum geegsode. pS h^ 
hine gefengon, ))a pinedan hy bine mid J)am, J)aet hy his hand 

(forbaerndon], anne finger and anne, and hine secgan heton, i« 
id fela J)ara manna waere, ]>e wi& ]}am cyninge Tarcuine 
swiSost wi&sacen hcefde. pa he paet secgan nolde, }>a ahsodon 
hi hine, hu fela }>8Br swylcera manna waere swylce he waes. 
pa ssede he heom, })aet ]>aer fela })ara manna waere, and egc 
gesworen haefdon, ]>ezt hy o5er forleosan woldan, oSSe heora 
agen lif, o55e Porsennes, Jjaes cyninges. pfi J^aet ba Porsenna 
gehf rde, he \>vdt setl and paet gewinn mid ealle lorlet, ]>e he 
^r j>reo winter dre6gende waes. 

[B6c II : Capitul IV.] 

1. iEfter Sam waes ]>aBt Sabinisce gewinn, and him [Romane] w 
\>^K swySe ondraedende waeron, and -lim gesetton, j^aet hyra 
Sn latteow waere }?onne hyra consul, J)aene be hy tictatores 
heton, and hi mid }>am tictatore mycelne sige naefdon. iEf ter 
J7am Romane betwux him sylfum, J)a rican men, and pS earm- 
ran, mycel gewinn upah6fan ; and him paet to langsumre wrace w 
c6me,, paer hi pe hraSor gesemed ne wurdon. On pam dagura 
waeron pfi maestan fingctima on RomSnum, aegSer ge on hungre, 
ge on man-cweSlme under pam twgm consulum, Tita and 
Publia hatton ; and h^ heora gefeohta, pa h^vile, hf gereston, 
peah h^ bses hungres, and paes man-cwealmes ne mi'htan, ac pa m 
manigfealdan yrra5a pa werigan burh sw^y5e brocigende waeron. 
iE> pam be seo w61 ge-endod waere, Ueigentes and Etrusci pa 
leoda, wio RomSnum gewinn upahofon, and wi5 pam twSm 
consulum, Marcuse and GreSse. And pa RomSne him ongefin 
foran, and heom betweonum a8as gesw6ron, paet heora nSn ^ 
nolde eft eSrd gesecan, butan hi siffe haefdon. Daer waeron 
RomSne swa swy8e ofslagene, peah hy sige haefdon, paet hyra 
fin consul, pe heom to ISfe wear8, fors6c ])aene triumphan, pe 
him man ongean brohte, pa he hamweard waes ; and s^de paet 



hf hsefdon bet gewyrhte \>3dt him man mid heofe ongean c6me 
]K>nne mid triumphan. 

2. paet h^ triumphan heton, paet waes ))onne h^ hwylc folc 
mi<f gefeohte ofercumen haefdon, }}onne wass heora J)eaw, J^aet 

« sceoldon ealle hyra senatas cuman ongean hyra consulas, ©fter 

)>ani gefeohte, syx mila fram \>sdre byrig, mid cra?t-w6ne, mid 

g61de, and mid gimst^mum gefrsetwedum ; and hi sceoldan 

bringan feower-fetes, twS hwite : I^onne hi hamvveard f6ron, 

)onne sceoldon h}Ta senatas ridanon craet-vvaenum wifiaeftan 

>am consulum, and ]>a menn beforan him dr^fan geblindene, 

le )>8Br gefangene waeron, baet heora maerSa sceoldon ]>e 

)rymlicran beon, Ac jionne nf hwylc folc butan gefeohte on 

lyra geweald genyddon, ])onne hy hamweard wagron, J^onne 

sceolde him man bringan ongean, of l^aere byrig cra^t-wsin, se 

M waes mid seolfre gegyred, and aelces cynnes feower-fetes feos 

fin, heora consulum to maerSe. pact waes })onne triumpheum. 

3. Romulus gesette aerest manna senatum ; J^aet waes fin 
hund manna, ])eah heora aefter fyrste waere J)reo hund. l>& 
waeron symble binnan Rome byrig wunigende, to Jjan — J^aet ny 

» heora r^d-))eahteras waeron, and c6nsulas setton, — and Jjaet 
ealle Romfine him hyrsumedon, — and,])aet hi bewiston call J^aet 
hcgende feoh under anum hrofe, paet hi begeSton, o68e on 
gafole, o85e on hergnnge, — Jiaet h^ hit siSSan mihton him 
eallum gemaenelice to nytte gedon, })am))e ]>tBV buton })eowd6me 

M waeron. 

4. pa consulas, ]?e on ])am dagum j^aet Sabinisce gewinn 
undenengon, ])e man het eall hyra cynii Fabian^, for])an hit 
ealra RomSna aenlicost waes and craeftegost. Nu gyt to daege 
hit is on leo5um sungen, hwylcne demm hi Romanum gefeol- 

«• Ian. Eac ]iam manega eS syndon be naman nemnede for pam 
gefeohte; and eac Sa geata, \>e hi ut of Rome byrig to )am 
gefeohte ferdon, him man [ascop] ])a naman, J>e hy gyt habbafi. 
iEfter ]>am Romfine curan ]7reo hund cempena and syx, ])aBt 
sceoldon t6 finwige gangan wi(S swa fela Sabina ; and getruwe- 

« don, paet h^, mid heora craeftum, sceoldon sige gefeohtan ; ac 
Sabmi, mid heora searwum, hi ealle j^aer ofslogon butan finum, 
se ]>2eit la5spell aet hSm gebodode. — Naes nfi on [Romanum] 
finum, ac swa hit on sceop-leo5um sungen is, ]?{et, geond eallne 
middangeard, waere caru, and gewinn, and ege. 

«• 6. Cirus, Persa cyning, ])e we ger beforan saedon, ba hwile ])e 
Sabiiii and RomSne wunnon on ]^am west-daele, ba Iiwile wann 
he aeg5er ge on Sci55ige, ge on Indie, o8 he haefae maest eallne 

{>aBne efist-d»l awest ; and aefter Jjam fyrde gelgedde to Babi- 
onia, ])e )>fi w^elegre waes ]7onne asnig o5er burh. Ac hine 
wGandes seo efi lange gelette }^aes ofeifjereldes, for })am ]>e 

44 KINO ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book II: Ch. IV. f 6,7. 

bser scipa nslron, — ]>tet is eallra ferscra waetera msest, butan 
Eufrate. pa gebe6tode Sn his j>egena Jjaet he mid sdnde J?a efi 
oferfaran wolde mid twam t}Ticenum, ac hine se stream for- 
drgf. pa gebeotode Cirus Jiaet he his J>egen on hyre swg ge- 
wrecan wolde, ))a he svva gram wearB on his m6de, and wi8 pa, « 
efi gebolgen, }>flBt hi mihton wifmenn be heora cneowe oferwa- 
dan, ]f8dT heo sr waes nygan mila brSd, ]>onne heo flede waes. 
He \>ddt mid dsedum gelseste, and hi upforlet on feower hund 
et, and on syxtig, and s^88an mid his ffrde j^aer oferfdr; 
and aef ter pam Emrate J)a eg, seo is msest eallra ferscra waetera, w 
and is ymende J)urh middewearde 6abil6nian burh. He hf 
eSc mid gedelfe on menige •eS, uppforlet, and sy5San mid eal- 
lum his folce on ))aere eSgang, on })a burh farende w«s, and 
hi geraehte. Swfi (ingelyfedlic is aenigum menn ))aet to gesec- 
genne, hu senig man mihte swylce burh gewyrcan, swylce seo w 
waes, o55e eft abrecan. 

6. MembrS5, se ent, ongan aerest timbrian Babilonia; and 
Ninus se cyning aefter him, and Sameramis his cwen hi geen- 
dade aefter him, on middeweardum hire rice. Seo burh waes 
getimbred on fildum lande, and on swi5e emnum; and heo«o 
waes [swij)e] f aeger on to locianne, and he6 is svvifte rihte feower- 
scyte : and paes wealles mycelnyss, and faestnyss, is ungely- 
fedlic to secgenne : paet is, baet he is L. elna brad, and ii hund 
elna hefih, and his ymbgang is hund seofantig mila, and seofeS- 
an dael anre mile ; and he is gewovht of tigelan, and of eor5- « 
tyrewan ; and ymbutan Jjone weall is se maesta die, on ]>am is 
ymende se [ungefoglecesta] stream : and, wijjutan J)am dice, 
is geworht twegra elna heah weall: and bufan pam maran 
wealle, ofer ealine J)one ymbgong, he is mid staenenum wig- 
husum beworht. Seo ylce burh Babylonia, seo }>e maest waes, w 
and aerest ealra burga, seo is n(i laest and [westast]. Nu seo 
burh ^vry\c is, ]>e aer waes eallra weorca [faestast], and wundor- 
hcost, and maerast, gelice and heo waere to bysne asteald 
eallum [middangearde] ; and eac swylce heo sylf sprecende 
s^ to eallum man-cynne and cwe&e : — " Nu ic j^uss gehroren m 
eom and aweg-gewiten : hwaet ! ge magon on me ongitan and 
oncnawen, }?aet ge nanuht mid eow nabba& faestes ne stranges, 
))aette burhwunian msege ! " 

7. On |?am dagum, ]>e Cirus, Persa cyng, Babylonia abraec, 
]>a waes Croesus se Li}>a cyning, mid iyrde gefaren Babylonium 40 
to fiiltume; ac ]>& he wiste J)aet he him on nanum fiiltume 
beon ne mihte, and ]>sdt seo burh abrocen waes, he him ham- 
weard ferde to his agenum rice. And him Cirus waes aefterfy- 
ligende, 08 he hine gefeng and ofsloh. — Ond nu, ure Cristene 
[Roma] bespryc5, )?aet hyre weallas for ealdunge brosnian, « 


nalaes na forSam ]>e h\6 mid forhergunge swS gebysmerad 
waere, sw& Babylonia wees ; ac heo for hyre Cristendome, n(i 
g^t is gescyld, jJaet aegjjer ge heo sylf, ge hyre anweald, is ma 
hreosende for ealddome, ))onne of seniges cyninges niede. 

5 8. iEfter j>am Cirus gelsdde fyrde on Sci55ie, and him }>aBr 
&n gi6ng cyning mid fyrde ongean for, and his modor mid him. 
Damans, pa Cirus for ofer }>aet land-gemaere, — ofer J)a efi be 
hatte Araxis, — him }>aer se geonga cyning baes oferfaereldes 
forwyman myhte; ac he for}>am nolde, bi he mid his folce 

10 getruwade, ))aet he hine beswican mihte, sioSan he binnan }>am 
gemaere waere, and wic-stowa name. Ac Jia Cirus geaxsode, 
baet hine se geonga cjming paer secan wolde, and eSc Jjaet bam 
folce seld-syne, and uncupe w^ron wines drencas, he for ?Sm 
of baere wic-stowe Sfor on fine digle stowe, and 8aer beaeftan 

» forlet eall baet ]>83r liSes waes and swetes ; ]>?et pa se gionga 
cyning swioor myccle wenende waes, Jiaet h^ }>§non fleonde 
waeron, ))onne h^ aenigne swicdom cy5an dorstan. pa h^ hit 
baer swg ^menne gemetton hi paer J>S mid mycelre oliSnesse, 
Duton gemetgunge, paet win drincende wseron, o& hi heora 

w sylfra lytel geweald haefdon. He ])a Cirus h^ ))aer besyrode, 
and mid ealle ofsloh. And sy65an waes farende j^aer ))8es cyn- 
inges modor mid J?am twam daelum ]?aes folces wunigende wses, 
ba he }}one ))ridaan dael mid bam cyninge beswicen haefde. 
He6 8S, seo cwen Dameris, mia mycelre gnornunge ymb J)aBS 

« cyninges siege, hyre suna, })encende waes, hu he6 hit gewrecan 
myhte; and J^aet efic mid daedum gelaeste, and hyre folc on 
tw^fi todaelde, aegj)er ge wifmen, ge waepned-men, for5an I>e )>aBr 
wifmen feohta& sufi same swg waepned-men. Hio, mid ^am 
healfan daele, beforan ]7am cyninge farende waes, swylce he6 

30 fleonde waere, o5 hio hine gelaedde on an mycel slaed, and se 
healfa dael waes Ciruse aefterfyligende. paer wpar5 Cirus of- 
slegen, and twa [hund ])usenda] manna mid him. Seo cwen 
het \>& }>am cyninge J?aet heafod of Sceorfan, and bewyrpan on 
anne cylle, se waes afylled mannes blodes, and |?us cwaB5 : — 

«"l>u \>e )?yrstende waere mannes blodes xxx wintra, drinc nu 

[Boo II : Capitul V.] 

1. iEfter Sam 8e Rome burh getimbrad waes twa hund win- 
tra and mix, Jjsette Cambis feng to Persa rice Cirfises sunu : se 

40 inid pan pe he Egypte oferwon, gedyde }>aet nan haejjen cyng 
aer gedon ne dorste, paet waes Jjaet he heora godgyldum eallum 
wips6c, and h^ aefter pam mid ealle toweSrp. 

2. iEfter him rixaae Darius, se Swende ealle Asirige, and 
Caldei eft to Perseum, pe &r fram him geb6gene waeron. 

46 KINO ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book II: Ch. V. f S,4. 

-^fter }?am he wann on SciSSie, »g)>er ge for Ciruses siege, 
J^aes cyninges his maeges, ge eSc for }>am ]>e him man Jjaer 
wifes forwynide. His heres waes seofon hund }>usenda pa, he 
on Sci66ie for. Hwaej^ere J?a SciSSie noldon hine gesecan to 
folc-get'eohle ; ac, })onne h5^ geond }>aet land to-farene waeron, a 
hi J>onne hy floc-maelum slogon. pa wseron )?a Perse mid 
bam swyjje ge-egsode, and eSc ondredon ]>aBt man 5S brjxge 
lorwyrcean wolde, ]>e set }>am gemaere waes; J^aet hy sy85an 
nystan hn hy }>anon comon. He 5a se cyng, aefter ))am 6e 
his folc swi5e forslegen waes, ]?aBr forlet hunde eahtatig ))u- lo 
senda be aeftan him, ^set hy ])&t ]>a g5^t leng winnan sceoldan ; 
and he sylf }}anon gewSt on 'Sa laessan A^siara, and hjr forher- 
gode; and sy65an on Maecedoniam, and on lonSs, Creca 
feode, and |>a hi butu oferhergode : and for sy5San fyrr on 
Crecas, and gewin up-ahof wi5 Athenienses, for |?am hie Mae- is 
cedoniam on fultume vvaeron. Sona swd Atheniense wisten 
jaet Darius hy mid gefeohte secan wolde, hi Scuron endleofan 
msend manna, and him ongean fdran. And ]>one cyning aet 
Jaere dune nietton, J>e mon hset Morotthome. Heora lad- 
;eow waes hSten Htesseus, se waes mid his daedum snelra }>onne so 
le maegenes haefde; se geworhte mycelne dom on J)am ge- 
feohte. pa wearS twa hund ]>usenda Persea ofslegen, and 5a 
o5re geflymed. pa eft haefde he fyrde gegaderod on Perseum, 
and pset vvrecan |?ohte, M gefor he. 

3. -^fter him feng his sunu to Persea rice Xersis. paetss 
gewin, ]>sdt his faeder ^tealde, he digellice for }7am, fif gear, 
scipa worhte, and fr.ltum gegaderode. pa waes mid hi in Sn 
wraeccea man of Laecedemonia, Creca [byrg], se waes haten 
Damera5, se Jjaet facn to his cy55e gebodade, and hit on anum 
brede awrat, and sy55an mid weaxe beworhte. Xersis, ]>d he w 
Sn Crecas for, hsefde his agenes folces viii c })usenda ; and he 
haifde of o5rum 5eodum abedeii iiii c m. And he haefde scipa 
l^oera mycclena dulinuna an m and ii hund; and J)aera scipa 
waeron in m, J)e heora mete baron ; and ealles his heres waes 
swylc ungemet, |?aet mon eS5e cwe5an mihte, j^aet hit wundor S5 
v:vbre hwar hy landes haefdon, J)aet hy mihton on gewician, 
o55e waeteres, j^aet hy mihton him ]>\irst of adrincan : swa peah 
seo ungemetlice menigeo ])aes folces waes psi yj)re to oferwin- 
nenne, J?onne heo us sy nu to gerimenne, o55e to gelyfanne. 

4. Leonijm, Laecedemonia cyning, Creca burh, haefde iiimo 

fmsend manna, }>a he ongean Xersis for, on anum naerwan 
and-faestene ; and him baer mid gefeohte wi5stod. Xersis 
l^aet of)er folc swa swi5e lorseah, paet he axode hwset sceolde 
aet swS lytlum werode mara fultum, butan ]>& fine pe him ])sdr 
ger abolgen waes, on J)am aerran gefeohte, j^aette waes on Me- « 


rothonia J)8Bre dune. Ac gesette J)a men on senne truman, J)e 
mon heora magas ser on })ani lande sloh ; and wiste ]>vdt hy 
woldon geornfulran beon ]>8ere wrace, ponne o5re men : and 
hy swa waeron, 06 hi ealle maest j^aer ofslegene wurdon. 

» Xersis swi])e him 5a ofJ)incendum ]>a;t his folc swa forslegen 
waes, he sylf }>a J)oer to tor raid eaUmn |)am mcegene ]>e he f aer 
to gelaedan myhte; and j^aer feohtende waeron in dagas, o}) 
paera Persea waes ungeraetlic wael geslegen. He het ]>r }}aBt 
faeste land utan ymbfaran, baet him man sceolde 6n mfi healfa 

10 on feohtan ]^onne on ane. LeoniSa paet J)a geaxsode, J>aet hine 
mon s\\& be}>rydian wolde, he pfinon fifor, and his [fierd] 
gelaedde on Sn oJ)er foestre land, and ])ser gewunode 06 niht ; 
and him fram fifaran het ealle J>a burh-ware, ]>e he of o6rum 
lande him to fultume abeden haefde, })aet hi heom gesmide 

M burgan ; forpSm he ne lij^e ]>eet cenig mS folca for his )>ingum 
forwurde,])onne he sylf mid his agenre j^eode. Ac he J)us waes 
spreccende, geomriende : — " N(i we untweogendlice witan, Jjaet 
we (ire agen lif forlaetan scolan, for pam ungemetlican f eondscipe, 
J>e ure ehtende on syndon. Uton ]ieah hwaeSere acraeftan, hu 

«o we heora an }>yssa nihta magan niaest beswican, and us sylfum 
betst word and langsumast aet urum ende gewyrcan." HU 
mycel ]}aet is to secgenne, baelte Leonifia mid vi c manna vi c m 
swfi gebysmrade ; sume ofsl61i, sume geflymde ! 

5. Xersis waes J)fi aet twam cyrruni on }?am lande swS 
wgesc^nd mid his ormaetum menigeo, he 5S gyt J^riddan si|?e 

waes wilniende, mid scipfyrde past he paes gewinnes mihte 
mare gefremman ; and him lonSs, Creca leode, on fultum 
gespeon, peah hi &r ofer heora willan him to gecyrdon, and 
hi him geheton, J^ast hi ]>?et gefeoht aerest mid him sylfum 
w burhteon w oldon ; )>eah hi him eft facen gelaestan, ])a h^ on 
pam s^ feohtende waeron, 

6. Themestocles hatte Atheniensa ladteow : h^ waeron 
cumen LeoniSan to fultume, ])eah hf aet bam aerran gefeohte 
him ne myhton to cuman. Se Themestocles gemf ngade lonSs 

w \)sere ealdan faehSe ]>e Xersis him to geworht haefde : hfi he hy 
mid forhergunge, and mid heora maga slihtum, on his geweald 
genydde. He baed hi e&c ])aet h5^ gemundon paera ealdena 
treowa, and paes linfirimedlican freondscipes, pe hi aegper 
haefdon ge to Atheniensum ge to Laecederaoniam aer on eald- 

40 dagum ; and hy biddende waes, paet h^ mid sume seara-wrence 
from Xerse pam cyninge sume hw ile awende ; past h^ [and] 
Laecedemonie mostan wi5 Persum paes gewinnes sumne ende 
gewyrcan; and hy him paere bene getigSedon. 

7. pa pa Perse paet gesawon,paet him 6a frambugan, pe hi betst 
« getreowodon,paBt him sceolde sige gefeohtan, hisylfe gSc fleonde 

48 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book II: Ch. V | 8. 

waeron ; and heora J)aer wearj> fela ofslegen, and [adruncen], and 
gefangen. Xersis Jiegen waes hdten Mar^onius^ se hine wses 
georne laerende, }>8Bt he mS hamweard fore, }K)nne he }>aer leng 
bide, py Ises aenegu ungejjwsemess on his agenum rice ShSfen 
wurde ; and cwaeS j>aBt hit gerisenlicre waere, ^aet he J^aet gewinn s 
him betaehte, mid \>SLm f ultume, ]>e J>aBr to lafe J)a gy t wses, leng to 
winnenne ; and saede psdt hit }>am cyninge [laesse] ed\vit waere, 
gif })am folce buton him J)a gyt misspeowe, swS him aer dyde. 
Se cyning }>a Xersis swibe gelyfedlice his J^egene geh^rde, and 
mid sumum daele his fultume ^anon Sfdr. pa he J?a hamweard lo 
to baere ie com, ]>e he aer westweard het \>a, ofermetan bricge 
mid stane ofer gewyrcan, hi? sige to tacne, }>e he on pam si8e 
J)urhteon ))ohte. pa waes seo efi to 8fin flede, Jjaet he ne myhte 
to jiaere brycge cuman. pfi waes J)am cynge swi}>e ange on his 
mode, }}aet naBaer ne he mid his fultume naes, ne ]>aet he 6fer w 
]}a ea cuman ne mihte : to-eacan penn he him waes swipe ond- 
raedende, J>aet him his fynd waeron aefter fyhgende. Him ]>S, to 
com an fiscere, and (ineaSe hine aenne ofer brohte. H(i God 
\>R maestan ofermetto, and ]>aet maeste anginn on sw£ heanlice 
ofermetto geny])erade, ]}aet se be him aer ge))uhte, }>aet him nfin to 
sse wi}}habban ne mihte, }>aet he hine mid scipum and mid his 
fultume afyllan ne mihte, ]>aet he eft waes biddende Snes lytles 
troges aet anum earman men, baet he mihte his feorh generian. 
8. Mor5onius Xersis \>egn lorlet J)a scipa, ]>e hf on faerende 
waeron, and f6r to finre byrig on Boetium, Creca londe, and hi w 
abrslc. Him mon ))aet aefter ]>am hraedlice forgeald, \>a. hi 
mon geflymde, and swij)e forsloh ; \>eah be Atheniensum se 
sige, and se6 reafung paes Persiscan feos to raaran sconde 
wurdon ; forSon sy58an hi welegran waeron,. hi eSc bleaSran 
gew^irdon. iEfter b&n Xersis wear5 his agenre J?eode swibe so 
finwyrS, and hine nis agen ealdorman Artabfitus besyroae, 
and ofsloh. " Eala ! " cwaeo Orosius, "hfilustbaerlice tida on }>am 
dagum waeron, swg swfi))S secgaS, J^e ]>aes Cristendomes wiberfli- 
tan synd ; jiaet us n(i aefter swylcum langian maege swylce \>& 
waeron, })g swg mycel folc, on swfi lytlum fyrste, act }}rim folc m 
gefeohtum forwurdon; — J)aet waesnigon x bund ])usenda of Persa 
anra anwealde, buton heora wi5erwinnum, aeg&er ge of SciS- 
8ium, ge of Crecum." pact tacnode Leoni})a on his }>am nextan 
gefeohte and Persa, hwylc man-cwealm on Creaca londe waes, 
mid monigfealdum dea&um, mid ]>am ]>e he spreccende waes to 40 
his geferum aet his undem-gereorde, aer he to 8am gefeohte 
fore : — " Uton ml brucan ])yses undern-metes, swfi ]>& sceolon, 
})e heora aefen-gyfl on belle gefeccan sculon.** peah he pfi sw& 
cwaede, he cwae5 eft o5er word : " peah ic air saide, J)aet we to 
helle sceoldon, \>eah ne geortruwige ic n& Gode, }}aet he lis ne «« 


tnsege gescyldan to beteran tidon, Jionne we nu on synd. 
Leoni)>a saede ]>2et J)a tida ]>& yfele waeron, and wilnade baet 
him toweard beteran waeron ; and nu sume men secgaS, pact 
p& beteran waeron, )?onne nu synd. Nu hi swE twywyrdige 

• syndon; |>onne waeron aegjjer g6de ge 6& serran, swS sumc 
menn nu secgaS, ge efic J)as aeftran, swfi hi aer saedon, and 
naeron nfi jiaere 6n }>Snce. Gif hi ]>onne so6 ne saedon, }>onne 
naeron nfijjor g6de, — ne ])&, ne nu* 

9. " Nu we sceolon eft, ** cwae8 Orosius, •* hw^rfan near Roma^ 

10 }>aBr we hit »r f orlaeton ; f or}>on ic ne maeg eal ]>E monigfeal- 
dan yfel endemes £reccan; swS ic eSc ealles Jjyses middan- 
eardes nS mSran daeles ne angite, buton paette on twara 
anwealdum gewearj), — on }>am aerestan, and on }>am sij)emestan ; 
J)aBt synd Asirige and Romane." 

15 [Boc II : Capitul Vl.j 

1. iEfter 8am 8e Rome burh [getimbred] waes ii bund 
wintra and hund eahtatigum, ]>y ylcan geare ]>e Sabini 
Romane swfi beswicon^ ])a heora in hund and syx men of 
aegj^aerre healfe to anwige eodon, wearfi mycel wundor on heo^ 

xofenum gesewen, swylc eall se he6fon [bimende] waere. l?at 
tacen wear8 on Romanum swipe geswutelad mid j>am mycclan 
wdl-bryne mann-cwealmes, ]>e him raSe J)aes aefter com, swS 
baet h^ healfe beliffene wurdon, and heora twegen consulas, ]>e 
ni8a haefdon r ge 5a aet nextan, j^a 5e }>aBr to lafebeon moston> 

ts waeron to 8am meSige, baet hi ne myhton ba gefarenan to 
eorSan bringan. 

2. Sona aefter J)am, ealle heora beowas wib ]>S, hlSfordas 
wiunende waeron, and hi benamon neora heafod^stedes, ]>eet 
hi Capitoliam heton ; and hi miccle gefeoht ymb paet hfcfdoui 

•c op hi ofslogon bone aenne consul, pe hi pi, niwan geset haefdon^ 
peah 8a hl^oraas on )>am ende hsefdon heSnlicne sige. — And 
sona J)aBS ))y aefterran geare, Romane wunnan w\p [Fulcisci] 
baet folc, and J)aer wurdon swibe [forslaegene] ; and se dsel pe 
paer to lafe waes, wear8 on Sn laesten bedrifen, and J)aer wurdon 

a» mid hungre acwealde, j^aer heora p& ne gehulpe, pa J)aer aet hSm 
waeron ; mid J>am pe hi gegaderodan eall mon-cynnes J)aet J)aer 
Isefed waes, and genamon aenne earmne man him lo consule, 
J^aer he on his aecere code, and his sulh on handa haefdej 
and sy88an to Fulcisci J>am lande ferdon, and hi (it forleton. 

40 3, iEfter pam waes an gear fuUice, jiaet ofer eall Romana 
nee seo eor8e waes cwaciende and berstende. And aelce daeg 
man c6m unSrimedlice oft to J)am Senatum, and him sfedon fram 
burgum and fram tunum on eorSan [besuncen] ; and hy sylfe 
waeron aelce daeg on pzdve ondraedinge hwaenne hi on 8a eoi^an 


50 KING ALFREDS OROSIUS ; Dock li : Cu. VII §1,2: Cii. VIII § 1. [b. c. 451 

besunceiie wurdon. iEfter \>am com swfi mycel hete geond 
Romano, jiaet calle heora eorS-vvaestmas, ge efic hi sylfe, neah 
forwurdon. iEfter ])iim |)a?r wearS se msesta hunger. 

4. iEfter bam Romane gesettan him x consulas, |>aer hi &r 
twegen hajfdon ; to }>dn ]^ast hi heora ae bewiston. Heora fin • 
was Claudius haten, se him waes onteonde ealdordom ofer ])& 
o&re, peah hi him j^aes ge])afiende naeron, ac wi5 hine %vinnen- 
de waeron, o5 6one fyrst \>e hi sume to him gecyrdon, sume 
noldon : ac swS on twa todaelde him betvveonan wunnan, pxt 
hi forgeaton J)aBra ultra gefeohta, \>e him on [hende] waeron, o6 w 
ealle j)a cdnsulas togsedere gecyrdon, and Claudium ]>one aenne 
mid saglum ofbeoton : and syS5an heora agen land wergende 

5. " Ygjielice/' cwaeS Orosius, " and sceortlice ic hsebbe nlige- 
saed hiora ingewinn, })eah hi him waeron f omeah ])a maestan and u 
6a pleolecestan, ])aet eSc E5na J^aet sweflene fyr tacnode, )>a hit 
lipp of hello geate asprang on Sicilia \>am lande, — hwylce ge- 
winn ])S waeron, be ))am J)e nu syndon ! — and Sicilia fela ofsloh 
mid brjTie and mid stence. Ac sy65an hit Cristen wearS, Jjaet 
belle fyr waessySSan geswi})rad, — swa ealle ungetima waeron, — n 
])xt hit nu is buton swylcum tacnungum ])aes )rfeles pe hit aer 
dyde, peah hit aelce geare s^ bradre and bradre.** 

[Boc II : Capitul VIL] 

1. iEfter 8am 8e Romeburh getimbrade waes iii bund wintra 
and an, ])aette Sicilie ungerade waeron him betweonan. And hi » 
healfe aspeonon Laecedemonie him on fultum, and healfe 
Athenienses, Creca })eoda, pe aer aetgaedere wi5 Perse winnende 
waeron. Ac syS8an hi on Sicilium wunnon, hi eSc sy&5an 
betweonum him sylfum winnende waeron, 0J7 ^aet Darius Persa 
cyning Laecedemonium on fultume wearS wi]> }?am Athenienses «• 
for 5am gewinnum his yldrena. Waes j^aet mycel wundor, J?aet 
eall Persa anweald and Lecedemonia, baet hi ie5 [mehton] Ah- 
tene ba burh awestan, J^onne hi j^aet folc meahton to heora wil- 
lum [geniedan] ! 

2. And sona aefter })Sm, ]>y ilcan geare, Darius gefor Persa » 
cyng ; and his twa suna ymb J^aet rice wunnon, Artecserses and 
Cirus, o5 heora acgSer J^aet maeste folc ongean o5erne geteah ; 
and J?a unsibbe mid gefeohtum dreogende waeron, o5 Cirus of- 
slagen wear5,se J^aer gingrawaes. — On l>am dagum, waes an burh 
in Affrica, seo waes neah \>Bm sae, o5 Sn sae-flod c6m, and h^ 
aweste, and pa, menn adrencte. 

[Boc II : Capitul VIIL] 

I. iEfter 5am 5e Rome burh getimbrad waes iii bund wintra 

i.c.3&8] ROME TA1C£N BY THE GAULS. 51 

and LV, I>{ette Romane besaeton Uei6rum })a burh x winter ; 
and him ]>vet setl s^\^&or derode, ]>onne |>ani ]>e J)ajr inne 
waeron, ajg]>er ge on cyle, ge on hungre ; buton ]?am pe mon 
oft hergode, aegSer ge on hy sylfe, ge on Iieora land ajt hSm. 

« And hi ])a hrsedlice beforan heora feondum forvveorSan sceol- 
don, ]>^r hi J)a burh ne fibrrocon mid }?am crfefte, \>e J)a scand- 
licost wa&s, ]?eah he him eft se weor}}esta wurde ; ]?a3t waes baet 
hi fram heora wic-stowum under })8ere eorSan dulfon, oo hi 
binnan ))aBre byrig (ipeodon ; and hi nihtes on frmn-sla^pe on 

»• bestaelan, and ]>a burh mid ealle awestan. pysne nyttan 
craeft, ]^eah he arlic naere, funde heora tictator, Caraillis hatte. 

2. Sona aefter ]>am wearS Romana gewinn and J^acra 
Gallia, J)e waeron of Senno ]>a5re byrig, j^aet wass serest 
for ]>am )>a Gallia haefdon beseten Tusci ))a burh. pa 

»* sendon Romane serendracan to Gallium, and hi baedon J)aBt hi 
f riS wi]) hi haefdon. pa on J)am ylcan daege, aefter J)am \>e hf 
piss gesprecen haefdon, fuhton Gallic on ]>a, burli. pa gesawon 
hi Romana aerendracau on hi feohtende mid pam burh-warum, 
hi for pam hi gebulgon, and 5a burh forleton, and mid eallum 

*o heora fultume Romane sohton. And him Uauius se consul 
mid gefeohte ongean com, and eac ra5e geflymed vvear}> eft in 
to Rome byrig, and him Gallie waeron aefterfyligende o}> hi 
ealle Jjaer binnan waeron : gelfce and mon msede mawe, h^ 
w^ron pa burh hergiende, and sleande, buton aelcere ware. 

** Dajt tacen nu gyt cu5 is, on ])gere ea noman, paes consules 
sieges Fauiuses, 

3. " Ne wene ic," cwaeS Orosius, " j^aet senig man atellan 
maege ealne pone dem, ]>e Romanum aet ]^am cyrre gedon 
wearS, J)eah hi pa burh ne forbaerndon, swS hi ])S gedydon ; 

»« and 5a feawan ]>e J)aer to lafe wurdon, gesealdon m punda 
goldes wip heora feoie. And hi })aet dydon for])rim swi]>ost, ]>e 
hi ]7ohton })aet hy sy55an heora under]>eowas waeron. And 
sume binnan ])aet faesten oSflugon, paet hi Capitoliam heton. 
Hi ])a efic besaetcn, o5 hi sume hungre Scwealon, sume on 
^^nnd eodon, and hi sy])]>au oSrum folcum him wip fed ge- 

4 *' Hu J?inc6 eow nu,*' cwae5 Orosius, " ]>e paes Crist endomes 

^^cla leahtiia5 ? SyJ}J)an Gallia ut of |>aere byrig aforan, hu bli5e 

^''cla Romane aefter ]:)am haefdon I J>a 5a yrmingas ]>e j^aer to 

^ ^^-$e wurdon, tit of pam holan crupan, ]>e hy on lutedan, swfi 

^^wopene swylce hy of o5erre worulde comon, jjonne hi besa- 

^■^ on on 5a besengdan burh and on ])sl westan ; ]7aet him pa 

^^'ses syndrig ege, paer him ^r waes seo masste wynn! Eac 

■^vitan ]>am yfele, [nahtouj hi napor ne |^aer imie mete, ne paer 


52 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book HI: Ch. I | 1. [b. c* 393 

5. "paet wneron )>a tida, )>e Roroane n(i aefter sicaS^ and 
cwej)a5, l^aethim Gotan wyrsan tida ged6u habbon, bonne hi aer 
hsefdon^ and naron on by hergiende buton [prie dagas] : and 
Gallic waeron ser syx monaS binnan Jjaere byrig hergiende, and 
J)a burh baemende ; and him ]>8et]>a gyt to lytel yfel jiuhte, bu- « 
ton hi [eac hie] }>ass n^man benfime, ])8et hi n&n f olc naeron. Eft 
))a Gotan ]>aer Isessan hwile hergedon, ))8et hi for ))a:s Cristen- 
domes &re, and ])urh Godes ege, bast hi naSer ne }>a burh ne 
baerndon, ne }>aBS }>one willan naeidon, }}aet hi heora [noman] 
hi benamon, ne ]>ara nanne yfelian noldan, ]>e to [Saeni] Godes lo 
huse oj^flugon, beah hi haeSene waeron ; ac swiSor niiccle waeron 
wilniende baet hi gcmong Him mid sibbe sittan mostan. And 
uneaSe milite «r aenig J)am Gallium [oSfleon] o65e oShydan. 
And 5a Ba Gotan Jjaer lytle hwile hergedon, ne mihte nion 
buton feawa ofslagenra geaxian. paer waes gesyne Godes yrre, i» 
])a heora asrenan beamas, and heora anlicnessa, ])d hi ne mih- 
ton fram Galliscum fyre forbaemede weorSau ; ac hi hefenhc 

f yr aet bam ylcan cyrre f orbaemde.*' 

6. '* Ne wene ic/* cwaeS Orosius, " nii ic lange spell haebbe to 
Bccgenne, j^aet ic hi on ]>ysse bee geendian maege, ac ic o5ere w 
onginnan sceal/' 

[Boc III: Capitul I.] 

1, iEfter Sam 6e Rome burh getimbrad waes, iii hund 
wintra and lvii, on J)am dagum ]>e [Gallic] Rome awest haefdon 

i^i ge\vear5 seo maeste sibb and seo bysmorlecoste betwih « 
^apcedemonium Creca londe and Persum, yEfter J>am 8c 
Lit*cedemonie haefdon Perse oft ofcrwunnen, J)a gebudon him 
Pel so ]>itt hi haefdon iii winter sibbe wi5 hi, se ]>e ])Bdt wolde ; 
tind se be )>iet nolde, baet hi woldon bfi mid gefeohte gesecan. 
\\\ )>H Itfljcedcmonie lustlice ])8ere sibbe hyrsumedon for |)am «<> 
lytlun ege, ]fe him mon gebead. On }>an mon maeg swutole 
oUiMUiNVttU hu mycelne willan hi to 5am gewinne hsefdon, swfi 
hi3ora scopas on heora leo5um gyddiende syndon, and on 
heora leaspellengum. ''Ne ge}}iuc5 ]>e swylc gewinn noht 
justbajve," cwae5 Orosius, ''ne ])^ tida}>on ma, })aette Qiim] his » 
finuul miugo swa ea5e his mid wordum gestyran ?" jEfter 5am 
\)k^ l^tiJcedemonie haefdon ofcrwunnen Ahtene ]>a, burh — hiora 
ii^vne leodi? — hy hi J>a upahofon, and winnan ongunnan on 
u^iit^ healfe heoraj, ge wi}> heora agen folc, ge vrip Perse, ge 
>viiN }S{\ \vb$$ai\ Asiam, ge wi}> Ahtene }>a burh, be hi &v fiwestan : <• 
l\n5uu }>a fedw^n ]ie Jjaer ut o5flugon, ha?idon eft J>a burh 

■. c 397] WAliS OF THB LACED.£MONIANS. 53 

[gebune], and haefdon Thebfine. Creca leode, him on fultum 
fispeonen. Laecedemonie waeron swa (ipahaf ene, ))8Bt 8eg))er ge 
h^ sylf wendon, ge ealle ]>a neah ])eoda, ))aBt hi ofer hi ealle miht- 
on anweald habban. Ac him Ahteniense mid Thebfina fultume 
« wi)>stodon, and hi mid gefeohte cnysedon. 

2. Miter ))am Lascedemonie gecuron him to latteowe, 
Ircclidis waes haten^ and hine sendon on Perse mid fultume, 
vnp hi to gefeohtenne. Him 6a Perse mid heora twam ealdor- 
mannum ongean comon : o5er hatte Farnabiises, o6er Dissifar- 

!• non. Sona swa ))8era Lascedemonia ladteow wiste, paet he wi8 
J>a twegen heras sceolde, him pa raedlecere gej)unte J)aet he 
wi6 o8erne fri5 gename, Jjaet he }>one o}>erne ]>e y]f ofercuman 
mihte. And he swS gedyde, and his aerendracan to [J>am] 
oSrum onsende, and him secgan het, Jjaet he geornor wolde 

14 sibbe wib hine, ^onne gewinn. He ]>sl se ealdor-man gelyfed- 
lice mia sibbe ]>aera asrenda onfeng; and Lsecedemonie ]7a 
hwile geflymdon ))one o5eme ealdor-man. 

3. iEfter J)am Persa cyning benam ])one ealdor-man his 
scire, be aer pam fri5e onfeng aet Laecedemonium, and hi 

20 gesealde anum wreccean of Ahtgne Creca byrig, se waes haten 
Condn, and hine sende mid scip-here of Persum to Laecede- 
monium. And hi sendon to Egyptum, Laecedemonie, and him 
fultumes baedon ; and hi him gesealdon an c Jjaera mycclena 
Jjrie-reSrenena. Laecedemonie haefdon him to ladteowe aenne 

1* wisne man, J)eah he healt waere, se waes haten Ageselaus ; and 
him to gylp-\v6rde haefdon, "baet him leofre waere, ]?aet hi 
haefdon healtne cyning, ponne healt rice.*' Ki sy]?ban on ))aem 
s« togaedere foran, and baer swfi ungemetlice gefunton, ])aet hi 
neah ealle forwurdan, paet na]?aer ne mihte on o5rum sige 

»o geraecan. paer wear5 Laecedemonia anweald, and heora dom 
alegen. " Ne wene ic,** cwaeR Orosius, " j^aet [aenige] twegen 
latteowas emnar gefuhton." 

4. iEfter ]>am Con6n gelaedde fyrde eft on Laecedemonie ; 
and J>aet land buton J^aere byrig on aelcum pingum mid ealle 

M aweste ; J^aette M J>e ar ute o]>ra ]?eoda Snwealda gjTndon, 
him 8a god ])unte, J^aer hi [mehten] by sylfe aet hSm wi8 
)>eowdom bewerian. Pissandor hatte [sum] Laecedemonia lat- 
teow : he gesohte Conon mid scipum, ^a he of Laecedemonium 
f6r, and baera folca aegSer on o8rum mycel wsil geslogan. 

4© paer wuraon Laecedemonie swS swi8e f orslagen, |)aet hi nafior 
naefdon sy88an ne heora nSmon, ne heora anweald, Ac heora 
hr^re wear8 Ahtenum to firaernesse, ])aet hi j^one ealdan teonan 
gewrecan mihton, }>e him on aer-dagum gemaene waes. And hi 
and ThebSne hi gegaderedon, and Laecedemonie mid gefeohte 

<» sohton^ and h\ geflymdon, and hi on heora burh bedrifon, ancl 

54 KINO ALFREDS OROSIUS, Book III. Ch. 1 f 6, 6: Cn. II f 1. [b. c. 377 

sj*65an besaeton, pa burh-ware sendon b& aefter lesulause, ]>e 
mid heora here waes in Asiam, and baedon ))aet he tidlice h&m- 
weard waere, and heora gehulpe. And he swg gedyde and on 
Ahtene ungeanve becoman, and hi geflymdon. Ahteniense 
AVferon ]>& him swiSe ondrsedende, Jjaet Laecedemonie ofer hi * 
rixian mihton sw& hi aer dydon, for bam lytlan sige, )>e hi 6S 
ofer hi haefdon. Hi sendon 8fi on Perse aefter Con6ne, and 
hiue baedon^ bast he him on fultume waere. And he heom ]7ass 

getiSade, and hi mid micclum scip-here gesohte ; and hi Laece- 
emonie maest ealle awestan^ and hi to San gedydon, }>aet h^ *• 
hi sylfe leton aegBer ge for heane ge for unwraeste. iEfter 
bam Con6n gelende to Ahtene baere byrig his eald-cy55e ; and 
paer mid micclum gefean ))ara ourh-leoda onfangen waes ; and 
lie )>aBr his sylfes lange gemynegunge gedyde, mid }>an ]>e he 
genydde ae^Ser ge Perse ge Laecedemonie, baet hi gebetton J)a " 
bmrh, 'pe hi «r tobraecon ; — and e&c }>aet Laecedemonie }>aere 
byrig syB5an gehyrsume waeron, J)eah hi aer lange heora 
wi5erwmnan waeron. ^Efter Jjeosan gewinne gewearS J^aette 
Perse gebudon friS eallum Creca f olce : naes nfi for ]>am ]>e hi 
him aenigra g6da u])an, ac for J>Sm ]>e hi wunnon on Egypti, " 
Jiaet hi mostan for him J?y bet j^am gewinne fullgangan. 

5. Ac Laecedemonie haefdon J)a hwile maran unstillnessa, 
bonne hi maegenes haefdon, and waeron swiSor winnende on 
xhebane, jionne hi fultumes haefdon, and hloBum on hi stale- 
don, o5 hi abraecon Arcadum heora burh. ^Efter J)am " 
Thebane hi mid fyrde gesohton, and him Laecedemonie o6re 
onju;<an brohton. pa hi lange fuhton, ba clypade Laece- 
dehnonia] ealdor-maii to Arcadium, and oaedon pset hi }>aes 

ffefeohtes geswicon, J)aet hi moston 5§. deadan bebyrian, ]>e 
leora folces ofslagen waeron. paet is mid Crecum ]>eaw, J>aet *• 
mid l>am worde bi5 gecy}>ed, hwaeSer healf haefS ]?onne sige. 

(}. *' For})an ic wolde gesecgan," cwaeS Orosius, " hu Creca 
gewinn, )>e of Laecedemonia J>aere byrig aerest onstaeled waes, — 
and, mid spell-cwydum gemearcian, — aerest on Athena ])a burh, 
and 8y55un on Thebfine, and sySSan on Boeti, and sy88an on " 
Maceddnie ; J)iss waeron ealle Creca leode ; and sy85an on 5a 
hussan 'Asiam, and ]>& on }>a maran ; and sy55an on Perse, and 
8y85an on Egypti. Ic sceal eSc ]>y lator Romana istoria 
asrcgan, ])e ic ongunnen haefde.'* 

[Boc III : Capitul IL] 

I. iEfter 5am 'pe Rome burh getimbrad waes iii bund 

wintra and lxxvi, waes in "Achie eor5-beof ung ; and twa 

byrig, Ebora and Elice, on eor5an besuncon. Ic maeg eSc on 

. uvvun agnum tidum gelic anginn J>am secgan, Jieali hit swylc- 


ne ende naefde, — ^faette Constantinopolim^ Creca burh, on 

swylcere cwacunge waes, and hyre gewitegad waes of soSfaestum 

mannum, ])aet heo sceolde on eor}>an besincan ; ac heo wearft 

jescyld I>urh bone Cristenan Casere [Arcadiusan], and }>urh 

» jflBt Cristene lolc, be on }>am burgum wses. paet getacnode 
^aet Crist is eaSmoaegra help, and ofermodigra fylL Mare ic 
jyses gemyngode ]?onne ic his mid ealle asaede : gif his hwfi 
sy lustful! mare to witanne, sece him ])onne sylf. 

2. paet on ]>am dagum gewearS Jjaette [^Vulchi], and Falisci, 

'^}>e aer waeron lxx wintra wi5 Romane winnende, baet hi hi ]>& 
oferwunnon, and heora land oferhergodan. And ra6e aefter 
bam Suttrian Jjaet folc waeron hergiende on [Romane] op jiaere 
ourge geata. Hit Romane aefter Sam hraedlicre mid gefeohte 
and mid hergunge him forguldon, and hi geflymdon, 

[Boc III : Capitul III.] 

1. iEfter Bam Be Rome burh gctimbrad waes iii hund wintra 
and Lxxxiii,])a6a Laucius, pe oSre naman waes haten Genutius, 
and Quintus, be o6re naman waes haten Serf ilius, pa hi waeron 
consulas on Rome, gewearS se miccla man-cwealm on pam 

^•lande, — nalaes swa hit gewuna is of untidlican gewyderum; 
J>aBt is of waetum sumerum, and of drigum wintrum, and of 
re5re lencten-hsetan, and mid ungemetlican haerfest-waetan, and 
aefter-[haBtan] ; ac fin wind c6m of Calabria wealde, and se wol 
mid I^ani winde. pes man-cwealm was on Romanum, f uUe ii 

** geare, [ofer] ealle menu gelice : peah 5e sume deade waeron, 
sume uneaSe [gedrycnede] aweg comon. 0}> J^aet heora bis- 
ceopas saedon, }>aet heora godas bsedon, jiaet him man worhte 
anfiteatra, }>aet man mihte ]7one haeSeniscan plegan ))aer inne 
d6n and heora deofol-gyld, J^aet waeron openlice ealle unclaen- 

•• nessa. 

2. "Her me magon n(i,*' cwaeS Orosius, "M geandwyrdan, pe 
baes Cristendomes wiperflitan syndon, hu heora godas bm'h 
neora blotunge, and |)urh heora deofol-gyld, ))aes man-cwealmes 
gehulpon; buton }}aet h^ ne ongeaton mid hwylcum scin- 

•* craefte, and mid hwylcum lotwrence hit deofla dydon, — naes na 
se soBa God, — padt hi mid |?y yfele pa menu swencton, to 66n 
Jiaet by gelyfdon heora offrunga, and heora deofol-gyldum. 
And Jjaet hi ]7anon moston to Bam sawlum becuman ; and J^aet 
hi moston tawian mid pxve maestan bismrunge. Ac heora 

*• anfiteatra, pa waeron unarimede, and me nu masnigfeald to 
asecganne ; for}x)n, ")>u, faeder Agustinus, by haefst on ]?inum 
bocum swetole gesaed ; and ic gehwam wille pajr to taecan, pe 
bine hys lyst mfi to witanne." 

3. iEfter J^yson, on paxa ilcan geare, tohlSd seo eorBe binnan 

6B KINO ALFRED'S OROSIUS: Book Hit Ck, IV: V | 1-^. b. c. 5fi5] 

Rome byiig. pa saedon heora biscopas eft> ))»t heora godas 
baedon J^aet him mon sealde anne cucene mann, }?a him puhte 
baet hy heora deadra to lyt haefdon : and seo eorSe swa giniende 
bSd, o5 bset Marcus, J)e o5re namon hatte Curtius, mid horse, 
and midf waepnum, Jjaer on innan besceat : and heo si5San • 
togagdere behl£[d. 


[B6c III: Capitul IV.] 

1. JEiter J)am be Rome burh getimbred waes iii hund wintra 
and [lxxxviu], paet Gallie oferhergodon [Romana] land 08 
[))reoJ mila to Jjaere byrig, gnd \>b, burh mihton eaSe begitan, '• 
gif h Jr ]>sdr ne [gewicadon] : forj^am Romane waeron swa f orhte, 
and swa simode J^aet hy ne wendon, J^aet h^ ))a burh bewerian 
mihton. Ac J^aes on morgen [Titus], heora ladteow, ]>e oSran 
namon waes haten Quintius, hy mid fjnrde gesohte. Daer 
gefeaht Mallius an wig, ]>e o8re namon waes haten Tarcuatus, " 
MiS anne Galliscne mann, and hine ofsloh ; and Titus Quintius 
J)a o5re sume geflymde, sume ofsloh. Be ))am mon mihte 
ongitan hwaet })aer ofslagen waes, ]>a heora fela ]>usenda 
[gefongen] waes. 

[Boo III : Capitul V.] 

1. JEiter pam )>e Rome burh getimbred waes iiii hund wintra 
and twa, J^aet Cartaina baere burge aerendracan comon to Rome, 
and him gebudon J^aet n^ friS him betweonum haefdon, for]>on 
h^ 6n fin land ]>a winnende waeron, — ^})aet waes on Benefente. 
Mid )>am be J)a aerendracan to Rome comon, J)a com eac mid " 
him seo oiermaete hegrd-saelnes, and monegra )>eoda yrmBa, seo 
longe aefter J)am weaxende waes. Swa hit hefones tungel on 
)>am tidan cyj)ende waeron, J^aet hit waes niht o5 midne daeg ; 
and, on sumere tide, hit hagolade stanum ofer ealle Romane. 

2. On J)am dagum, waes Alexander geboren on Crecum,. swa •• 
swa an micel yst come ofer ealne [middangeard] ; and "Ocus 
Persa cyning, )>one mon oSrum namon hgt Artecsersis, aefter 

}>am J)e he Egyptum forhergade, he gef6r siSSan on Iu]7ana 
and, and heora fela forhergade. SioSan on Ircaniam ]>am 
lande, he heora swiSe feala gesette wi5 J)one s^, pe mon Caspia " 
hsett ; and h^ ]}aer gesettene sint git o5 J^isne daeg, mid bradum 
folcum, on J)am tohdpan, baet h^ sume siBe God })anon fido to 
heora agnum lande. — Sio5an Artecsersis abraec [Sidonem] 
Fenitia burh, seo waes ]>S welegast on J>am dagum. 

3. JEiter J)am Romane angunnon J?aBt Somniticum gewinn *• 
ymbe Campena land. H^ J)S lange and oft-raedlice ymb ))aet 
fuhton, on hweorfendum sigum. pa getligon Somnite him on 
fultum PirrusSn, Epira cyning, ))one maeston feond Romanum* 


paet gewinn wcarS hwaBj>re sume hwile gcstilled, forj^on Piinici 
wi5 Komanum wiunan ougunnon. 

4. " SiSSan J^aet gewinn ongunnen waes, gif aenig mann sy/' 
cwaeS Orosius^ " ]>e on gewritum findan maege, J^aet I^nas duru 

• si})))an belocen wurde, — ^butan anum geare, and J^aet woes for- 
J^am J)e Romane ealne J>one gear on mann-cwealme Isegan, — 
aerest on Octauianus dasge, \>sei Caseres." paet hus haefdon 
Romane to J^am anum t4icne geworht, Jjaet on swylce hefilfe 
swylce h^ }K>nne winnende beon woldon, — swa su5, swa norJ>, 

'• swa est, swa west, — )>onne undydon hy ]>& duru, ]>e on fa 
healfe open waes, baet hy be ]>&m wiston hwider hy sceoldon. 
And mia J)am ]>e hy bara dura hwylce opene gesawon, )>onne 
tugon hy heora hraegl bufan cneow, and giredon hy to wige : 
and be f am wistan J>aBt by wi5 sum folc friS ne haefdon. And 

" ponue lif friS haefdon, J>onne waeron ealle ]?a dura betynede, 
and h^ leton heora hraegl ofdune to fotum. Ac )>a ]>& Octaui- 
anus, se Casere, to rice feng, \>sl wurdon I^nas dura betynede, 
and wearS sibb and friB ofer eahie middangeard. 

5. iEfter }iam \>e Perse friB genamon wiS Romaimm, siBBan 
*• gelicode eallum folcum, J>aet hy Romanuin underj^eoded waere, 

and heora ae to behealdenne. And swa sw iSe J)one friB lufedon, 
J^aet him leofre waes, J>aBt hi Romanisce ciningas haefdon, bonne 
of heora agnum cynne. On }>am waes sweotole getacnaa, ])aet 
nfin eorBlic mann ne mihte swylce lufe, and swylce sibbe, ofer 

** ealne middangeard gedon, swylce p& wees. Ac heo for })am 
waes, )>e Crist on })am dagum geboren waes, })e sibb is neofon- 
ware and eorB-ware. paet eac Octauianus sweotole getacnode, 
Jmi pa [Romane] him woldon offrian, swa swa heora gewuna 
waes, and saedon paet seo sibb [of] his mihte waere. Ac he aeg- 

*• per fleah, ge pfi daed, ge pa saegene ; and eac sylf Faede, paet 
seo daed his naere, — ne eac beon ne mihte nanes eorBlices man- 
nes, paet ealre worolde swylce sibbe bringan mihte, paet tw^a 
peoda fier habban ne mihton ; na paet laesse waes, twa gemaegBa. 

[Boc III : Capitul VI.] 

" 1. JFAter pam pe Rome l)urh getimbred waes iiii bund wint- 

rum and viii gewearB paet Romane and Latino wunnon. On 

)am forman gefeohte wearB Romana consul ofslagen Mallius, 

)e oBrum namon waes haten Tarcuatus ; and heora oper consul, 

>e mon Decius het, and opmm namon Mure, his agenne lunn 

*• [he] ofsloh, forpon he oferbraec heora gccwid-raedenne, paet 
waes paet hy haeldon gecweden, paet hy ealle emlice on Latine 
tengdon. Ac paer an fit asceat of Latina werode, and anwiges 
baed ; and him paes consules sunu ongean com, and bine paer 
ofsloh. For pam gylte [bicne eft hett his f acder ofslean : for 

58 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book III : Cii. VII § 1, 2. [b. c. 344 

paeni siege] noldon Komane bringan }>am consule })one trium- 
plian, be heora gevvuna vvaes, ]ieli he sige h»fde, 

2. C)n \iam aefteran geare Jiaes, Minutia hatte an wifman, ]>e 
on heora wisan sceolde nunne beon. Seo haefde gehSten heora 
gydenne Dianan |)8Bt heo wolde hyre llf on faemnanhade & lib- * 
ban. pa forlaeg he6 hy sdna. Hy jia Romane for })am 
ffylte ^e heo hyre gehat aleah, svva cuce hy on eor5an bedul- 
fon. And nu gyt to dtege, ])am gylte to tacne, nion hiet Jjset 
land [mSn-feld], J)ffir hy mon byride. 

3. Ra]>e aefter pdvn on baera twegra consula daege, Claudius^ i« 
J>e oSrum namon hatte [Marcellus, and Ualerius], }>e oSrum 
namon hatte Flaccus, 5a geVearShit, — **\>eh hit nic scondl'c 
sy," cwaeB Orosius^ " Jiaet sume Romana mi on swylcum scin- 
lace wurdon, and on swylcum wodum dreame, haet hy woldon 
selcne mann, ge wif ge waepned, bara \>e hy mihton, mid attre w 
acwellan, and [hit] on mete oBoe on drince to ge))icganne 
gesyllan.** And Jiaet lange donde waeron, aer }>aBt folc wiste 
hw^non J^aet yfel come, — buton J^aet hy s^don ]>aBt hit ufane 
of )>aBre lyfte come, — [aerj^on] hit )>urh aenne beowne mann 
geypped wearS. pa waeron ealle ba wif heforan Komana witan to 
gelaBode, ))aera waes in hund and lxxx ; and }>aBr waeron ge- 
nydde J)aet hy baet ilce )>igedon, J^aet hy «er oftrum sealdon ; \>xt 
hy )>aBr-[ryhte] deade waeron beforan eallum J)ani mannum. 

[BccIII: Capitul VII.] 

1. iEfter bam ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes iiii hund wintra w 
and XXII, Alexander, Epirotarum cyning, J)aes maran Alexan- 
dres eSm, he mid eallum his maegene wi5 Romane winnan on- 
gan, and aet Somnite gemaere, and Romana gesaet, and pa 
nihstan land-leode on aegSre healfe him on fultum geteah, o5 
Somnite him gefuhton wi8, and ]>one cyning [ofslogon]. — " Nu 30 
ic ]>ises Alexandres her gemyndgade," cwaeB Orosius, " nu ic 
wille eac ]>aes maran Alexandres gemunende beon, ))aes o))res 
nci'an, ])eh ic ymbe Romana gewinn on ]>am gear-gerime forS 
[oicr] })a?t geteled haebbe.** 

2. Ic sceal hwae})re eft gewendan, }>aet ic [hwelcne] hugu dael » 
gesccge Alexandres daeda; and hu Philippus, his feeder, iiii 
hund wintrum aefter ])am be Rome burh getimbred waes, he 
feng to Maecedonia rice [on] Crecum, and )>aet haefde xxv 
\\intra; and binnan ])pem gearum he ge-eode ealle }>a cyne- 
ricu pe on Crecum waeron. An waes Atheniense, — o5er wses 40 
Thebfine, — in waes Thesali, — iiii Laecedemonie, — v [Focenses], 
— VI Mesii,-r-vii Macedonie, l^aet he aerest haefde. Philippus ba 
he cniht wass, he waes Thebanum to gisle geseald Paminunoe, 
}?am strongan cyninge, and }iam gelaeredestan Philosofe, fram 

fe.c..')59j PHILIP, KING OF MACEDONTA. yj 

his agnum breSer Alexandre, ]^e LcDcedemonia rice }>a hiefde, 
and mid him gelpDred wear5, on bam |?rym gearum, ])a he ]>aBr 
waes. pa wear8 Alexander ofslagen, his broSor, from his 
agenre meder, J>eh heo hyre o])erne sunu eac a;r ofsloge for 

* hyre geligemesse ; and heo waes Philippuses steop-niodon pa 
feng Philippus to Maecedonia rice, and hit ealle hwile on miclan 
pleo and on miclan earfe5an haefde ; J)«t a?g5er ge him mon 
titane of o8rum lande him on wann, ge eac pset his agen folc 
ymb his feorh syrede, ba*t him }>a tet nihstan leofre wa?s, \ivet 

i»he ute wunne, ^onne lie set ham wsere. His forme gefeoht 
waes wi5 Atheniense, and hy oferwonn ; and ajfter ]?am wi5 
Hiltricos, ]>e we Pulgare hataS; and heora maenig j^usend of- 
sloh, and heora maejitan burh ge-eode LarisSn. And si65an 
on Thesali he |)ajt gewinn swij^ost dyde, for ))aere wilnunge ]?e 

15 he wolde h^ him on fultum geteon, for heora wig-craefte, and 
forpon }>e hf cuSon on horsum ealra foica betst. And aerest 
hy ])a aegper ge for his ege, ge for his 61ecunge, him to gecyr- 
don. He pa gegaderade mid heora fultmne and mid Iiis 
agenum, aeg5er ge [ridendra,] ge gangendra, unoferwunnend- 

» lice here.. 

3. iEfter |)am pe Philippus haefde Atheniense and Thesali 
him underpieded, he begeat Aruhes dohtor him to wife, [Ma- 
losorum] cyninges, OlimphiaSe heo waes hatcnu. Aruhes 
wende piet he his rice gemiclian sceolde, \>d he his dohtor Phi- 

» lippuse sealde ; ac he hine on ]7aere [wenunge] geband, and him 
[Sat] on genam }>a?t he sylf hrefde, and hine si55an forsende, 
o5 he his lif forlet. .Efter pam Philippus feaHt on Othonc ])vl 
burh, on Thebana rice; and him }>aer wear6 }>a3t o5er eage 
mid anre flan ut ascoten. He h\vae5re pa burh gewann, and 

30 eall paet mann-cynn acwealde, j^aet he pa^r inne mette. And 
aefter pam mid his searwum he ge-eode eall Creca folc, forpon 
heora gewuna waes, past h)' woldon of aelcere byrig him sylf 
anvveald habban, and nan [o5erre] underpvded beon, ac 
waeron him svva betweonum winnende, pa baedon hy Philip- 

M pus, ajst of anre byrig, jionne of operre, paet he him on fultume 
waere, wi8 ]>b, pe him on wunnon. ponne he pa oferswiSed 
haefde, pe he bonne on winnende waes, mid jiam folce be hine aer 
fultumes baed, ponne dyde he him aeg5er to geweaidon : swa 
he belytegade ealle Crece on his gewTald. 

4« 4. pa Crece paet pa undergeatan, and eac him swiSe ofj^in- 
cendum, paet hy an cyning, swa yj^elice baton aelcon gewinne 
on his geweald be}>rydian sceolde, gelice and hi him peowiende 
waeron ; he hy eac oSrum folcum oft-raedlice on peow^ot sealde, 
pe aer nSn folc ne mihte mid gefeohte gewinnan, — hy pa ealle 

« wi5 hine gewinn uppahofon ; and he hine ge-ea8medde to pam 

60 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book III : Cm. VII f 5, 6« [b. c. 359 

folce, ]>e he him ])8er heardost andred, )iaet waeron Thesalii, 
and on hy gelec J)£et hy mid him on Thene wunnon. Da hy 
to ]>am gemaere comon mid heora fyrde, )>a hsfdon h^ heora 
clusan belocene. pa Philippus Jiser binnan ne mehte, })st he 
his teonan gewraece, he }>S wende on \>a ane J>e him J>a getry we » 
waeron, and heora burh gefor, and ))aBt folc mid ealle f ordyde ; 
and heora hergas towearp, swa he ealle dyde, J)e he ahwer mette^ 
ge eac his agene ; oS })aet him ]>a bisceopas ssedon, ]>mt ealle 
godas him yrre waeron, and wiSwinnende, And J>eah h^ him 
ealle yrre [vvaeren] on bam xxv wintrum, J>e he winnende waes " 
and feohtende, he nfi [oferwunnen] ne wearS. JEiter Jiam he 
gef6r on Capodotiam }?8Bt ^and ; and }?aBr ealle J>a cyningas 
mid [biswice] ofsloh. SiSSan ealle Capodotiam him gehyrsu- 
medon; and hine siSSan wende on his Sry gebroora, and 
a?nne ofsloh ; and )>a twegen oSflugon 6n Olmthmn pa, burh^ i» 
seo wses fsestast and welegast Macedonia rices. And him 
Philippus aefter for^ and \>a burh abraec, and ]>a bro)7or ofsloh, 
and eall J^aet baer inne waes, pa bry gebroSra naeron n& Phi- 
lippuse gemeared ac waeron gefsedred. 

5. On }?am dagum, on Thracia ))am lande, waeron twegen •• 
cyningas ymb j^aet rice winnende, J)a waeron gebroSra. pa 
sendon h^ to Philippuse, and baedon }?aBt he h^ ymbe )>aBt nee 
gesemde, and on baere gewitnesse waere, Jjaet hit emne gedaeled 
wcere. He )7a Pnilippus to heora gemote com mid micelre 
•yrde, and |)a cyningas begen ofsloh, and ealle )>a witan, and" 
teng him to J>am ricum bSm. — -lEfter ]>am Atheniense baedon 
^hilippus, )>aBt he heora ladteow waere wi5 Focenses J)am folce, 
yeh hy cer heora [clusan] him ongean beluce, and J>aet he oj^er 
jaera dyde, o])be h^ gesemde, o]>])e him gef ultumade ]>xt hf hy 
oferwinnan mintan. He him )ia gehet ^aet he him gefultuman «o 
wolde, \>xt hy hf oferwunnon. Eac aet |}am ilcan cirre baedan 
Focense his fultumes wi5 Athene. He him J>a gehet Jjaet he hy 
geseman wolde. Si55an he [buta] ])sl clusan on his gewealde 
haefde, ]^S dyde he him eac J>a ricu to gewealdan ; and his here 
jeond pa, byrg todaelde, and him bebead, J^aet hf baet landu 
ler^iende waeron, o5 }?8Bt hy hit aweston ; J>aBt ]>am folce waes 
aeg})res] wS, ^e j^aet hf J^aet maeste yfel f orberan sceoldon, ge eac 

^act hf his sciran ne dorstan. Ac he ealle J)a ricostan forslean 
let, and pa, o5re — sunie on wraec-si5 forsende, — sume on obra 
mearca gesette. Swa he Philippus ]?a miclan ricu geniberade ; 40 
};eh pe ser anra gehwelc wende, J^aet hit ofer monige ooro and- 
weald habban mihte, J>aet hy pa aet nihstan, hy sylfe to nohte 

6. Philippuse ge)>uhte aefter )>am, |)aet he on lande ne mihte 
})am folce mid gifuin gecweman, pe him on simbel waeron mid « 


winnende : ac he scipa gegaderade, and i/vicingas wurdon, and 
sona set anum cyrre an c and eahtatig ceap-scipa gefengon. pa 
^ceas he him ane burh, wi5 )7one see, Bizantium waes [hatenu] 
to ]>6n ]>fet him gelicode jjaet hy J)ser mihton betst binnan frio 

• habban ; and eac Jiaet hy J>»r ^ehendaste waeron [on] gehwylc 
land })anon to winnatme. Ac him ])a burh-leode baes wiScwae- ' 
don. Philippus mid his f ultume hy besset and him on wann. 
Seo ilce Bizantium waes srest getimbred fram Paus^nia Laece- 
demonia ladteowe ; and aefter bam fram Constantino^ )iam 

" Cristenan Casere ge-ieced, and oe his namon heo wses geha- 
tenu Constantinopolim ; and is nti \>ait heahste cyne-setl, and 
heaf od ealles east-rices. JEiter J>am }ie Philippus lange J)a burh 
beseten haefde^ )ia of))uhte him )>8et he ]>sdt feoh to sellenne 
nsefde his here, swa hy bewuna waeron. He })a his here on tti 

'* todaelde : sum ymb ba burh saet, and he mid sumum hloSum f6r 
and manega byrig oereafode on CherSnisce Creca folce ; and 
siS5an for on SciTOie^ mid Alexandre his suna, \>Bdr Atheas se 
cyning-rice haefde, J>e «r his ge))of ta waes wi6 IsSrifina gewinne, 
and J^ on J>aBt land faran wolde. Ac h^ ba land-leode wi6 

*• baet gewamedon^ and him mid fyrde ongean loran. Da ba?t ba 
rhilippus geahsode, }7a sende he aefter maran f ultume to pam pe 

Ea burh ymbseten hsefdon ; and mid eallum ma^gene on hf for. 
»eh )>e Sci65ie ha^fde maran manna m^nige, and hy selfe 
wffitran waeron, h^ beah Philippus besirede mid his lott- 

*• ^Tencum, mid J)am pe ne his heres Jiriddan dael gehydde, and 
him self mid waes ; and ]?am twam daelum behead, swa hy [feoh- 
tan] ongunnon, Jiaet h^ wi5 his flugon ; ))8et he siBSan mid ]?am 
briddan daele hy beswican mihte, J)onne hy tofarene waeron. 
paer wearB Sci&5ia xx m ofslagen and gefangen wifmanna and 

•• waepmanna ; and Jiaer waes xx m, horsa gefangen ; })eh h^ })aer 
nfin licgende feoh ne metton, swa hy ser gewuna waeron, ^onne 
hy wael-stowe gcweald ahton. On ]?am gefeohte waes aerest 
anfunden Sci5&ia wann-speda. Eft )ia Philippus waes banan 
cyrrende )>a of for hyne o|>ere Sci|)]iie mid lytelre fyrde, Triba- 

" balle waeron hatene. Philippus him dyde heora wig unweorS, 
o5 hyne an Cwene sceatj^urh J>8Bt )>eoh, Jiaet })aBt hors waes dead, 
J>e he on ufan saet. Da his here geseah Jjaet he mid ]>y horse 
afeol, h^ \>a, ealle flugon, and eall )>8et here-feoh forleton, be hy 
aer gefangen haefdon. Waesb<et micel wundor,]?aet swa mice! here 

*• for paes cyninges fylle flean, }ie nS ser ])am fleon nolde, ]>eh his 
nionn fela ]>usenda ofsloge. Philippus mid his lott-wrence, J>a 
hwfle }>e he wund ivaes, alyfde eallum Crecum, baet heora 
anwealdas moston [standan] him betweonum, swa [nie] aer on 
eald-dagum dydon. Ac sona swa he gelacnod waes, swa her- 

" gade he on Athene, pa sendon hy to Laecedemonium, and 

02 KING ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book III: Cu. V11I. | I. [b. c. 339 

baedon }>8Bt hy gefr}'nd wurdon, peh hf »r longe gef ynd waeron ; 
and baedon j^set hy ealle gemaenelice cunnodon, — mihtan hy 
hyra gemsenan feond him fram adon. Hy })a sume him geti}>e- 
don, and gegaderodon maran mann-fultum ]^onne Philippus 
haefde : sume for his ege ne dorstan, Philippuse gej^uhte \>&, « 
>aBt he leng mid folc-gefeohtura wi5 hy ne mihte ; ac oftraedlice 
le W8BS mid hloSum on hy hergende, and onbutan syrwende,o5 
ly eft totwaemde waeron, and ]>a, on ungearewe on Ahtene mid 
■yrde gef or. iEt bam cyrre wurdon Atheniense swa waelhreow- 
ice foi'slagen and forhyned, )>aet hy na si55an nanes anwealdes lo 
ly ne bemaetan, ne n^nes freodomes. 

7. iEfter ]Jam gelaedde Philippus iyrde on Laecedemonie, and 
on Thebane, and hy micclum tintregade, and bismrade, o5 
hy mid ealle waeron forddn, and forhyned. iEfter J^am \>e 
Philippus haefde ealle Crecas on his geweald gedon, he sealde his i* 
dohtor Alexandre J)am cyninge, his agenum maege, ]>e he ser 
£pir& rice geseald haefde. pa on ]>:\m daege plegedon h^ of 
horsum, aegoer ge Philippus ge Alexander, ]>e he him his dohtor 
sillan wolde, ge Alexander his agen sunu, swa heora }jeaw aet 
s^^7Icum waes, and eac maenige dpsere mid him. pa Philip- «o 
puse gebyrede ]>ddt he for J)am plegan ut of }>am mann-werode 
arad, |)a mette hine [his] eald gef ana sum, and hine ofstang. 

8. " Ic nat,** cwaeS Orosius, *' for hwi eow Romanum syndon )>a 
aerran gewinn swa wel gelicod and swa lustsumlice on leo6-cwi- 
dum to gehyranne ; and for hw5^ ge ba tida swelcra broca swa « 
wel hergeaS ; and nu ]>e\\ eow lytles nwaet swelcra gebroca on 
bec'ime, }^onne [gemaenaS] ge hit to ]>ar:i wyrrestan tidum, and 
magon hjf swahreowlice wepan, swa ge magon }>aera o5ra bliSe- 
lice hlihhan. Gif ge swylce J)egnas sind, swylce ge wenaS thaet 
ge sien, J)oime sceoldon ge swa lustlice eowre agenu brocu aref- w 
nan, ]>eh by laessan syn, swa ge heora sind to gehyranne. ponne 

!>uhte eow })as tida beteran, |7onne }>a, for))on eowre brocu nu 
aessan sindon ]>onne heora \>Si waere ; for))6n Philippus woes xxv. 
wintra Creca folc hynende, aeg5er ge heora byrig baerncnde, ge 
heora folc sleande, and sume on [el})iodige] forsendende ; and ^ 
eower Romana brocu, j^e ge ]?aer ealneg drifaS, naes buton ]>vy 
dagas. Philippuses yfel mihte jieh ]>a gyt, be sumum daele 
gemetlic ]?yncan, aer se swelgend to rice feng, Alexander his 
sunu. — peh ic nu his [daeda] sume hwile gesuwian scyle, o5 ic 
Romana gesecge, \>e on ))am ilcan tidum gedone waeron." 40 

[Boc III : Capitul VIIL] 

1. JEher]>a,m \>e Rome burh getimbred waes iiii bund wintra 
and xxvi-gum : Caudenes Furculus seo stow gewearS swi8e maere, 
and git to dacge is, for Romana bismere. paet gewear5 aefter 


bam gefeolite, \>e Romane and.Somnite haefdon^ swa we «r 
Deforan j saedon, }>a ]>ara Somnite xx m ofslagen wurdon, under 
Fauia ])am consule. Ac Somnite aet o)7ran gefeohte mid maran 
fultume, and mid maran waerscipe, to Romana gemetinge 

5 coman. })onne hy aer dydon, aet }>aere stowe be mon het Caude- 
nes Furculas. And J^aer Romane swiSost for )>am [besierede] 
waeron, J)e him Jjaet land micu5re waes, bonne hit Somnitum 
uaere ; and on iingewis on fin nyrewett beioran, o5 hy Somnite 
utan beforan ; ]?aBt hy]si65an oJ?er sceoldon, — op^e for mete- 

10 lieste heora Mi aleton, o]>])e Somnftmn on [hand] gan. On J)am 
anwealde waeron Somnite swa bealde, J^aet se ae)>e1ing ]>e heora 
ladteow waes, Pontius waes haten, het ahxian )>one cyning, his 
faeder, \>e J)aer aet hSm waes, hwaBj>er hini leofre waere, \>e he h^ 
ealle acwealde, ]>e hf libbende to bismre gerenian hete, Hy 

IS pSL se ae))eling to J>am bismre getawade, pe p& on J>am dagum 
maest wa?s, — )>aBt he hf bereafode heora claSa and heora 
waepna ; and vi hund gisla on his geweald underfeng, on baet 
gerad^ Jiaet h^ him si&]>an ece |)eowas waeron. And se aeSeling 
behead sumum his folce, J^aet h^ gebrohton Romana consulas, 

M [ond heora witan aet heora agnum londe], and him beforan 
drifan swa swa niedlingas^ ))aet heora bismer ]>f mare waere. 

2. " Geomor we woldon, " cwe5 Orosius," [iowra] Romana 
bismora beon forsugiende ))onne secgende, baer we for eowre 
agenre gnoraunge moste, pe ge wij) ]^am Cnstendome liabbaS. 

M Hwaet ! g€ witan J^aet ge gyt to-daege waeron Somnitum j^eowe, 
gif ge him ne lugon eow ra wedd, and eowra a))as, be ge him 
seoldon : and ge murcuiaS nii for})Sm ]>e monega lolc, J>e ge 
anweald ofer haefdon, noldon eow gelaestan, baet h^ eow 
beheton ; and nellaS ge ])encean, hu laS eow sylfum waes, to 

» laestanne eowre a5as ]?am J)e ofer eow anweald haefdon ! " 

3. Sona J^aes on f^am aefteran geare, forbraecon Romane 
heora aj^as^ \>e hf Somnitum geseald haefdon ; and mid Papiria 
heora consule, by mid firde gesohton, and |)aer deadlicne sige 
geforan; for^m ]>e aegSer })aBra folca waes })aBS gefeohtes 

«georn, — Somnite for ])am anwealde, ])e hf on aegSre healfe 
haefdon, and Romane for }>am bismere, \>e hy aer aet him 
geforan; o& Romane gefengon Somnita cyning, and heora 
faesten abraecon, and hy to gafol-gyldum gedydon, Se ilea 
Papirus waes aef ter )>am gefeohte mid Romanum swylces domes 

4«beled, )>aet hy hine to J>on gecoren haefdon, faet [he] mid 
gefeohte mihte ]?am maran Alexandre wiSstandan ; gif he eas- 
tane of Asiam Italiam gesohte, swa he gecweden haefde. 

[B6c III : Capitul IX.] 

1. iEfter )>am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes iiii hund 

04 KING ALFREDS OKOSIUS; Book HI: Ch. IX. | 2,5. [b. c. 33G 

Mintrum and xxvi. feng Alexander to Maecedonia rice aefter 
Philippuse, his faeder; and his aerestan })egnscipe on J)on 
[gecyjide], ]ja he ealle Crecas mid his snyttro on his geweald 
geniedde, — ealle \>& ]>e wi5 hine gewinn upahofon, 

2. J>aBt wearS aerest from Persum, ]>& hy [sealdon] Demos- » 
tanSse ham Phildsophe licgende feoh, wi6 J)am ]>e he gelaerde 
ealle Crecas ]>Bdt hy Alexandre wiBsocon. Athene budou 
gefeoht Alexandre. Ac he hy sona forsloh and geflymde, Jjaet 
hy si55an ungemethcne ege fram him haefdon ; and Thebana 
f ODsten abraec, and mid ealle towearp, haet aer waes ealra Creca lo 
heafodstol. And si58an eall ]>ddt folc on ell)>e6de him \\n5 
feoh gesealde ; and ealle ]>a \>&re ]feod'd, ]>e on Crecum waeron, 
he to gafol-gyldum gedyde buton Macedoniam, ]?a him [aest] 
to gecyrdon. And j^anon waes farende [on IlHrice], and on 
Thracn, and h;^ ealle to him gebigde. And siSSan he gaderade « 
fyrde wiB Perse ; and, }?a hwile \>e he hy gaderode, he ofsloh 
ealle his magas )>e he geraecean mihte. On his feSe here 
waeron xxxii m, and J)aes gehorsedan fifte healf m, and scipa an 
hund and eahtatig. — *' Nat ic,** cwaeS Orosius, " hwaej^er mare 
wundor waes, — be [J^aet] he, mid swalytle fultume, )>one maestan «• 
dael ]?ises middangeardes gegan mihte, ]>e J^aet he mid swa 
[lytle] werode, swa micel anginnan dorste,** 

3. On ))am forman gefeohte, ]>e Alexander gefeaht wi5 
Darius an Persum, Darius haefde syx hund m folces : he wearS 
Jjeh swi5or beswicen for Alexandres searewe, )>onne for his » 
gefeohte. paer waes ungemetlic wael geslagen Persa; and 
Alexandres naes na mS ])onne hund t>Yelftig on ]>am raede here, 
and nigon on |)am feSan. pa af6r Alexander })anon on Fri- 
gam, Asiam land, and heora hurh abraec and towearp, pe mon 
haet Sardis. \>& saede him mon baet Darius haefde eft fyrde »o 
gegaderod on Persum. Alexander him J)aet ]>a, ondred for 
]>XYe nearewan stowe, |)e he ]?S on waes ; and hraedlice for J>am 
ege J^anon Sfor ofer Taurasan |?one beorh ; and ungelyfedlicne 
micelne weg on ]>am daege gef6r, o5 he com to Tharsum, Jiaere 
byrig, on Cilicium ])am lande. m 

4. On ]5am daege he gemette ane ea seo haefde ungemetlice 
ceald waeter, seo waes Ci&nus haten. pa ongan he hyne 
baSian basron swa swatigne, \>a, for })am cyle him gescruncan 
ealle aeara, J^aet him mon Jiaes lifes ne wende. 

5. Ra5e aefter j)am com Darius mid fyrde to Alexandre. <© 
lie haefde in hund ]7usenda fe)>ena and an hund m gehorsedra. 
Alexander waes )>a him svn&e ondraedende for |)aere miclan 
maenige, and for baere lytlan ]?e he sylf haefde ; peh ]>e he aer 
mid ^aere ilcan Darius maran ofercome. Daet gefeoht waes 
gedon mid micelre geomf ulnesse of ]>am folcum bSm, and ]iaer « 


waeron pa, cyningas begen gewundod. paer waes Persa x m 
ofslagen gehorsedra^ and eahtatig m feSena, and eahtatig m 

f;efangenra ; and baer waes ungemetlice [micel] licgende feoh 
unden on J>am wic-stowum, Daer waes Darius modor gefan- 

f gen, and his wif, seo waes his sweoster^ and his twa dohtra. 
Da bead Darius healf his rice Alexandre wi5 }iam wif-mannum ; 
ac him nolde Alexander Jiaes geti)>ian, — Darius ]?a gyt briddan 
si6e gegaderade fyrde of Persuni, and eac of oSrum landum 
Jione fultum^ \>e he him t6 aspanan mihte, and wi5 Alexandres 

It for. pa hwile ]>e Darius fyrde gaderade^ ba hwile sende Alex- 
ander Parmeni6nem, his ladteow, Jjset ne Darius scip-here 
aflymde^ and he sylf for in Sirium : and hy him ongean comon, 
and his mid eaSmodnessan onfengan ; and he )7eah na \>e Ises 
heora land oferhergade ; and J)aet folc, — sum J^aer sittan let, — 

I* simie )>an6n adrsefde, — sume on ell})eode him wi5 feo gesealde. 

6. And Tirus, ]>& ealdan burh and \>sl welegan, he besaet, and 

tobraec, and mid ealle towearp, forjion h^ him lustlice onf6n nol- 

don. And si66an for on Cilicium, and \>?et folc to him genydde ; 

and siSSan on RoSum ]>eet igland, and baet folc to him genydde. 

!• And aefter J)am he for on Egypti, and n^ to him genydde ; and 
J^aer he het J>a burh atimbrian, )>e mon siSSan be him het Alex- 
andria. And si86an he for to jjam hefirge be Egypti saedon 
Jiaet he waere Amones heora godes, se waes Joneses sunu heora 
bSres godes, to }>6n }>aet he wolde beladian his modor Nectang- 

» buses })aBS drys, )>e mon saede J^aet heo h^ mb forlaege, and 
baet he Alexandres faeder waere. pa bebead Alexander J^am 
haejienan bisceope, ))aet he becrupe on j^ass Amones anlicnesse, 
\>e inne on J)am hearge waes, aer ]>am pe he and Jiaet folc hy J^aer 
gaderade, and saede hu he him an his gewill beforan J>am folce 

•• dndwyrdan sceolde, J^aes he hyne acsade. Genoh sweotolice us 
gedyde n(i to witanne Alexander, hwylce ]>a. haej^enan godas 
sindon to weorj^ianne, paet hit swiSor is of paera bisceopa [ge- 
hlote], and of heora agenre gewyrde, }?aet J>aet hy secga5, )>onne 
of ]>aera goda mihte. 

»• 7. Of J^aere stowe, for Alexander ]?riddan si5e ongean Darius, 
and h^ aet Tharse J^asre byrig h^ gemettan. On J)am gefeohte, 
waeron Perse swa swiSe forslagen, )>aet hy heora miclari anweal- 
des and longsuman hy sylfe si55an wio Alexander to nahte 
[he] bemaetan. pa Darius geseah ])aBt he oferwunnen beon 

40 wolde, \>B, wolde he hine sylfne on J>am gefeohte forspillan, ac 
hine his ))egnas ofer his willan fram atugon, J^aet he si|>]>ari waes 
fleonde mia )}aere fyrde. And Alexander waes xxxiii daga on 
}iaere stowe, aer he J>a >vic-stowa and J>aBt wael bereafian mihte. 
And si&5an for ixi Perse, and ge-e8de Persipulis ]?a burh, heora 

« cjme-stol, seo is gyt welegast ealra burjga. Da saede mon Alex- 


C^ KINO ALFRED'S OROSl US; Book III: Ch. IX f 8— Jl. [b. c. 331 

andre^ })8et Darius hsefde gebunden his agene magas mid gyl* 
denre raccentan. Da for he wi5 his mid syx m manna^ and 
funde hine anne be wege licgean^ mid sperum ofsticod, healf 
cucne. He J>a Alexander him Snum deadura lytle mildheort- 
nesse gedyde, ]>aet he hine het bebyrigean on his yldrena byrig, • 
)>e he si&oan n&ium ende his cynne gedon nolde, ne his wife^ 
ne his meder, ne his beamum^ ne psdt ealra Isest wss^ his eing- 
ran dohtor^ he nolde buton hsft-nyde habban : sec wses lytel 

8. UneaSe mseg mon to geleafsuman gesecgan, siiva msenig- 1« 
feald yfel swa on })am Jirim gearum gewurdon, on ])rim folc- 

i^efeohtum^ betweox twam cjningutn : |)aet waeron fiftyne hund 
msend manna, )>8et binnan \>&m forwurdon ; and of ^am ilcan 
oleum forwurdon lytle fiBr,swa hit her bef oran secgS, nigontyne 
hund ))usend manna, butan miclan hergungum, ]>e binnan ]>Bm is 
J)rim gearum gewurdon on monigre ]7eode : Jiaet is \>ddt Asirie 
eall seo )7eod a west wearS fram Alexandre, and monega byrig 
on Asiam^ and Tims seo msere burh eal toweorpenu, and 
[Cilicia] ]?aetland eall awest, and Capadotia )>aet land, and ealle 
Egj'pti on \>e6\yote gebroht, and RoSum )>set igland mid ealle f 
awest, and monig oj^e land ymbe Tauros ]>a muntas. 

9. NiLlaes \>sdt fin J^aet heora twegra gewinn, J)a waere on ))am 
est-ende ]7ises middangeardes ; ac^ on emn ))gm, AgiSis Spar- 
tana cyning, and Antipater^ o]?cr Creca cyning, wunnon him be- 
tweonum ; and Alexander Epiria cyning, J)as miclan Alexand- » 
res eam^ se wilnode })aes west-dseles, swa se o))er dyde ]>vds east- 
dffilt s, and fyrde gelaedde in Italiam, and beer hraedlice ofslagen 
wearS. And on J^aere ilcan tide, Zoffinon, Ponto cyning, [in 
Scijjjiie] mid f vrde gefor, and he [and his] folc mid ealle bser 

f orwear^ Alexander, aef ter Darius deabe, gewann ealle Man- » 
dos, and ealle Ircaniam ; and, on [Baere] hwile ]>e he j)8Br winn- 
ende waes, frefelice hine gesohte Minotheo, seo SciSSisce cwen, 
mid Jirym hund wif-manna, to \>6n J^aet h^ woldan wi6 Alex- 
ander and wiB his maerestan cempan beama strynan. 

10. iEfter ]>am, wann Alexander wi5 Parthim )>am folce, »• 
and he h^ nean ealle ofsloh and fordyde, &r he hf ge win nan 
mihte. And aefter J)am he gewonn Drancas ]>adt folc, and Eur- 
getas, and Paramomenas, and Assapias, and monega oSra)>eoda, 
~ e gesetene sind ymbe ]>a. muntas Caucasus, and ]7ar het ane 

urh atimbrian, ]>e mon siBBan het Alexandria. 4f 

!!• Naes his scinlac, tie his hergung on )>a fremdan ane, ac 
he gelice sloh and hynde \>sl, be him on siml w aeron midfarende 
and winnende. i£st he ofslon Amintas, his modrian sunu, and 
siBBan his broBor, and ba Parmenion his J'egn, and )>a Filiotes, 
and )>a Catulusan, )ia Eurilohus, ))a Pausanias, and monege4« 



o5re, J>e of Maecedoniam ricoste waeron ; and Clitus, se waes 
segSer ge his ]>egn, ge ar PhiUppuses, his faeden pa hy sume 
si^e druucne aet heora symble saeton, ])a ongunnon hf treahti- 
gean hw8ej>er m& maerlicra daeda gefremed baefde^ \>e Philippus, 

• be Alexander. pa saede se Clitus for ealdre h^lde, )>aet 
Fhilippus m& haeide gedon bonne he. He J)a Alexander 
ahleop for Jisere saegene and otsloh bine. To-ecan \f&m, \>e he 
h^nende waes aegSer ge his agen f olc, ge oSera cyninga^ he waes 
sin l^yrstende mannes blodes. 

to 12. RaSeaefter ]>&m, he for mid fyrde on Chorasmas, and on 
Dacos, and him to gafolgyldum b^ genydde. Chalisten ])one 
Filosofum he ofsloh, bis emn-sceolere, 8e b^ aetgaedere gelae- 
rede waeron cet [Aristotolese] heora magistre, and monega 
menn mid him^ for])6n by noldan to him gebiddan swa to 

i« heora gode. 

13. iEfter ])am, be for on Indie, to }?6n baet [be J bis rice ge- 
braedde o8 pone east-garsecg. On pam sioe be ge-eode Nisan, 
India beafod-burb, and ealle pa beorgas pe mon Dedolas baett, 
and eall paet rice Cleoffiles paere cwene; and b^ to geligre 

ao genydde, and for pam liire rice eft ageaf. iEf ter pam pe Alex- 
ander baefde ealle Indie him to gewyldon gedon, buton anre 
byrig, seo waes ungemetan faeste, mid cludum ymbweaxen, 
8a ge-absode be pcet Ercol se ent, paer waes togefaren on aer- 
dagum, to pon paet he by abrecan pobte ; ac he bit for pam ne 

« Sngann, pe paer waes eoro-beofung on paere tide. He ba Alex- 
ander hit swiSost for ])am ongann, ]>e be wolde, paet nis maer- 
8a waeron maran bonne Ercoles ; })eb pe be hf [mid] micle 
forlore jiaes folces begeate. 

14. iEfter }}am, Alexander baefde gefeobt wi8 Porose, pam 
^•strengstan Tndea cyninge. On J)am gefeobte waeron pa maes- 

tan*blodgytas on aegSre bealfe paera folca. On pam gefeobte 
Poros and Alexander gefubton an wig [of] borsum. pa ofsloh 
Poros Alexandres bors, ]>e Biicefall wajs baten, and bine sylfne 
mibte, paer him bis j^egnas to fultume ne comon : and be baefde 

» Poros monegum wundum gewundodne, and bine eac gewildne 
gedyde, sySSan bis pegnas him to comon : and him eft his rice 
t6 forlet for bis ]>egenscipe, py be swa swi8e waes feohtende 
angean bine. And be Alexander him bet si58an twa byrig 
atimbrian : oper waes batenu be bis horse Bucefal, opcr Nicea. 

<• 15. Si88an he for 'on [Raestas] ba leode, and on Catbenas, 
and on Presidas, and on [Gangeridas] ; and wiS by ealle ge- 
feaht, and oferwonn. pa be com on I ndia east-gemaera, pa 
c6m him paer ongean twa bund pusenda [monna] gehorsades 
folces ; and by Alexander uneaSe oferwonn, aegSer ge for ]>aere 

♦•'sumor liffite, ge eac for pam oftraedlican gefeobtum. Si53nn 

68 KINO ALFRED'S OR081U8 ; Oooi 111 : Ch. IX | 16—19. [b. t. 827—323. 

sefter bam he wolde habban maran wic-gtowa, bonne his ge- 
\vuna ser waere ; fovp6n he him siSSan sefter pam gefeohte 
swiSor an saet, )>onne he &y dyde, 

16. iEfter J>am, he for (it t>n garsecg, of }}am muSan pe seo 
e& waes hatenu Eginense, on an igland^ ]>asr Siuos }iaet folc » 
and lersomas on eardodan ; and hf Ercol bsr &r gebrobte, 
and gesette ; and he him ]>a. to gewildum geayde. iEfter )>am 
he for to }iam iglande, )>e mon \>Bst folc Mandras hset, and 
Subagros ; and h^ him brohtan angean ehta bund m iepena,, 
and LX M gehorsades folces ; and by lange wseron \PBdt dreo- io 
gende^ aer heora aber mihte on obrum sige geraecan^ &r Alex- 
ander late unweorolicne sige gersehte. 

17. iEfter ]>am, he gef6r to anum faestene. pa he Jjaer-to 
com, ]>B. ne mihton by nsenne mann on })am faestene utan ge- 
seon. Da wundrade Alexander hwi hit swa ^menne waere ; i» 
and hraedlice )>one weall self oferclomm, and he baer wear8 
fram J>am burh-warum inn abr6den ; and hf his siSoan wseron 
swa SA\iSe ehtende, swa [hit] is ungeUefedlic to secgenne, ge 
mid gesceotum^ ge mid stSna torfungum^ ge mid eallnm heora 
wig-craef tum, — paet swa )>eah ealle ]>a burh-ware ne mihton f 
bine aenne genydan, )>8et he him on hgnd sfin wolde. Ac ba 
him )>aet folc swi5ost on J^rang, J^a gestop he to anes wealles 
byge, and hine Jjaer fiwerede. Ana swa eall Jjaet folc wear8 
mid him anum ag^led, ])8et h^ )>8es wealles nane gyman ne 
dydan, o5 Alexandres J)egnas to emnes him Jione weall abrae- » 
can, and jjaer inn comon. Daer wear5 Alexander ]7urhscoten 
mid anre flan undemeo))an o5er breost — ^Nyte we nu, hw2ej>er 
s^ swibor to wundrianne, ]>e ]>vst h(i he gna wi6 ealle )}a burh- 
ware nine awerede, — ]>e eft, pa him fultum c6m, hu he ]>urh 
l^aet folc gejn-ang, baet he }?one ilcan ofsloh, \>e hine «r ]>urh- »o 
sceat; ]>e eftj^aerapegna onginn,]>a by ontweogendlice wendon 
j)8Bt heora hlgford wa?re on heora feonda gewealde, o55e cuca, 
o66e dead, j^aet h;^ swa )>eah noldan J^aes weall-gebreces ge- 
swican, J>aet h^ heora hlgford ng gewraecon, J>eh ]>e hf hine 
mefligne on [cneowum] sittende metten. u 

18. Si65an he ]>a burhhaefde him to gewyldum gedon,]?a for 
he to o5re byrig, Jjaer iEmbira se cyning on wunade, pser for- 
wear5 micel Alexandres heres for [ge-aetreduml gescotum. 
Ac Alexandre wearS on J^aere ilcan niht on swefne an wyrt 
o5y wed ; }>a nSm he }ia on mergen, and sealde h^ )>am gewun- 4« 
dedum drincan, and by wurdon mid )>am gehaeled ; and si56an 
)>a burh gewann. 

19. And he si55an hwearf hamweard t6 Babylonia, paer 
waeron aerendracan on anbide of ealre weorolde: J>aet wees 
fram Spgneum, and 6f Affrica, and of Gallium, and of ealre «» 


Italia. Swa egefuU wa$s Alexander^ ^ pa, he wses on rndeum, 
on easte-weardum pisum middanearde^ pxt ]>& fram him adre* 
dan^ bS w^ron on westeweardum. Eac him comon aerendracan^ 
ge ol monegum ]>eodumj )>e nfin raann Alexandres geferscipes 
i ne wende, ]^aet raon his namon wiste ; and him frioes to him 
wilnedon. Da git \>a Alexander hfim com to Babylonia, ]>$, 
git waes on him se msesta })urst mannes blodes. Ac )>a \>sl his 
geferan ongeatan )>a&t he peds gewinnes ]>a, git geswican 
nolde, ac he saede baet he on [African] faran wolde, J)a geleor- 
!• nedon his byrelas nim betweonum, hu h^ him mihton baet lif 
oSJ^ringan^ and him gesealdan attor drincan: })a foriet he 
his lif. 

20. "[Eala]!** cwaeS Orosius^ "on hfi micelre dysignesse 

menn nu sindon, on Jiyson Cristendome! Swa J)eah J)e him 

I* lytles hwaet (ine]^e sy, hu earfoSlice hf hit gemsenaS ! OJ^er 

Jiara is, — o65e h;^ hit nyton, o58e hy hit witan nyllaS, an hwel- 

can brocum ]>a lifdon ]>e aer him waeran. [NfiJ wenaB h^ h(i 

)wun waere pe on Alexandres [onwalde] waeran, pa. him pS. swa 

swiSe hine andredan, pe on westeweardum }iises middangeard- 

«• es waeran, ]>aet h^ on swa micle nejjinge, and on swa micel 

ungewis, aeg5er ge on saes fyrhto, ge on westennum wildeora, 

and wyrm-cynna missenlicra, ge on beoda gereordmn, J^aet hy 

hine aefter friBe sohton on easteweardum bysan middangearde. 

Ac we witan georne, J^aet hy nu mS for yrn|)e, nS])er ne durran 

M ne swa feor [friB] gesecean, ne f ur|)on h^ selfe [aet ham], aet 

heora cotum werian, ])onne hf mon aet ham secB : ac )>aBt [hie 

magon pedi] hy pas tida leahtrien.'* 

[Boo III : Capitul X.] 
I. iEfter )>am pe Rome burh getimbred waes iiii hund win- 
it tia and l, — under ]}am twam consulum, — pe oJ>er wees haten 
Fauius, and oBran namon Maximus , and under pam pe Cwin- 
tus waes haten, and oBran namon Decius, — on heora consulatu, 
on Italium feower pa strengestan ]?eoda, hy him betweonum ge- 
spraecan-^J^aet waeran Umbri, and prysci, and Somnite, and 
ts Gallic — ^I)aet h^ woldon on Romane winnan. And hy him 
J>aBt swioe ondredan, h(i hf wiB him eallum endemes mihte ; 
and georne siredon hfi hf hi totwseman mihtan, and geweal- 
denne here on prysci, and on Umbre sendon an hergunge, and 
)aBt folc to amyrranne. [pa] h^ )>aBt geacsedan, ^a wendan 
40 hf him hamweard tobon J>aet hy heora land beweredan. Ond 
lomane ba hwile mid heora maran fultume, pe hf aet ham 
laefdon, loran ongean Somnite, and ongean Gallic. Daer on 
}>am gefeohte waes Cwintus se consul ofslagen ; and Fauius, 
se o|>er consul, aefter Jjaes o)>res fylle, sige haefde. pajr wearB 
«Somnita and Gallia feowertig m ofslagen, and seofon m 

70 RING ALFUED'S OROSIUS; Book 111 : Cb. X, f 2—5. [b. c.395. 

Romana^ on ]>an\ daele ])e Decius on ofslagen waes. |>onne 
saede Libius ])8Bt Somnita and Gallia waere o]>er healf hund m 
ofslagen l^aera febena, and seofon m gehorsedra, 

2. *'Efic ic genyrde to so5um secgan," cwaeS Orosius, ''J^aet 
hit n& naere on )iam dagum mid Romanum * buton gewinne^ « 
o65e wi5 oSra folc^ ob))e on him selfum, mid monigJFealdum 
wolum and mann-cwealmum : swa swa hit p& waes." 

3. Da [Fauius], se consul, of bam gefeohte h£[niweard f6r, 
)>a dyde mon J>one triumphan him beforan, ]>e heora gewuna 
wses J>onne h^ sfge hsefdon. Ac se gefefi wearS svn^Se ra8e on lo 
heora mode to gedrasfednesse gecirred, ]>a. hf gesawon })a dea- 
dan menn swa |)iclice to eor]>an beran, J>e j^aer &r set ham 
waeran; forJ)6n J>e J>aer waes se micia mann-cwealm on pxre 

4. And J>8es ymb an gear, Somnite gefuhton wi8 [Roma- is 
num], and by geflymdon, and hy bedrifan into Rome byrig. 
And hraedlice aefter J>am, Somnite awendan on o6re wisan aegjier 
ge heora sceorp, ge eall heora waepn ofer-sylefredan, to tacne 
\iBdt hf o]?er woldan, — o58e ealle libban, o65e ealle licgean. On 

fiam dagum, gecuron Romane Papirius him to consule, and ra5e «o 
^aes fyrde gelaeddan ongean Somnitum, \>eh ]>e heora bisceopas 
ram heora godum saedon, J>aet hy Jiaet gef eoht [forbuden.] Ac he 
Papirius ]?a bisceopas for J>aere segene swiSe bismrede, and Jjaet 
faereld swa ]>eah gef6r; and swa weorBlicne sige haefde, swa 
he aer unweorSiice J>ara goda bisceopan 6ferhirde, paer wear8 » 
Somnita twelf m ofslagen, and iiii m gefangen. And rafte 
aefter |>am maerlican oige, hy wurdon eft geunrett mid mann- 
cwealme, and se waes swaungemetlicand swa langsum, )>aet h^ 
]?S aet nihstan witende mid deofol-craeftum sohton hu h^ hit 
gestillan mihtan, and gefetton Escolfifius J)one scin-lacan mid «• 
f aere ungemethcan naedran, ]>e mon Epi5aurus het ; and onli- 
cost dydon swylce him naefre aer p&m gelic yfel on ne become, 
ne asfter ]>am eft ne become. 

5. py aefterran geare Jiaes, Fauius heora consul, ]>e o5rum 
namon waes haten Gurius, gefeaht.wi5 Somnitum, and heSnlice » 
hamweard o8fleah. pa woldan senatus hine aweorpan, for]?6n 
he \>ddt folc on fleame gebrohte ; ]>sl baed his f aeder, waes eac 
Fauius haten, J^aet ))a senStus forgeafon \>am suna ]:)one gylt, 
and ]?aet hy [gebiden] baet he moste mid ))am suna &t o^ran 
cirre wib Somnitum mid heora ealra f ultume ; and hy him baes « 
gety 8edon. pa behead se f aeder ]>am consule, j)aet he mid his nrde 
ongean fore ; and he beaeftan gebfid mid sumum Jjam fultume. 
pa he geseah \>ddt Pontius, Somnita cyning, haefde J)one consul 
nis sunu besired, and mid his folce utan befangen, he him pa 
to fultume com, and hine swi8e geanmette ; and Pontius, Som- « 

•. c. 828-280.] ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORa 71 

nita cyning, gefengon. paer wear5 Somnita xx m ofslagen, and 
nil M gefangen mid |)am cynige. paer wear5 Romana [gewinn] 
and Somnita ge-endod — for])6n ])e hy heora cyning gefengon — 
p3dt hy »r dreogende waeron Lviiii wintra. 
* 6. Daes on o5rum geare Curius se consul mid Romanum 
gefeaht wi5 Sabinan, and heora ungemet ofsloh, and sige ha&fde, 
be]>on men mihte witan, I>a he [ond] }>a consulas hy atellan ne 

[Boo III : Capitul XL] 

10 1. iEfter ))am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes iiii hund win- 
trum and lxiii, }>a })a Dolabella and Domitius wa&ron consulas 
on Rome, ])a Lucani, and Bmti, and Somnite, and Gallie of 
Senno, angunnon wi5 Romanum winnan. Da sendon Romane 
a&rendracan to Gallium ymb fri5. pa ofslogon h^ }>a serendra- 

I* can. pa sendon hy eft Cecilium, heora pretorium, mid firde 
J>aBr Gallie and Bryti aetgaedere waeron; and he ^aer wear8 
ofslagen, and baet folc mid him ))aet waes xviii m. Swa oft 
[swa] Galli wio Romanum wunnon, swa wurdon [Romane] 
gecnysede. '* For])6n, ge Romane," cwaeS Orosius, " ])onne ge 

wfmb })aBt fin gefeoht ealneg ceoriaS }>e eow Gotan gedydon, 
hwi nellaS ge ge})encan ]>sl monegan aerran, })e eow Gallie oft- 
raedlice bismerlice })urhtugon ! " 

2. Ic sceal eac [gemyndgian], be sumum daele, ])aes pe 
Alexandres aefterfylgendas dydon on ])am tidan, ]>e J)is ge- 

«* wearS on Rome byrig : hu h^ hi sylfe mid missenlican gefeoh- 
turn f««rdydon.— "Hit is," cwaB8 he, "J)am gelicost, ])onne ic 
[his] ge})encan sccal, pe ic sitte on anre heahre dune, and 
geseo bonne on sme})um felda fela fyra b^rnan ; swa ofer eall 
Maeceaonia rice, ])aet is ofer ealle pa, maran Asiam, and ofer 

w Europe J)one maestan [dael] and ealle Libium, baet hit nS [naes] 
buton hete and gewinn um. pa pe under Alexandre fyrmest 
waeran, p^eY baer hy aefter him rixedan, h^ jjaet mid gewinnum 
awestan, ana baer ])aer h^ naeran, h^ gedydan J>one maestan 

• ege, swylce se biteresta smic upp astige, and J>onne wide tofgre. 

M 3. Alexander xii gear ])isne middangeard under hym })rysm- 
de, and egsade; and his aefterfolgeras xnii gear hit sib))an 
totugon, and totaeran, gelicost })Sm })onne seo leo bringS nun» 
gregum hwelpum hwaet to etanne : hy J)onne gecy})a8 on })am 
aete, hwylc heora maest maeg [gehrifnian]. 

40 4. Swa bonne dyde Pholomeus, Alexandres J>egna fin, ])a he 
togaedere [gesweop] ealle Egyptum, and Arabia ; and Laum- 
enda, his oI>er pegn, se befeng ealle Ashie, — and Thelenus 
[Ciliciam], — and Fil6tos Hiliricam, — and lecrapatas ))a maran 
Me})ian^ — and Stromen pa, laessan MeJ^ian, — and PerSice pa 

72 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS, Book III. Ch. XI | 5, 6: [b. c. 32S— 2: 

laessan Asiam. — And Susana . . . — ))a maran Frigan, and Anti- 
gonus, — Liciain, and Pamphiliam, and Narhcus, — Cariam, and 
Leonontus pa Isessan Frigam, — and Lisimachus Thraciam, — 
and Eumen Capadotiam and Paflagoniam. — And Seleucus 
hasfde ealle \>a, ae])elestan menn Alexandres heres; and on 
lengSe mid him he begeat ealle ]>a east land ; and Cassander ]7a 
cempan mid Caldeum. And on Pactrium, and on Indeum, 
waeron pa ealdor-menn, be Alexander gesette ; and J^aet land, 
betux bam twam efin, I^nduse and loasfene haefde Itaxiles. 
And Ithona haefde calonie, ])a J)eode on rndeum ; and Parapa- 
menas haefde Uxiarches, set })aes beorges ende Caucasus ; and 
Arathasihedros haefde Siburtus ; and Stontos haefde Dranceas 
and ^Areas pa, ])eoda and Omintos haefde Atrianus; and Si- 
cheus haefde Sostianus ])aet f olc ; and Itacan6r haefde PSrthos, 
and Philippus IrcSnus; and Fratafemis haefde Arm^nie; and 
Theleom6mmos haefde Mae5as; and Feucestas haefde Ba- 
bylonias; and Polausus haefde Archos, and Archolaus Me- 

5. Ball heora gewinn awacnedon aerest fram Alexandres 
epistole, f orb6n J^e he J)aeron behead, ])8et mon ealle p& wraeccan 
on cyS^e [lorlete], pe on ))am landum waeron, pe he &r sylf 
gehergad haefde. pa noldan Crecas bam bebode hiran, forb6n 
hy ondredan, ]7onne h^ h^ gegaeaeredon, ])aet hy on nim 
gewrScan pa teonan pe hf aer mid him geJ)oledan. Ge eac 
wiBsocon, baet h^ leng wi5 Laecedemonium h^ran noldan, ))aer 
heora heaiod-stol waes. And ra5e ])aes Atheniense gelaeddan 
XXX M folces and twa hund scipa angean Antigone, ]^am cyn- 
inge, pe eall Creca rice habban sceolde, for}>6n pe he baes 
serendes aerendraca waes fram Alexandre. And gesetton nim 
to ladteowe Demosten6n, ))one filosofum ; and asponon him 
to f ultume Corinthum ))a burh-leode, and Sihonas, and Margas; 
and besaetan Antipatrum, Jjone cyning, on anum faestene, 
forf>6n pe he was Antigone on fultume. pser wear5 Leostenas, 
o5er heora ladteowa, mid anre flan ofscoten. pa hy fram J^aere 
byrig haraweard waeron, J^a metton h^ Leonantius pe sceolde 
Antipatrume to fultume cuman; and baer ofslagen wear8. 
iEfter pam PerBica, pe ])a laessdn Asiam naefde, ongan winnan 
wi8 Arifita Capadoca cyninge, and hine bedrad: into anum 
faestene. And ba burh-ware selfe hit onbaemdon on feower 
healfa ; baet eall forwearS ))aet )>aer binnan waes. 

6. iEtter ])am Antigones and Per])ica gebeotedan, ))aet hy 
woldan him betweonum gefeohtan ; and lange ymb ])aet siredan, 
hwaer hy hi gemetan woldan. And monig Tgland awestan oh 
]7am geflite, hwae])er heora mihte maran fultum him t6 geteoh. 
On ))am Snbide PerSica for mid fyrde on Egyptum, pseT Ptho^ 


lonieus waes se cyning, for})6n \>e him waes gessed, })8et he wolde 
Antigone fylstan ])am cyninge. ]>a gegaderade Phtolomeus 
micle fyrde onge^n him. pa hwile be hy togaedere-weard 
fundedim, gefuhton twegen cyningas, Neptolomus and Ume- 

»nis; and he Umenis geflymde Neptolomus, J^aet he com to 
Antigone, ))am cjmincge, and hine speon J^ajt he on Umenis, 
unmyndlinga mid here become, pa sende Antigones hine 
sylfne, and his oberne jjegn Poliperc6n mid miclan fultume, 
)>aBt hy hine [beswicedenj. pa ge^hsode ])8Bt Umenis, 

wand forsaetade hy, }>aBr ])aer hf gejjoht haefdon, J)aBt hy hine 
besaetedon, and hy begen ofsloh, and pa opre geflymde. 
iEfter pam gefeaht PerSica and Ptholomeus, and paer wearS 
PerSica ofslagen. ^Efter pam \vear5 Maecedonimn cu6, baet 
U^men, and Pison, and Ilirgus, and Alceta, PerSican bropor, 

M woldan winnan on hy, and fundon J^aet Antigones him sceolde 
mid fyrde ongean cuman. On })am gefeohte, geflymde 
Antigones Umenis, and hine bedrfif into anum faestenne, and 
hine paer [hwile] bcsaet. Da sende Umenis to Antipatre pam 
cyninge, and hine fultumes baed. Da Antigones J^aet ongeat, 

**ba forlet he pact setl : ac he Umenis him wende fram Antigones 
nam-fasrelde micelra untreo\v5a, and him to fultume fepon pa 
)e aer waeron Alexandres cempan, pa weran hatene Argirfis- 
)i8es,forp6n pe ealle heora waepn waeran ofersylefrede. pa on 
mm tweon, pe hy swa ungeorne his willan fuUeodon, )7a 

»Dec6m him Antigones mid fyrde on, and hy benaemde aegBer 
ge heora wifa, ge heora bearna, ge heora eardes, ge ealles baes 
licgendan fe6s, pe hy under Alexandre begeatan ; and hv sylfe 
uneaSe oSflugon to Umene. iEfter ])am sendon h^ to 
Antigone ymb heora J^act maeste bismer, and hine baedon, })aet 

'•he him agegfe })a&t he ^r on him bereafode. pa onbe^d he 
him, past he him J^aes getyg5ian wolde, gif h^ him Umenes, 
pone cyning, pe heora hlaford pa waes, gebundenne to him 
brohte; and hy J^aet gefremedan swfi, Ac he heora eft aegSer 
ge mid bismere onfeng, ge hy eSc on pone bismerlicostan card 
•• gesette-, paet wacs on pam y temestan ende his manna ; and him 
swa peah nanuht agifan nolde, pass pe hy bena waeron. 

?• iEfter pam Eure5ica Aripeuses cwen, Maecedonia cyn- 
inges, he6 waes pa })am folce monig yfel donde purh Cassanaer, 
liire hlafordes pegn, mid pam heo haefde dyrne geligre ; and 
'^ xmder pam heo gelaerde |)one cyning, paet he hine swa upp 
&i6i, paet he waes bufan eallum pam pe on pam rice waeron to 
'Jam cyninge. And heo gedyde mid hyre lare, Jjaet ealle 
Maecedonie waeron pam cyninge wi5erwearde, o5 hy fundon 
Jaet hy sendon aefter 01impia5um Alexandres meder, paet heo 
^ turn gefylste, paet hy mihtan aeg5er ge pone cyning, ge pa 

10 . 

74 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book 111: Ch. XI § 8. [a. c..12}— 28l 

cwene him to gewildum gedon. Heo J>a OlimpiaSe him to c6m 
mid Epira fultume, hire ageiias rices, and hire to fuhume dbsed 
Eacedan Molosorum cyning. And hy biitu ofsloh, ge l>one cyn- 
mg, ge ]>a cwene, and Cassa])der o5fleah. And OhnipiaSe feng 
to l^am rice, and f>am folce fela laf)es gedyde, }>a hwile }>e heo » 
J^one an weald haetde. Da Cassander jjaet geacsade, \>set heo J)am 
folce la])ade, ))a gegaderade he fyrde. pa heo I>aet geaxade, 
l>rr?t Yses folces wees swa fela to him gecirred, J7a ne [getriewdel 
neo J>aet hire wolde se 6J>er dsel gelastfuU beon; ac [hio] 
genam hire siiore Roxan, Alexandres lafe, and Alexandres !• 
sunn Ereoles, and fleah to ]>am faestene ]>e FiSnam waes haten. 
And Cassander hire aefter f»ir, and )>aet fsesten Sbraec, and 
OhmpiaSmn ofsloh. And ))a burh-leode o5brudon }>a snore 
mid hire suna, ])a hy ongeatan ]>fBt J>8et faesten sceolde abrocen 
beon, and h^ sendon on [o5er] faestre faesten. And Cassander w 
hy het ]>ser besittan; and him ealles ]>8ds anwealdes weold 
Maicedonia rices. 

S. Da wende nion ])8&t ])set gewinn ge-endad waere betweox 
Alexandres folgerum, ba M waeran gefeallen J>e }>aer maest ge- 
wunnon : — })aBt waes reroica, and Umen, and Alci5en, and » 
Polipercoii, and OlimpiaBas, and Antipater, and manege o5re. 
Ac Antigones, se mid ungemete girnde anwealda ofer o6re, 
and to ])am faestene for, jjaer Alexandres Ifif waes, and his sunn, 
and hy J)aer begeat ; to ^6n ])aet he wolde J)aet ba folc him bf 
swi5or to huge, pe he haefde heora eald hlafordes sunu on nis ** 
gewealde. Si65an Cassander \>ddt geahsade, J)a geJ)oftade he 
wi5 Ptholomeus, and wi5 Lisimachus, and wi8 Seleucus, })one 
east cyning, and hy ealle winuende waeran wi5 Antigones, and 
wi8 Demetrias, hys sunu, — sume on lande, sume on waetere. 
On J)am gefeohte, gefeoU se maesta d®l Maecedonia duguSe »• 
on a?g5re healfe, ]>eah by sume mid Antigone waere, sume mid 
Cassandre. }>aer wearS Antigones geflymed, and his sunu. 
•jEfter })am Demetrias, Antigones sunu, gefeaht on scipum wi8 
Ptholomeus, and bine bedrSf on his agen ISnd. iEfter }7ara 
Antigones behead, baet mon aeg5er bete cyning ge hine, ge hys a* 
sunu ; for])6n be Alexandres [sefter] folgeras n^ran ^r )}Sm 
swa gehatene, outon ladteowas. Gemong }}am gewinnum, An- 
tigones him ondred Ereoles, Alexandres sjinu, j^aet J)aet folc hine 
wolde to hlaforde geceosan, forJ>6n })e he ryht cyne-cynnes 
waes: bet }>a aeg5er ofslean, ge hine, ge his modor. pa})aet4o 
J?a [o})re] }ny geahsodan, })aet he hf ealle beswican Jjonte, h^ 
]>SL eft by gegaderedan, and wi8 [hiene wunnon]. }>S ne dor- 
Rte [Cassander] sylf on })am faerelde cumon for his J7am nihstan 
feondum, pe him ymb waeran, ac sende his fultum to Lisi- 
mache, hys gej^oftan, and haefde hys wisan swiSost be])oht to 4» 


Scleuc(ise; for])dn pe he monige [anwealdas] mid gewinnum 
ge-eode on pam east-landum, — J^aet waes aerest Babylonie, and 
Patriane. .^fter ])on he gefor on Indie, ])aer nSn man, »r ne 
si5San, mid fyrde gefaran ne dorste, buton Alexandre. And he 

-8 Seleiicus genydde ealle })a ladteowas to hys hyrsumnesse ; and 
hy ealle Antigones and Demetrias, his sunu, mid fyrde gesohton. 
On }>am gefeohte wa&s Antigones of slagen, and his sunu of ])am 
rice adrrefed. — ''Ne wene ic," cw2e5 Orosiils, "}>aet aenig waere 
pe |>«t atellan mihte, beet on ))am gefeohte gefor.** 

10 9. On l^sere tide getor Cassander, and hys sunu feng to ])am 
rice Philippus. pa wende mon eft o5re sioe, Jjset baet gevvinn 
Alexandres folgera ge-endod waere. Ac h)^ sona pses him be- 
tweonum wunnon. And Seleucus, and Demetrias Antigones 
sunu, him togaedere ge})oftedan, and wi6 ]>am })rim wunnon, — 

isPhihppiise Cassandres suna, and wi5 Ptholomeiise, and AviS 
Lisimachiise ; and hj^ j^aet gewinn )>a ))aeslicost angunnon, ]>e 
hy' hit aer ne ongunnon. On jiam gewinne, ofsloh Antipater 
his'^modor, Cassandres lafe, ])eh ])e heo earmlice hire feores to 
him wilnode. Da baed Alexander hire sunu Demetrias, ]>vct 

«o he him gefylste, baet he his modor siege on his brej^er gewre- 
can mihte ; and hy hyne raSe Jjaes oflsogon. 

10. iEfter }>am gewunnon Demetrias, and Lisimachus; ac 
L'siniachus [ne] mihte Demetriase wiSstundan, for]^6n J^e Dorus, 
Thracea cyning, him eac onwann. pa waes Demetrias on ]>?ere 

a hwile s\vi8e f jiearle] geanmett, and fyrde gelaedde to Ptbolo- 
meuse. pa lie J?aet geahsode, })a begeat lie Seleiicus him to 
fultume, and Pirrus Epira cyninor. And Pirrus him forj^am 
swiSost fylsre, j^e lie him sylfum facade Maecedonia onweald. 
And hy J>a Demetrias of |>am [rice] adrifan, and Pirrus to feng. 

JOiEfter J>am Lisimachus ofsloh hys agcnne sunu, Agathocl^n, 
and Antipater his a}^um. On f>am dagum, [Lisimachia] seo 
burh besanc on eor5an mid folce mid ealle. And aefter j)am 
\>e Lisimachus haeide swa wi5 his sunu gedon, and wi5 bis 
aSum, }>a onscunedon hyne his agene leode, and monige fram 

a» him cyrdan, and S^leucus speonan, J)aet he Lisimachus be- 
swice. Da gyt ne mihte se nio betux him twam gelicgean, ])eh 
lieora ])a n& mS ne lifde, j^aera |)e Alexandres folgeras wa^ron. 
Ac swa ealde swa hy j^a waerou hy gefuhton. Seleucus haefde 
seofon and hund seofont'g wintra ; and Lisimachus haefde j^reo 

<• and seofontig wintra. prer wear8 Lisimachus ofslagen ; and, 
Jjaes ymb |)reo niht, com Ptholomeus, J>e Lisimachus his swe- 
oster haefde and dygellice aefter Seleucuse f6r, f>a he ham- 
weard waes, o5 hys fyrd tofanen waes and hine ofsloh. 

11. pa waes seo sibb and seo mildheortnes ge-endad, Jie hy 
« aet Alexandre geleomedon ; ]^aet waes ]>aet hy twegen, ])e ])aer 

70 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book IV : Cb. I | 1—3. [ft. c. 280 

lengste lifdon, [liaefdon] xxx cyninga ofslSgen, — heora agenra 
eald geferena, — and him haefdon sio5an ealle }>a anw-ealdas, ]>e 
hf ealle &y haefdon. Gemong Jjam gewinnum, Lisimachus 
forlet hys xv suna : sume he sylf ofsloh, sume on gefeolitum 
beforan him sylfum mon ofsloh. * 

12. "Dyllicne gebrojjorscipe,'* cwaeS Orosius, "hy healdan 
him betweonum, ]>e on finum hirede waeran afedde and getJrJe ! 
})aBt hit is us nd swiSor bismre gelic, J^aet we l^aer bespecaS, 
and bset paet we gewinn n(i hStaS, J>onne us fremde and ell- 
}}eodige on becumaS, and lytles hwaet on us [bereafiaS], and •' 
us eft hradlice forlaetaS; and nellaS ge})encan hwylc hit }>fi 
was, ba nSn mann ne mihle aet o5rum hys feorh gebycgan ; 
ne furpon })aet J>S woldon [gefriend] beon, J>e waeron gebro8ra 
of faeaer and of meder !" — [Ond her cndaS sio ])ridde hoc, end 
onginJS seo feor])e.] ** 

[Bdc IV : Capitul I.] 

1. iEfter Sam 8e Rome burh getimbred waes cccc wintrum 
and Lxiiii-gum, piet Tarentine J^aet folc plegedon binnan 
Tarentan heora byrig, aet heora J^eStra, ]>e ])xy binnan geworht 
wses, })a gesawan hy Romana scipa on J)aBre sse yman. pa" 
hraedlice coman Tarentine to heora agnum scipum, and |>a 
o5re hindan offoran, and by ealle him to gewildum gedydon 
bViton V. And J)a ]>e J>a)r gefangene waeran, hy tSwedan mid 
Jjaere maestan unie5nesse; sume ofslogan, sume ofswungon, 
sume him wi8 feo gescaldan. Da Romano jjaet geahsodan, ])a " 
sendon h^ cerendracan to him, and baedan J^aet him mon ge- 
bette, })aBt him ))aer to aebylg5e gedon waes. pa tawedon hy 
eft ])a, aerendracan mid ]>am mae^tan bysmere, swa hy }>a o5re 
ser dydon, and hy si}i])an ham forletan. 

2. ^fter ])am foran Romane on Tarentme ; and swa claene " 
hy namon heora fultum mid him, Jiaet heora proletarii ne mos- 
ton him baeftm beon. paet wasron |)a ]>e hy gesette haefdon, 
}?a2t sceoldan be heora wifum bearna strynjm, ))onne hy on 
gewin foran. And cuaeJon J^aet him wislicre ]>uhte, j^aet hjr |>a 
ne forlure ]>e Jjasr ut fore, haefde beam se ])e mihte, Hy |>a ** 
Romano comon on Tarentine, and |)aer eall awestan }>8et hy 
gemettan, and monega byrig abrsecon. 

3. Da sendon Tarentme [aeghwar] aefter fultumc,|)aer h^ him 
ajniges wendon. And Pirrus, E pira cyning, him com to mid 

f'am maestan fultume, aegSer go on gang-here, ge on rfid-here, *• 
^ge fin scip-here]. He waes on }?am dagum gemoersod ofer 


ealle o5re cyningas, sgfter ge mid his miclan fultume, ge mid 
his r£d-]7eahtunge» ge mid his wig-craefte. Forj^am fylste 
Pirras Tarentinum, f orjjon J)e Tarente seo burh. w?es getimbred 
of LsBcedemonium, pe hi^ rige J?S wpgs. And he haefde Thesalf 

• him to fultume, and Maecedonie ; and he hsfde xx elpenda to 
|>am gefeohte mid him, — pe Romatie ser ngne ne ges^won, He 
W8BS se forma mann, pe hy aerest on ItSHum brohte. He waes 
eac, on }?am dagum, gleawast to wige, and to gewinne ; buton 
bam Snum, ])aet hine his godas and his diofol-gyld beswicon, pe 

*• ne begongende wass. pa he hi ahsode his godas, hwseSer heora 
sceolde on [oj^rum] sige habban, pe he on Romanum, pe Ro- 
mane on him, 8a andwyrdan hi him tweolice and cwsedon : — 
"pU haefst, o85e naefst.'* — ^paet fornie gefeoht, J>aBt he wi8 
Romanum hsefde, hit wses in Compania, neah ])asre e& pe mon 

" Lisum haet. pa aefter ])am pe pvdv on aegSre healfe micel wael 
ges]egen waes, })a het Pirrus don ])a elpendas on ])aBt gefeoht. 
SiSfian Romane })aet gesawan, J^aet him mon swylcne wrenc to 
dyde, swylcne hy ser ne gesawon, ne secgan ne hyrdon, pa, flu- 
gon h^ ealle buton anum menn, se waes [Minutius] haten : he 

**gene8ae under anne elpend, ^aet he hine on ))one nafelan 
ofstang. DS si65an he yrre waes and gewundod, he ofsloh 
micel ]^aes folces : ])aBt aegSer ge pi, forwurdon, pe him on ufan 
waeran, ge eac p& o5re elpendas sticade and gremede, })aet p& 
eac maest ealle forwurdon, pe ))aer on ufan waeron. And }>eh 

**be Romane geflymed [waeren], hy waeran [l>eh] gebylde, mid 
pam pBst h^ wiston hu h^ to J>am elpendan sceoldan. On J)am 
gefeohte waes Romana xiiii m ofslagen fej)ena, and hund eah- 
tatig and viu hund gefangen; and Jjaera gehorsedra waeran 
ofslagen in hund and an m ; and }iaer waeron vii hund gu5fa- 

•• nena genumen. Hit nacs nS gesffid hwaet Pirruses folces ge- 
feallen waere, forJ>6n hit naes j^eaw on J>am tidum, ])aet mon 
aenig wael on |ja healfe rimde, J^e jjonne wyldre waes, buton 
paer J)y laes ofslagen waere, swa mid Alexandre waes, on ])am 
forman gefeohte pe he wi5 Darius feaht, psdr naes his folces nS 

•• mfi ofslagen ))onne nigon. Ac Pirrus gebicnede eft hu him [se] 
sige gelicode, pe he ofer Romane haefde, M he cwaeS aet his 
godes dura, and hit swa Jjser 6n awrSt : — '' Dane hSfa pu, lofes, 
j>aet ic M moste oferwinnan, pe ar w«ron (inoferwunnen ; and 
10 eac iram him oferwunnen eom/' pa ahsedon hine his ])eg- 

*• nas, why he swa hefinlic word be him sylfum gecwsede, ))aet he 
oferwunnen wjere. pa andwyrde he him and cwae8: — ^"Gyf 
ic gefare eft swylcne sige aet Romanum, ))onne m«g ic si5San 
butan aelcon begne Creca land secean." paet wear5 eSc Ro- 
manum on yfelum tScne oSywed aer J>am gefeohte, ba h^ on 

" fyrde w^ron, Jjoet J)aes folces sceolde micel hryre beon ; 8a 

78 KINO ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book IV: Cu. I { 4—6 [». c 280—273 

})unor ofsloh xxiiii heora fodrera, and [Ja] o5re gebrocade 
fivveg comon. 

4. iEfter j^am gefuhton Pirrus and Romane in Abulia }>8BTe 
beode. ])ier wear5 Pirrus wund on o5ran earme, and Romane 
naefdon sige, and haefdon gelcomod m& craefta, hu h^ J)a elpen- 5 
das beswican mihton, mid ^am J>e hi ngmon treowu, and sl6gon 
on o])erne ende monige scearpe isene naeglas, and hy mid flexe 
bewundon, and onbaerndon hit, and bejiyddon hit ])onne on 

)one elpend hindan, J>8Bt hy }7onne foran wedende aegSer ge 
or pdds flexes bryne, ge for J^aera naegla sticunge ; baet set i« 
aelcon] }ifi forwiirdon aerest ]>e him on ufon wwran, ana si55an 
?aet oSer folc Avaeran swa s\vi5e steande, swa hy him scildan 
sccoldan. On ])am gefeohte waes Romana ehta m ofslagen, and 
XI [gu5fonan] genumen. And Pirruses heres waes xx m ofsla- 
gen, and hys guSfana genumen. — Da wearS Pirruse cu5, ])aBt » 
Agothocles [Siraccusa] cyning baera burh-leoda waes gefaren 
on Sicilia ])am lande. Da for lie })ider, and Jjaet rice to him 

5, S6na swfi paet gewinn mid Romanum ge-endod waes, swfi 
waes Jjaer seo monigfealdeste wdl mid mann-cwealme, — ge eSc w 

jaet nSnuht berendes, ne wif ne nyten, ne mihton nanuht 
ibbendes geberan, — ]>eet by })& aet nyhstan waeron ortreowe 
iwae])er him aenig mann eSc acuman sceolde. pa wende 
Pirrus fram Sicilium aeft to Romanum,, and him ongean c6m 
Curius se consul. And heora ]>set ])ridde gefeoht waes on " 
Lucaniam on [Arosinis] })aere dune, peh ]>e Romane sume 
hwil-rj haefdon swiJ)or fleSm ge}?oht }ionne gefeoht, aer ))on by 
gesawon, J>8et man ]>a elpendas on paet gefeoht dyde ; ac si85an 
hf ])a gesawon by hi gegremedan, baet h;^ ]^a w»ran swi5e 
[sleande] ]>e by fylstan sceoldan : ana Pirruses here wearS for » 
^am swioost on fle^me. On ])am gefeohte Pirrus haefde hund 
eahtatig m fejjena, and v m gehorsedra ; and J)aer waes xxxvi 
M ofslagen, and iiii hund gefangen. iEfter }jam Pirrus for [of] 
Italium, ymb v ge&r J)aBs pe he ler jjaer on com. And raSe ws 
J)e he hS,m com, he wolde abrecan Argus ]>a. burh ; and Jaer « 
wear5 mid anum stane ofworpen. 

6. iEfter J>am pe Tarentine geahsodan jjaet Pirrus dead waes, 
Jja sendon hi on Africe to Cartaniginienses aefter fultume, and 
eft wi8 Romanum wunnan : and ra5e J^aes ]?e h^ togaedere 
comon, Romane haefdon sige. peer onfundon Cartaginigenses 4« 
])8Bt him mon oferswiJ)an mihte, ])eh hy nSn folc &r mid 
gefeohte oferwinnan ne mihte. — Gemong bam ]>e Pirrus wi5 
Ilomane winnende waes, hf haefdon ehta legian. Da haefdon 
hf J>a eahte5an Regiense to fultume gesette. pfi ne getruwade 
se ehta5a d«l ]?aera legian, J)aet Romane Pirruse wi5standan « 


mihte, angunnon ])S hergian and h^nan J>g ])e h5F frij)ian sceol- 
dan. pa Romane J^aet geahsodan^ j5a sendon h^ pider Genutius 
heora consul mid fultume, to}>6n ])aBt he on him gewrfece, J>fiet 
hy ]>d slogon and hjrndon ])e ealle Roniane fripian woldon ; 
« and he })a swa gedyde. Sume he ofsloh, sume geband and 
hSm sende; and Jjser waeran si65an witnade, and si55an J7a 
heafda mid ceoii-aexum of acorfena. 

[Boc IV: Capitul II.] 

1. iEfter J>am ]>e Rome burh gethnbred waes cccc wintrum 
10 and Lxxvii, gewurdon on Rome ba yflan wundor. paet waes 
aerest^ })aBt })unor tosloh hyra henstan godes bus loieses, and 
eac J^aere burge weall micel to eorSan gehreas : — and efic J^aet 
try wulfas on anre niht brohtan anes deades mannes h'choman 
Dinnan ]>a burh, and hyne }78er siSSan stycce-maelum tobrudon, 
u o6 \>SL menn onwocan, and ut urnon ; and hy si55an onweg 
flugon. On |)am dagum gewearS, }>aet on anre dune neah 
Rome b}Tig tohMd seo eor5e, and waes byrnende fyr upp of 
paere eorSan ; — ]>xt on aelce healfe })aes fyres seo eoroe waes fif 
aecera braede to axsan geburnen. 
» 2. Sona J>aes on }iam aefterran geare, gefor Sempronius se 
consul mid fyrde wi8 Pencentes Italia folc. pa mid ]>am pe 
h^ hi getiymed haefdon, and togaedere woldan, jja wear5 eor8- 
beofung, ^aet aeg8er })aera folca wende untweogendlice, baet 
hy sceoldan on fa eor5an besincan. And hf J)eah swa [on- 
to draedendlice] gebidan pset se ege [ofergongen] waes ; and j^aer 
si5Saii waelgrimlice gefuhton. pser waes se maesta blod-gyte 
pn aegSre healfe )>aera folca : peh ]>e Romane sige [haefden ]>a, 
feawa pe] p»r to lafe wurdon. paer waes ges^ne psdt seo eor8- 
beof ung tacnade pa. miclan blod-dryncas, pe byre mon on paere 
«• tide to forlet 

[B6c IV: Capitul IIL] 

1. iEfter pam pe Rome burh getimbred waes iiu hund win- 
trum and lxxx, gemong pam o5rum monegum wundrum, pe 
on bam dagum gelumpan, — J^aet mon geseah weallan blod of 

j5 eorcan, and rinan meolc of heofenum. On pam dagum. Car- 
ta^nigenses sendon fultum Tarentinum, }}a?t h^ })e eaS mihton 
wio Romanum. pa sendon Romane aerendracan to him, and 
h^ ahsedon for hwJF by Jjaet dydon; })a oSsworaii by pam 
aerendracan mid pam bismerlicestan a8e, J^aet hy him nsefre 

40 on fultume naeron ; peh pe JjS a8as waeran neSr mine })onne 

2. On pam dagum, Ulcinienses and Thrusci J>a folc forneah 
ealle forwurdon for heora Sgnum dysige; for pam pe h^ 

80 kiKG ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Bch.k VI; Cm. VI § I, 3. [». c. 323— 320 

sunie heora J>eo\vas gefre6don, and eac him eallum wurdon 
t6 milde and to forgifene. pa of|>uhte heora ceorlum, baet 
man pa, j^eowas freode and hy nolde, pa wiSsawan hy ]>am hla- 
f ordum, and }>a ))eowas mid him, 06 hy wyldran waeron ))onne hy^ 
And hy si68an mid ealle of })am earde adrifon ; and him to wifum s 
dydon ba J^e &r waeran heora hlaefdian. Da siMan gesohtan 
bk hlSiordas Romane, and hy him gefylstan, ))act hjr eft to 
neora agnum becomon. 

[Boc IV: Capitul IV.] 

1. jEfter }>ara \>e Rome^ burh getimbred waes [iiii hunde i© 
wintrum ond lxxxi], becom on Romane mice! mann-cwealm, 
))8Bt hy J>a 8Bt nyhstan ne ahsedan hwaet })8Bra gefarenra waere, 
ac hwaet heora Jjonne to Ifife waere. And eSc }>a deofola \>e hf 
on symbell weor))edon, h^ amjTdon, to-efican ))ani o}?rum mo- 
nigfealdum bismrnm })e nf laerende waeron, }?aBt by ne cu6an i» 
ongitan Jjaet hit Codes wracu waes. Ac heton ))a bisceopas 
JVdt hf ssedon pam folce, Jjaet heora godas him wceron yrre, to 
^am ]>xt hi him })a git swi8or ofredon, and blotten, })onne 
^hie] 8er dydon. 

2. On baere ilcan tide, Caperronie waes hfitenu heora goda «• 
nunne. pa gebyrede byre ^aet heo h^ forlaeg. H^ })a Ro- 
mane for }>am gylte hf ^engan, and efic J>one })e })one gylt mid 
hire geworhte, and ealle ]>& ]>e pone gylt mid him wiston, and 
mid him hselon. — Hu wene we nu Romane him sylf )>yllic wri- 
ton and setton for heora [agnum] gylpe and heringe ; and w 
}>eah, gemong J^aere heringe, j^yllica bismera on hy sylfe asae- 
don ? Hu wene we h(i monegra maran bismra by forsygedon, 
®g5CT ge for heora agenre lufan and land-leoda, ge eSc for 
heora senatum ege ? 

3. BE CARTAiMA GEwiNNE, *' Nu we sculou fou, " cwasS Oro- M 
sius, ymb J^act Punica gewinn, baet waes of pam folce of Cartaina 
pddve byrig, seo waes getimbred f ram Elisfinn pam wifmen [lxxii]- 
tigum wintrum &r Rome burh. Swa some ]?aera burh-warana 
yfel, and heora bismeres wearS lytel Ssaed and awriten, swa swa 
Trogus and [lustinus] saedon, [heora] staer-writeras ; for))on J?e m 
heora wise 6n naenne sael wel ne gef6r, naSer ne innan f ram him 
sylfum, ne utane fram o5rum folcum.** Swa peah to-eacan paxa 
yfelum, hy gesetton, ))onne him micel mann-cwealm on becom, 
|)aDt hy sceoldon menn heora godum blotan. Swa eac )>a deofla> 
pe hf on gelyfdon, gelaerdon h^, |iaet }>a pe p2er [on unhaele] <o 
waeran, ])aet h^ hSle for h^ cwealdon. And waeron ])a menn 
to }?on dysige, Jjaet hi wendon ))aet hf mihton }>aet yfel mid 
bam gestillan ; and J)a deofla to pon lytige, paet h^ hit mid 
pam gemicledan ; and, f or^on pe hf swa swiBe dysige wa^on^ 


him c6in on Godes wracu on gefeohtum to-eacan o5rum yfe- 
lum, l^aet waes oftost on Sicilium and on Sardmium J^am ig- 
landum, on })a hy gelomlicost wunnon. iEfter ]>am \^e him 
swa oftraedlice mislamp, J^aet hy angunnon hit witan heora 

• ladteowum and heora cempum heora earfe6a^ and him bebudon 
b«t h^ on wraec-sij^as foran and on ell}>iede. Ra6e jefter ])am 
nf baedan, ]>sdt hf mon to heora earde forlete, J^aet hi moston 
gefandian hwaeSer h^ heora meds^l})a oferswi5an mihton. pa 
him mon jjaes forwynide, ]>a gesohtan hy [hie] mid firde. 

to On j^jere hergunge, gemette [se] yldesta ladteow Maceus, his 
agenne smiu, mid purpurum gegyredne on bisceophade. He 
hine bd for |jam gyrelan gebealh, and he [hiene] oferfon het 
and ah6n,and wende }>aBthe for his forsewennesse swelc sceorp 
werede, for})on hit naes |?eaw mid him baet senig o}}er purpu- 

19 ran werede, baton cyningum. Ra5e aefter J^am h^ begeatan 
Cartaina ))a burh, and ealle jja asltaewestan ofslogon, })e J^aer 
inne waeron, and J)a o5re to him genyddon. Da aet nihstan, 
he wearS sylf besyred and ofslagen. pis wacs geworden on 
Ciruses daege Persa cyninges.** 

to [Boc IV: Capitul V,] 

1. iEfter ))am Himelco, Cartaina cyning, gefor mid fyrde 
on Sicilie, and him }?aer becom swa faerlic yfel, }iast ba menu 
waeron swa ra5e deade swa hit liim on becom, j^act ny ]>h ast 
nihstan h^ bebyrgean ne mihton ; and [he] for jiam ege his 

» unwillum []>onan] wende, and ham for mid ])am ]>e }?aer [to 
lafe] vvaeron. Sona swa jjaet forme scip hind gesonte and paet 
egeslice spell gebodade, swa waeron ealle }ia burh-ware Cartagi- 
nigenses mid swi5eHce heSfe and wope onstyred, — and aelc 
ahsiende and frinende aefter his frynd ; and hj' mitwegendlice 

aonanra treowSa him ne wendon, buton ])vet by mid ealle for- 
weorSan sceoldan. Mid })am ]>e ])& burh-ware swa geomorlic 
Sngin haefdon, ]>a com se cyning sylf mid his scipe, and land 
gesohte mid swiBe | ly]>erlicum] gegyrelan : and R?g8er ge he 
sylf [wepende] hamweard for, ge \)8dt folc, ])aDt him ongean com, 

M eall nit him wepende hSmweSrd folgode. And he se cyning 
his hSnda waes [uppweardes] braedende wi5 ];aes heofones, and 
mid oferheortnesse him waes waniende aegSer ge his [agene] 
heard-sae1])a, ge ealles J^aes folces. And he ])a gj^t him sylfum 
gedyde paet J^aer wyrst waes : ]>a, he to his inne com, ])a he ]>aet 

«• folc })aer (ite betynde, and hine asnne j^aer inne belcac, and hine 
sylfne ofsloh. 

2. ^fter bam was sum welig mann binnan Cartaina, se 
waes haten Hfinna, and waes mid ungemete J^aes cynedomes 
gymende; ac him ge})uhte }}aet he, mid ])aera witena willum. 

ft3 KING ALFUED'S OROSIUS; iScoK IV: Cm. V | 3, 4. [•. c. 308 

him nc mihte to cumau, and him t6 raede genam ))aet he h^ 
ealle to gereordum to him [gehete], J^aet he h^ si&5an mihte 
mid attre acwellan. Ac hit gewear5 }>urh }>fi fimeldad, he he 
ge]>oht hsefde, Jjaet him to Jjtere daede fylstan sceolde. pa he 
omunde J^aet ^aet cu6 wajs, }>a gegaderade he ealle \>a J>eowas » 
and ]>SL yfelan menn ]>e he mihte, and bohte \>xt he on ]>a 
bnrh-ware on migearewe become ; ac hit nim wearS seror cu5. 
pa him aet J^aere by rig ne gespeow, J>a [gelende] he mid xxnii 
M to anre opene byrig,and ^ohte ])aet he j>a abrasce. pa haefdon 
])a burh-leoda Mauritane him to fultume, and him ongean !• 
comon butan faestene^ and Hannan [gefengon], and j^a o6re 
geflymdon; and ]>sev siSS'iu tintregad wear8. iErest, hine 
man swang, ba sticode him mon ba egan ut ; and si5San him 
mon slob pa liSnda of, pa paet heafod. And eall his cynn mon 
ofsloh, py laes hit mon uferan [dogore] wr«ce, o85e aenig oper i» 
dorste eft swylc onginnan. Dis gewearS on [Philippuses] daege 
paes cyninges. 

3. JEher pam h^rdon Cartanienses paet se msera Alexander 
haefde abrocen [Tirum] pfi burh, seo waes, on aer-dagum, heora 
vldrena epel ; and ondredon paet [he eac to him cuman wolde]. it 
^a sendon by pider Amilchor, heora bone gleawestan mann, 

aet he Alexandres [wisan] besceawoae; SA^'a he hit him eft 
am onbe&d, on anum brede awriten ; and, si85an hit awriten 
Wfies, he hit oferworhte [mid] weaxe. Eft pa Alexander gefa- 
ren waes, and he ham com, pa, tugon hine paere burge \vitan, « 
paet he heora swicdomes wi8 Alexander fremmende w^re ; and 
nine for paere tihtlan ofslogon. 

4. iEfter J)am Cartanienses wunnon on Sicilie, p«r him 
seldon teala gespeow, and bes«tan heora heafod-burn — Sirac- 
cuses waes hatenu, pS ne onhdgode AgSthocle heora cyninge, 30 
pret he wi8 h^ mihte buton faestene gefeohtan, ne eSc paet ny 
ealle mihton for meteleste paer binnon gebidan; ac leton heora 
fultum paer binnan beon be pam daele, [paet] hi aegSer mihton 

e heora faesten gehealdan ; ge e&c paet p£ mete haefdon ba 
wile. And se cyning, mid pam o5rum daele, on scipmn tor « 
on Cartaniense : and hy ra5e paes fSrbaernan bet, be he to 
lande gefor, forpon he nolde paet his fynd heora eft aenigne 
an weald haefde. And him paer raSe faesten geworhte, and waes 
pffit folc jmnon (it slefinde and h^nende, oo pact Hanna, paes 
folces o5er cyning, hyne aet3>am faestene gesohte mid xx m. 4f 
Ac hine Agathocles geflymde, and his folces ofsloh ii m, and 
him aefter fylgende waes 08 v mila to paere byrig Cartaniense, 
and paer o5er faesten geworhte. And ])aer ymbutan waes her- 
gende and baernende, paet Cartaniense mihton geseon, of heora 
byrig, paet fyr and pone te6nan, ponne h^ on f6re waeron. «« 


B.C264— 242] FIRST PUNIC WAR— H ANNO. 83 

6. Ymbe )>one timan \>e pis w»s, Andra waes hSten, Agatho- 
cles bro}>or, — ^])one he vet hfim on }>»re byrig him be aeftan 
let, — he besirede J^aet folc ]>e hi embseten haefdon on anre niht 
ungearewe, and hit maest eall ofsloh ; and ])a oSre to scipan 

• oSflugon. And ra5e J)8bs ]>e hy hSin comon, and baet spell cu5 
wear& Cartainiensum, swa wurdon by swa swiSe ior|>6hte, b»t 
nalses }>»t fin ))»t Agothocle manega byrig to gaiol-g}4duin 
wurdon, ac eac hf him heap-maelum sylfe on hSnd eodon; 
swa eac Fefles» se cyning« mid Cerene his folce, bine eac ge- 

•• sohte. Ac Agathocles gedyde untreowlxe wi6 bine, )>aet he 
bine on his wceruni beswgc, and ofsloh : swa him efic sylfum 
siSftan softer lamp. Gif he 5a ]>S. fine untreowSa ne gedyde, 
from J>am dsege he mihte butan broce ealra Cartaina anweald 
begitan. On ^aere hwile, ]>e he bone unraed })urhteah, Amic6r, 

»• Pena cyning, waes mid sibbe wio his farende, mid eallum his 
folce. Ac betiix Agathocle and his folce wearS ungeraednes, 
p9dt he sylf ofslagen wear5. iEfter his deaSe foran iit Car- 
tainienses on Sicilie mid scipum. pa by ba&t geahsedon, Ipa 
sendon by aefter Piniise, Epira cyninge, and ne him sume hwile 

•• gefylste. 

[Boo IV : Capitul VL] 

1. iEfter pam ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes cccc wintrum 
and Lxxxiii, sendon Momevtine, Slciliafolc, aefter Romana ful- 
tume, }>aBt by wi5 Pena folce mihte. pa sendon h^ him 

«« Appius Claudius, |)one consul, mid f ultume. Eft pa hjr togae- 
dereweard foran mid heora f oleum, })a flugon Pene ; swa hy eft 
sylfe saedon, and hys wundredan, })aet hy aer flugon &r hf 
togaedere genealaebton. For bam fleame, Hanna, Pena cyning, 
mid eallum his folce, wear5 Romanum to gafol-g}'ldum, and 

«• him aelce gefire gesealde twa bund talentana seolfres : on aelcre 
anre [talentan] waes lxxx punda. 

2. yEfter ]>am Romane besaetan ))one yldran Hannibalan, 
Pena cyning, on Argentine, Sicilia byrig, o5 he fomeah huhgre 
swealt pa com him Pena o})er cyning to fultume mid scip- 

where, Hanna w:bs haten, and ]>^r geflymed wear8. And 
Romane si55an Jjaet faesten abraecan, and Hannibal se cyning 
on niht lit o5fleah mid feawum mannum, and lxxx scipa 
gegaderade, and on Romana land-gemaero hergade. On ]>& 
wi^e fundon Romane aerest baet hy scipa worhtan; J^aet gefre- 

^mede Duulius heora consul, })aBt J^aet fingin wear5 tidlice 
l^urhtogen, swa f|7aette] aefter syxtigum dagum Jjaes ]>e J^aet 
timber acorfen waes, })8er waeron xxx and c gearora, ge mid 
maeste, ge mid segle. And o5er consul, se waes hfiten Cornelius 
Asina, se gefor on Liparis ]>cet igland, to Hannibale t6 sundor- 

84 KING ALFU£DS 0R0S1U8; Book IV: Cb. VI, {3—7. [b. c. 264— 242. 

spraece mid xvi scipan, ^6, ofsloh he hine. S\\& baet ^ se oSer 
consul gehyrde Duulius, swa gefor he t6 })am iglande mid xxx 
scipum^ and Hannibales folces in hund ofsloh, and his xxx 
scipa genam, [and] xiii on s^ besencte, and hyne sylfne 
geflymde. » 

3. iEfter ])am Punici, l^aet sindon Cartaniense, hy gesetton 
Hfinnonan ofer heora scipa» swa Hannibales wses bst, \>sdt he 
bewerede Sar5iniam and Corsicam }>a igland wi6 Romanum : 
and he ra})e ])aes wiS h^ gefeaht mid scip-here and ofslagen 
AvearS. • w 

4. pses on ]7am aefteran geare, Calatinus se consul for mid 
fyrde, to Canierinam Secilia i^yrig ; ac him haefdon Pene }>one 
weg forseten, ])ser he 6fer ]>one munt faran sceolde. pfi genam 
Calatinus in hund manna mid him, and on anre digelre stowe 

t>one mmit oferstfih, and }>S menu afserde, pmt hf ealle ongeSn w 
line wfieron feohtende, and Jjone weg Ictan butan ware, baet seo 
fyrd si65an baer ])urhf6r. And baer wearS \>ddt in hund manna 
ofslagen, calle buton bam consule aniun : he com wund &weg. 

5. ALher }}am Punice gesetton eft J)one ealdan Hannibalan, 
])S£tt he mid scipum on Romane wunne ; ac eft ]>a he J^aer her- «• 
gean sceolde, he wear8 ra5e geflymed, and on }>am fleame 
hyne oftyrfdon his agene geferan. 

6. iEfter pam Atilius se consul aweste Liparum and Melitam, 
Sicilia igland. iEfter])am foran Romane on Affrice mid iiii hund 
scipa and britigum. Da sendon hy heora twegen cyningas him m 
ongeSn, Hannan and Amilcor, mid scipum. And }>aer wurdon 
begen geflymed, and Romane genSmon on l:im lxxxiiii scipa ; 
and si55an hy abraecon [Clupeam] heora burh, and waeron her- 
gende o5 Cartaina heora heafod-burh. 

7. iEfter j^am Regulus, se consul, underfeng Cartaina m 
gewinn. }>a he aest J>ider mid fyrde farende waes, J?a ge\vicode 
he neah anre eS, seo waes haten Bagr^da. pa c6m of J>am 
waetere Sn naedre, seo waes ungemetlice micel ; and pa menn 
ealle ofsloh ]>e neah J?am waetere comon. 

Be J)/EUe n-edran. Dfi gegaderade Regulus ealle ])a scyt- m 
tan jie on pam fasrelde waeron, ])aet hy mon mid flanum ofer- 
come ; ac, |)onne hy mon sloh o55e sceat, bonne glad hit on }iam 
scillum, swylce hit waere sme5e isen. ±)a het he mid ]>am 
3alistas, mid bam hy weallas braecan j^onne hy on faestenne 
■uhton, — J>aBt hire mon mid jjam })wyres on wurpe. Da wearS <• 
lire, mid anum wyrpe, an ribb forod, }>aBt heo sio5an maegen ne 
i^fde hy to gescyldanne, ac ra5e l^aes heo wear8 ofslagen ; 
forjjon hit is naedrena gecynd, baet heora maegen and heora 
fe5e bi5 on heora ribbum, swa ooera [creopendra] wyrma biS 
on heora fotuin. pa heo gefylled waes, he het hy behyldan, « 

B. c 204— 2i2] FIRST PUNIC WAR.— HAMILCAR. 85 

and J>a hf de to Rome [bringan], and hy J^aer to mser&e 
a]>enian, torpSn heo wies hund twelftiges fota lang, 

8. iEfter j^am, gefeaht Regulus wio })ry Pena cyningas on 
anum gefeohte, — wi5 twegen Hasterbalas, and se j^ridda wajs 

• haten Amilcor, se waes on Sicilium, him to fultume gefett 
On })am gefeohte waes Cartainiensa [xvii] m ofslagen, and [v] 
M gefangen^ and [xi] elpendas genumen, and lxxxii tuna him 
eodan on hand. 

9. pa sefter bam \>e Cartainiensa geflyrade wceron, hy wilne- 
" don tripes to Regule ; ac eft }>a hy ongeatan, J)8et he unge- 

metlic gafol wi8 ])am fri6e habban wolde, ]>sl cwaedon hjr, — Jjaet 
him leofre \va*re past hf, on swylcon niSe, dea5 fomame, 
]?onne h^ mid swylcan niede fri5 begeate. pa sendon hy 
aefter fultume^ aeg5er ge on GalHe, ge on Ispanie, ge on Laece- 

" demonie aefter Exantipuse J)am cyninge. Eft ]}a h^ ealle 
gesomnad waeran, J>a bebohtan hjr ealle heora wig-craeftas to 
Exantipfise ; and he si5oan pa folc gelacdde, bser h^ togaedere 
gecweden haefdon, and gesette twa folc diegellice on twa 
healfa his, and J^ridde be aeftan him, and bebead j^am twam 

•• folcum, })onne he sylf mid pam fyrmestan da&le wi5 jjaes aefte- 
mestan fluge, Jjaet hy ))onne on [Reguluses] fyrde on twa 
healfa )>wyres onfore. paer wear8 Romana xxx m ofslagen, 
and Regulus gefangen mid v hund manna, pes sige gewearS 
Punicum on pam teo5an geare heora gewinnes and Romana. 

" Ra&e baes Exfintipus for eft to his agnum rice, and him Romane 
ondrea, [forJ)on] hy for his lare aet heora gemittinge beswicene 

10. iEfter })am, [iEmilius] Paulus, se consul, for on Affricam 
mid III hund scipa to Clepeam Jjam iglande, and him comon 

'•)>aer.ongean Punice mid swa fela scipa; and J>aBr geflymde 
waeron, and heora folces wa3s v m ofslagen, and heora scipa 
xxx gefangen, and mi and an hund [adruncen]. And Romana 
waes an c and an m ofslagen, and heora scipa ix adruncen. And 
hy on pam iglande fa?sten worhtan; and hy padv eft Pehe 

" gesohton mid heora twam cyningum, pa waeran begen Hannan 
hatene. paer he ::ra waeron ix m ofslagen, and pa o5re gefly- 
med. Mid paere here-hy5e Romane oferhlaestan heora scipa, 
pa h^ h&nweard waeron, paet heora [gedeaf] cc and xxx, and 
Lxx wear8 to lafe, and unea8e genered, mid pam })act h^ maest 

*• ealle (it awurpon paet paer on waes. 

11. iEfter pam [Amilcor], Pena cjming, for on Numedian 
and on Mauritaniam, and hy oferhergade, and t6 gafol-gyldum 
gesette, forp6n pe hy &t Regule on hand eodan. paes ymb 
[in] gefir Serfilius Ccpio, and Sempronius Blesus, pa consulas, 

** foran mid iii hund scipa and Lx-gum, on Affrice, and on Car- 

86 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Boob IV: Cb. VI. | 12^16. [b. c. 264— StS. 

taniensum monega byrig abrscon; and siSSan mid miclum 
bingum hamweard foran, and eft heora scipa oferhlsstan, }iaet 
neora gedurfon l and c. 

1 2. iEf ter ]>am Cotta, se consul, for on Sicilie, and hf ealle 
[oferhergeade]. paer waeron swa micle mann-slyhtas on aegRre • 
healfe, bflst hy mon »t nihstan bebyrgean ne mihte. 

13. On Luciuscs daege Heliuses, |)ss consulcs, and on Me- 
tclluses Gaiuses, and on Forfises Blacidfises, com Hasterbal, se 
niwa cyning, of Cartainum on Libeum baet igland mid xxx m ge- 
horsedra, and mid xxx-gum [elpenda] and c-gum, and ra&e \>ses *• 
gefeaiit \vi8 Metellus,bone cyning, Ac si55an Metellus })a [elpen- 
das] ofercom, siSSan he haet'de ^c Va5e ))8et o8er folc geflymed. 
JEiter {)am fleame, Hasterbal wearS ofslagen fram his agnum 

14. pa wjeron Cartainiense swa ofercumene and swa gedre- '* 
fede betux him sylfum, ]>adt hy hi to nanum onwealde ne 
bemsetan; ac hy gewearS, j^tet hy woldan to [Romanum] 
friSes wilnian. pa sendon hf Regulus, })one consul, })one hy 
hasfdon mid him fif winter on bendum, and he him gesw6r on 
his goda namon, baet he aegSer wolde ge })8Bt aerende abeodan *• 
swa swa hy hine heton, ge eac him J^aet findwyrde eft gecy})an. 
And he hit swa gelasste, and ahead ]>set aegSer ^aera folca oSrum 
ageafe ealle pa, menn ))e hf gehergad haefdon, and siSSan him 
betweonum sibbe heoldan. And aefter ]>am ]>e he hit aboden 
haefde, he hjf h&lsode, baet hy nanuht J)aBra aerenda ne under- ** 
fengon, and cwaeS, past nim to micel aewisce wacre, J)aet hy swa 
em.ilice wrixledon ; and efic })aet heora gerisna naere }?aet h^ 
swa hefine h^ ge})ohtan, J>aBt h^ heora gelican wurdan. pa, 
aefter bam wordum, hy budon him })aet he on cy&8e mid him 
wunode, and to his rice fenge. pa andwyrde he him, and *• 
cwaeS, Jjaet hit nS geweorSan sceolde, J>aBt se ware leoda cyn- 
ing, se ]>e aer waes [folce] beow. pa [he eft to Cartainum c6m, 
ba] gsaedan his geferan hu he heora aerenda ahead, J)a forcur- 
lon hi him ]>sl twa aedran on twa healfa baera [eagena], baet 
he aef terbam slapan ne mihte, o6 he swa seangende his lif forlet* " 

15. iEfter J>am, Atilius Regulus, and Nallius Ulsca, })a con- 
sulas, foran on Cartaine on Libeum \>set igland mid twam hund 
scipa, and J^aer besaitan Sn faesten. pa bef6r hine J^ser HSnni- 
bal, se geonga cyning, Amilcores surtu, ))aer h^ ungearewe 
buton faestene s£tan ; and baer ealle ofslagene waeran buton *• 
fea\^^m. iEfter bam, Claudius, se consul, f6r §ft on Punice ; 
and him Hannibal fit on s& ongean c6m, and ealle ofsloh butan 
xxx scip-hlaesta, J)a oSflugon to Libeum })am iglande: J^aer 
waes ofslagen ix m, and xx m gefangen. * 

16. iEfter ]>am f6r Gains I(inius, se consul, on Affrice, and*' 

•^e.264— 242] FIRST PUNIC WAR. -HANNIBAL. 87 

mid eallum his fserelte on s& forwearS. pses on ))am sfterran 
geare, Hannibal sende scip-here on Rome^ and J^aer ungemetlic 

17. iEfter })fim, [Lutatia], se consul, f6r on Affrice mid in 
fthund scipa, t6 Sicilium, and him Punice }){er wiS gefuhton. 

peer wearS Lutatia wund J)urh o5er cneow, par on mergen 
cdm Hfinna mid Hfinnibales fyrde, and him ]>&r gefeaht wi8 
Lutatia, J>eh he wund ware, and Hannan geflymde, and him 
aefter f6r, o8 he c6m to Cinam Jjsere bvrig. Ra8e J)aBS c6mon 
locft Pene mid iyrde to him, and geflymde wurdan, and of- 
slagen ii m. 

18. pa wilnedon Cartaine oSre siSe fribes to Roman um ; and 
h^ hit hhn on J)8et gerad geafan, J>»t ny him Siciliam t6 ne 
tugon, ne Sardiniam ; and e^ic him gesealdon ]?ser onufan in m 

i< talentana aslce geare. 

[Boc IV: Capitul VIL] 

L ^fter J>am J?e Rome burh getimbred w^^s v bund wintrum 
and VII, wearS ungemetlic f^r-br^ne mid Romanum, J)8Bt nfin 
mann nyste hw&ion hit c6m, pfi pe^t fyr [hie] alet, ba wearS 

»• Tiber seo eg swa fledu, swa he6 naefre aer naes, ne siSoan ; J)8Bt 

he6 maest eall genom pBit binnan ))8ere byrig wses ))sera manna 

andlyfene, ge eac on heora getimbrum. On J)am dagum, J)e 

.Titus Sempronius and Gratias Gaius wseron consulas on Rome, 

[hfj gefuhton wi8 Faliscis J)am folce, and heora ofsl6gon xii m. 

i» 2. On J)am geare wurdon [ba] Gallie Romanum wi})erwearde, 
pe mon nu haett Langbeardas; and raSe ))8bs heora folc to- 
gaedere gelsddon. On heora })am forman gefeohte, waes 
Romana in m ofslagen ; and on J)am seftran gear^r-waes Gallia 
liii M ofslagen, and ii m gefangen. pa Romane hamweard 

- [foran], ]ja noldan h^ don )>one triumphan beforan heora 
consulum, ]>e heora gewuna wses [}}onne] h^ sige hsefdon ; 
forb6n ]>e he aet J>am asrran gefeohte fleah ; and by Jjset si&ftan 
feala geara on missenlicum sigum dreogende wseron. 

3. Pa })a Titus Mallius, and Torcwatus Gaius, and Atirius 
M Bubulcus waeran consulas on Rome, })a ongunnon Sardinie, 

swa h^ Pene gelaerdon, [winnan] wi5 Romanum; and raSe 
oferswiSde w»ron. JEiter \>am, Romane wunnon on Cartaine ; 
forJj6n })e hf friS abrocen haefdon. Da sendon h^ tua heora 
asrendracan to Romanum aefter friSe; and hit abiddan ne 
40 mihtan. pa aet J)am ])riddan cyrre, hf sendon x heora peld- 
stena] witena, and hf hit abiddan ne mihton. iEt J)am 
feorSan cyrre, hf sendon H£innan, heora })one unweorSestan 
pega, and he hit abe^. 

4. "Witodlice," cwaeS Orosius, "n(i we sindon cumen to 

88 KINO ALFKEDS OUOSIUS, Dooe IV: Cm. VII | 5—9. {». e. 2S5 

})atn g6dan tidum, ))e us Romane oSwitaS ; and to pare geniht- 
suranesse, pe hy us ealnig fore gylpa8, \>mt ure ne sien Jfim 
gelican. Ac frine hf mon })onne, aefter hu [monegum] wint- 
rum seo sibb gewurde, })aBS \>e hf aest finsibbe wi& monegum 
f oleum hafdon ? ponne is j^aet after l wintra and cccc. Ah- * 
sige })onne gft hu lange seo sibb gestode ? ponne was pat an 

5. Sona pas, on pam afterran geare, Gallie wunnon wio 
Romane; and Pene on obre healfe. **Hu bincS eow n 
Romanum, hfi seo sibb getastnod ware ? hwaoer he6 si pam i« 
gelicost, pe mon nime anne eles dropan, and drype on an 
mycel f jt, and pence hit mitt pam* adwascan ? ponne is wen 
swa micle swipor, swa he penco pat he hit adwasce, pat he 
hit swa micle swiSor [ontydre]. Swa ponne was mid Roma^ 
num, pat an gefir })at h^ sibbe hafdon, pat h^ under pare w 
sibbe to })are mastan sace becdme.'* 

6. On heora pam arestan gewinne, Amilcor, Cartaina cyning, 
pa he to Romanum mid fyrde faran wolde, pa wearS he fram 
Spenum bepridad and ofslagen. On pam geare, Ilirice ofslogan 
Romana arendracan. iEfter pam, Fuluius Postumius, sew 
consul, for ]>&m on hi fyrde geladde, and fela ofslagen wear6 
on agSre healfe, and he ]7eah sige hafde. 

7. Sona ]7as, on pam afterran geare, gelardan Romana 
bisceopas swylce niwe radas, swylce h^ full oft &r ealde 
gedydon, pa him mon on })reo healfa on winnende was, — » 
agSer ge Gallie be suban inuntum, ge Gallie be norSan mun- 
tum, ge Pene, — })at ny sceoldan mid mannura for h^ heora 
godum blotan, and {)at sceolde beon gn Gallisc wapnea-mann, 
and Sn Gallisc wifmann. And hy p& Romane, be ])ara bis- 
ceopa lare, hy swa cuce bebyrgdon. Ac hit God wrac on him, «• 
swa he ar ealneg dyde, swa oft swa hy mid niannum offredan ; 
pat hf mid heora cucum [onguldon] })at hf ungyltige cweal- 
don. pat was arest gesine on j^am gefeohte pe hy wi6 
Gallium hafdon, — J>eh be heora agenes fultumes ware eahta 
hund M, buton o6rum lolcum, be hy [him] hafdon to aspo- •* 
nen, — j^at hy raSe flugon, J>as [pe] heora consul ofslagen was, 
and heora o6res folces in m. pat him ]>a, ge})uhte swylc pat 
maste wal, [swylc] hy 6ft ar for noht hafdon. JEt heora 
oSran gefeohte, was Gallia ix m ofslagen. 

8. pas on pam priddan geare, Mallus Tarcuatus and Fuluius «• 
Flaccus waron consulas on Rome. Hy gefuhton wi5 Gallium 
and heora iii m ofslogon, and vi m gefengon. 

9. On })am afterran geare, waran monige wundra gesewene. 
A'n was J)at on PicSno pam wuda fin wile weoU blode ; and 
on Thrficio pam lande, mon seah swylce se heofon bume ; <» 


and on Ariminio jjsere byrig waes niht o5 midne daeg; and 
wearR swa micei eor8-beofung, Jiflet on Cfiria and on R6])um 
]>am iglandura, wurdon micle [hryras], and Colosus gehreSs. 
10. py geare, Fiaminius, se consul, forseah ]>sl s»gene, ]>e 

i )>a hlyttan him sjedon, and him logan, J)aBt he set ]>am gefeohte 
ne come wi5 Gallic ; ac he hit })urhteah, and mid weorSscipe 
ge-endade. paer waes Gallia vii m ofslagen, and [xvii]m gefan- 
gen. iEfter J)am, Claudius, se consul, gefeaht wi8 Gallic, and 
heora ofsloh xxx m ; and he sylf gefeaht \vi5 J)one cyning 

10 anwig, and hine ofsloh, and MegelSn ]>a burh ge-eode. jEfter 
bam, wunnon Is}>rie on Romane ; jja sendon hy heora consu- 
las ongefin, Cornelius and Miniitius. ]?£er wjes micel wael 
geslagen on aegSre healfe, and Tstrie wurdon ))eh Romanum 

15 [Boc IV : Capitul VIII.l 

1. iEfter Jjam ]>e Rome burh getimbred w^s [v hunde 
wintrum ond xxxiii], Hannibal, Pena cyning, besaet Saguntura, 
Ispania burh, for)>6n J)e hy on simbel wi5 Romanum sibbe 
heoldon] ; and })aer wags sittende viii mona5, o& he h^ ealle 

to hungre acwealde, and ])8l burh towearp, J>eh pe Romane heora 
aerendracan to him sendon, and hi firmetton baet hi paet gewin 
forleton ; ac he hy swa unweorSlice forseah, paet he heora sylf 
onseon nolde on pam gewinne, and eac on monegum [o5rum]. 
iEfter J)am, Hannibal gecySde J^one ni6 and ))one bete, |?e he 

wbeforan his faeder gesweor, ]jS he nigon-wintre cniht waes, 
]>adt he naefre ne w^urde Romana freond. 

2. pa ]>'d Publius Cornelius, and Scipa Publius, and Sempro- 
nius Longus, ba by waeron consulas, Hannibal abrsec mid 
gefeohte ofer pa beorgas, J?e mon htett Perenei, j^a sindon 

10 betwyx Galleum and Ispaneum. And si])))an he gefdr ofer Jja 
monegan })eoda, o6 he com to Alpis J>am muntum, and \>ter 
e&c ofer abraec, ]>eh him mon oftraedlice mid gefeohtum wi5- 
stode, and })one weg geworhte ofer [munt lof]. Swa, ])onne he 
to J>am syndrigum stane com, ))onne bet he hine mid fyre 

« onhaetan, and si65an mid mattucum heawan ; and mid })am 
maestan geswince Jja muntas of erf or. His heres wres fin [c] m 
fe)>ena, and xx m gehorsedra. 

3. pa he haefde on ))am emnette gefaren o& he com to 
Ticenan ]>»re ea, J)a com him \>ier ongefin Scipio se consul, 

40 and l^aer frecenlice gewundod wear5, and eac ofslagen waere, 
gif his sunu his ne gehulpe, mid })am paet he hjTie foran for- 
stod, o8 he on fleame fealh. paer wearS Romana micel wael 
geslagen. Heora [Saet] aeftre gefeoht wa3s aet Trefia J?aere ea ; 
and eft waeron Romane forslegen and geflymed. Da })aet 

« Sempr6nius hirde, heora ober consul, se waes on Sicilium mid 


do KING ALFREDS OROSIUS ; Book 1V:Cii. VIU §3,4; Cn. IX 1 1, [a. c. 218—201 

fyrde gefaren, he })onan afor, and begen ))a consulas waeron 
iiiid fyrde oiigean Hannibal ; and heoia gemitting waes [eft] 
vet IVefia j^jere ea, and eac Roniaiie geflymed, and swiSor 
forslagen, and Hannibal gewundod. JEiter ])am for Hannibal 
cfer Bardan ]^one beorh, J>eh ]>e hit ymbe j^one timan waeron * 
swa micel snaw-gebland, swa baet 8eg6er ge })£era hors»a fela 
forwurdon, ge ])a elpendas ealle buton anum ; ge ]>a, menn 
sylfe uneaSe J)one cyle gensesan. Ac forJ>am he geneSde 
swiSost ofer Jjone munt, Jje he wiste Jjaet Flamineus, se consul, 
wende J>aBt he buton sorge mihte on J)am winter-setle gewunian, f 

])e he ]ia on w«s, mid J^am folce ])e he ba gegaderad hsefde, 
and luitweogendlice wende paet nan naere tl^e] beet faerelt ymbe 
]>one timan anginnan dorste o55e mihte, for[})»m] ungemet- 

lican cyle. Mid ]?am ]>e Hgnnibal to }>am lande becom, swa 
gewicode he on anre dygelre stowe, neah }>am o&rum folce, i» 
and sum his folc sende gind }>set land to baernanne and to 
hergeanne; }?8et se consul wres wenende })set eall }>aBt folc 
ware geond j^aet land tobrsed, and Jjiderweard farende waes, 
and bencende j^aet he h^ on Jjaere hergunge beswice ; and })aBt 
folc Duton truman Isedde, swa he wiste |)aet ]jat o6er waes, 08 «• 
}>{et Hannibal him c6m ]7wyres on mid ])am fultume ]>e he 
aetgaedere haefde, and J)one consul ofsslog, and baes o5res folces 
XXV M, and vi gefangen ; and Hannibales folces waes twa m 
ofslagen. iEfter )>am Scipia se consul, )>a^ oSres Scipian 
broSor, waes monega gefeoht donde on Ispanium, and Mag6-«* 
nem Pena ladteow gefeng. 

4. And monega wundor gewurdon on J)aBre tide. ^Erest 
wjes, }>aet seo sunne waes swylce heo waere eall gelytladu. 
0]}er waes, ]>mt mon geseah, swylce seo sunne and se mona 
fuhton. pas wundor gewurdon on Arpis })am lande. And on w 
JSardinium mon geseah twogen scyldas blode swaetan. And 
Falisci baet folc h^ gesawan, swylce seo heofon waere tohliden. 
And Athium ))aet folc him ge}>uhte, [J>a] h^ heora corn [ripon], 
and heora cawlas afylled haefdon, jiaet [ealle] J>a efir waeron 
blodige. M 

[Boc IV : Capitul IX.] 

1. iEfter J>am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes v hund wint- 
rum and xl, })a ]>a Lucius Amilius, and Paulus Publius, and 
Terrentius Uarra, J>a by waeron consulas, hy geforan mid firde 
ongean Hannibal ; ac he hi mid Jjam ilcan wrence beswac, be «• 
he aet heora aerran gemetinge dyde, and eac mid ]>am niwan pe 
hf ffir ne cuSan, ])aet waes, f aet he on faestre stowe let sum his 
folc, and mid sumum f6r ongean ba consulas ; and, raSe })aes pe 
hy to somne comon, he fleah wio [})ara J)e] jiaer baeftan waeran. 


and him pa consulas waeron aefter fylgende, and Jjaet folc 
sleande, and wendon J)a3t hi, on ]7am daege, sceoldan habban 
})one msestan sige. Ac rdpe |)8B3 ]>e Hannibal [to] his fultunie 
com, he geflymde ealle })a consular, and on Romanum swa 

5 micel wael gesloh swa heora naefre naes, ne ser ne si55an, aet 
aniini gefeonte, — ])aet waes xliiii m, and j^aera consula twegen 
ofsloh, and J>one {)riddan gefeng; and })a on dseg he minte 
cuman to ealra Romana anwealde, baer he forS gefore to jjjere 
byrig. JEher }>am, HSnnibal senae ham to [Cartaina] })reo 

10 midd gyldenra hringa, his sige t6 tScne. Be bam hringum, 
mon mihte witan hwaet Romana dugu5e gefeallen waes ; for- 
J)6n \>e hit waes J>eaw mid him on })am dagum, J^aet nfin 6\>er ne 
moste gyldenne bring werian, baton he aejjeles cynnes waere. 

2. iEfter bam gefeohte, waeron [Romane] swa swiSe for- 
ts bohte, pact Celiiis Metellu3,be |?a heora consul waes, ge ealle 

neora senatus, haefdon ge]>oht, })aet hy sceoldon Rome burh 
forlaetan, ge furSon ealle Italiam. And hy j^aet swa gelaeston, 
gif him Scipia ne gestyrde, se waes ])aera cempena yldest, mid 
J>am ]>e he his sweorde gebraed, and sw6r \>xt him leofre 

«o waere, ]>vet he bine sylfne acwealde ])onne he forlete his faeder 
ejiel ; and sa^de eSc ]>xt he ])aera aelces ehtend wolde beon, 
swa swa his feondes, ]>e ])aBS wordes waere, ])aet fram Rome 
byrig })ohte. And he hy ealle mid ])am genydde, baet hy 
a^ds sworan, |>aet by ealle aetgnedere woldon ooSa on 

fi heora earde licgean, o55e on heora earde hbban. iEf ter ])am, hi' 
gesettan Tictator, })aet he sceolde beon herra ofer pa consulas, 
se woes haten Decius lunius. He naes buton xvii wintre. And 
Scipian hy gesetton to consule ; and, ealle ])& men, ]>e hi on 
peowdome haefdon, by gefreodon, on paet gerfid, baet hy [him] 

«o apas sworan, paet h^ him aet pam gewinnum gelaeston. And 
sume J>a J>e heora fregean noldan, — \p]>]ye hie ne anhagade poet 
hie niehten], — ])onne guidon hi pa consulas mid heora gemaj- 
nan fto, and sippan freodan ; and ealle pape fordemede waeron 
aer pam, o55s hy sylfe forworht haefdon, hy hit call forgeafon, 

«» wi5 pam pe hi him aet pam gewinnum fulleodan. paera manna 
waes VI M, pa hi gegaderad waeron. And ealle Italiam geswican 
Romanum, and to HSnnibale gecyrdon, forpon pe by waeron 
orwene [hwaeSer] aefre Romane to heora onwealde become* 
Da gefor Hannibal on Benefente, and by him ongean comon, 

4f and him to gecirdon. 

3. -^fter pam, Romane haefdon gegaderad iiii legian heora 
f olces, and sendon Lucius Postumius, pone consul, on pSGallie, 
pe mon nix Lfingbeardas haet, and pa^r ofslagen wear5, and paes 
folces fela mid him. ^Efter pam, Romane gesetton Claudius 

« Marcellus to consule, se waes aer Scipian gefera. He f6r 

02 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book IV: Cu. X | I, 2. [b. c. 218—201 

deaniinga mid gewealdenan fultume, on ]>one ende Hannibales 
folces, pe he syu on waes, and fela ]>3ds folces ofsloh, and hine 
sylfne geflymde. Da ha^fde Marcellus Romanum cu5 gedon, 
bset mon Hannibal geflyman mihte, ]>eh ]>e hf &v tvveode 
nw»6er hine mon mid aenigon man-fultume geflyman mihte. * 

4. Gemonor J)am gewinnum, })a twegen Scipian, ]>e ]>a waeron 
consulas, and eac gebroSor, hy wa&ron on Ispanium mid fyrde, 
and gefuhton \vi6 Hasterbale Hannibales faederan, and hine 
ofslogon ; and his folces xxx m, sume ofi^logon, sume gefen- 
gon : se wtes eac Pena o})er cyng. lo 

5. iEfter ]^am, Centenus Penula, se consul, baed ]>ect senatus 
him fultum sealdon, }>8et lie mihte Hgnnibal mid gefeohte 
gesecean ; and he })8Br ofslagen wearS, and viii m hys folces. 
^fter })am, Sempronius Graccus, se consul, for eft mid fyrde 
ongean Hannibal, and geflymed wearS ; and his heres waes rai- is 
eel wael ofslagen. 

6. " Hii magon nii Romane,** cwaeS Orosius, " to so8e gesec- 
gean, paet hy ]>& haefdon betran tida ponne hi nu habban, ^a hy 
swamonega gewinn haefdon endemes [underfongen] ? — fin waes 
on Ispania ; oJ>er on Maecedonia ; ])vidde on Capadotia ; feorSe so 
aet ham \vi6 Hannibal ; and hi eac oftost geflymde wurdon, and 
gebismrade. Ac \>^t waes swiSe svveotol, \>adt hi ]>& waeron 
beteran J)egnas J)onne hf nu sien ; ])aet hy ]}eh ]>ees gewinnes 
geswican noldon, ac by oft gebidan on lytlum staJ)ole, and on 
unwenlicum, j^aet by \>& aetnihstan, hn^fdon ealra |)aera anweald, a 
J)e ffir neah heora hsefdon." 

[Bdc IV : Capitul X.] 

1. ^fter])am be Rome burh getimbred waesv huiid wintrum 
and XLiii, ])t^t Marcellus Claudius, se consul, for mid scip-here 
on Sicilie, and begeat Siraccuses, heora ])a welegestan burh, »o 
|7eh [he] hi aet bam a^rran faerelte begitan ne mihte, })a he by 
beseten haefde, tor Archime])es craefte [sumes] Siciiia jiegnes. 

2. On l^am teo5an geare, ])aes])e Hannibal wo'nn on Itidie, he 
for of Campaina ])'<\m lande, o5 |>reo mila to Rome byrig, and 
aet ]iaere eg gewicode, ])e mon Annianus ha»t, eallum Romanum » 
to f)ain maestan ege, swa hit mon on ]}aera waepned-manna 
gebaerum ongitan mihte, [hu] hy afyrhtede waeran, and 
ag^lwede, \>si ])'d wifmen urnon mid stanum wi5 baera wealla, 
and cwoedon fjaet by ])a burh werigun woldon, gif pa waepned- 
men ne dorstan. ]>aes on morgen, Hannibal for to }>aere byrig, 40 
and beforan pam geate his folc getrymede, ]>e mon haet Col- 
lina. Ac ]>sl consulas noldan hy selfe swa earge gej^encean, 
s\va hi fja wifmen jer forcwaedon, j^aet h^ hi binnan paere byrig 
werigan nc dorstan ; ac hy hi butan ])am geate ongean Hanni- 
bal trvniedon. Ac )ni by togajdere woldon, |)a com swa un- 


gemetlic ren, })«t heora nfin ne mihte nanes wflepnes [gewcal- 
dan] ; and for}>ain toforan. pa se ren abkm, hy foraii eft 
togaedcre ; and eft wearS o5er swylc ren, J)jet hy eft toforan, 
pa ongeat Hannibal, and liim sylf saede, j)eh \>e be w'rfniende 
« weere and wenende Romana onwealdes, paet hit God ne 

3. '* GesecgaS me nu Roniane," cwaeS Orosius, " hwaenne paet 
gewurde, o85e hwfira {6r ])ain Cristendome, opj^e ge, oS5e oSerc 
act asnegum godum mihton ren [abiddan], svva mon siSSan 

li mihte, si55an se Crifetenddm vvaes, and nu gyt magon monege 
g6*de aet urum haelendum Criste, ])onne him pearf bi5. Hit 
waes peah swi5e svveotol, ]>aBt se ilea [Crist], se pe hi eft to 
Cristendome onwende, |)a?t se him pone ren to gescildnesse 
onsende, peh hi paes wyrSe naeran, to-[|^onJ pa*t hy sylfe, and 

13 eac monige o&re purh hy, to pam Cristendome, and to |>am 
sopan geleafan, become." 

4. On pam dagum pe pis gewearS, waeron twegen consulas 
ofsldgen on Ispania: pa wajron gebroSor, and waeron begen 
Scipian h&tene. Hy wurdon beswicene fram Hasterbale, Pena 

» cjniinge. — On paere tide, Quintus Fuluius, se consul, ge-egsade 
ealle pa yldestan menn, pe on Campina waeron, j^aet hy hi 
sylfe mid attre acwealdon. And ealle jja yldestan menn, pe 
waeron on Cfipu paere byrig, he ofsloh, forpon pe he wende |)aet 
hi woldon Hannibale on fultume beon, ])eh ])e pa senatius him 

M haefde pa died faeste forboden. 

5. pa Romane ^eahsedon \>vct pa, consulas on Ispanium 
ofslagen wurdon, pa ne mihton ]ni senatus n^enne consul ur.der 
him findan, pc dorste on Ispaiiie mid fyrde gefaran, buton })aera 
consula oSres sunu, Scipia waes haten, se waes cniht. Se waes 

so geome biddende, |?aet him mon fultum sealde, piet he mo.^te 
on Ispanie fyrde geliedan; and he j^aet [faereltj swi])ost for 
pam purhteah. pe he pohte \>ddt [he] hys faeder and hi; faederan 
gewTaece, peh pe he hit faeste wi8 [pa] senatus haele. Ac Ro- 
mane waeran paes faereltes swa geornfulle, |)eh pe hy s\vi5e 

»» gebrocode waeron on heora licgendan feo, pe hi g^^mnene haef- 
dop, for pxim gewinnum \>e hy pa haefdon on feower healfa, 
paet hy eall him gesealdon jjaet hy pa haefdon ]>am faerelte to 
fultume, buton paet aelc wifman [liaefde] ane yndsan guides, 
and [an] pund seolfres, and aelc waepned-man anne bring and 

40 ane hoppan. 

6. pa Scipia haefde gefaren to paere niwan byrig Cartaina, 
pe mon nu Cordofa hset, he besaet Magonem, Hannibales 
broSor; and forpon pe he on pa burh-leodc on ungearewe 
becom, he hi on lytlan fyi-ste mid liungre on [his] geweald 

4*genydde, paet him se cyning sylf on hand eodc; and he ealle 

04 KINO ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Dook IV; Cii. X f 7—9. [b. c. 218— 'iOl 

l^a o6re sume ofsloh, — siime geband, and bone cyning gebun- 
denne to Rome sende, and nionege mid nim J>aera yldestena 
weotena. Binnan [Saere] byrig wies micel licgende feoh fun- 
den : sum hit Scipia to Rome sende, — sum he hit het })am 
folce daelan. « 

7. On bsere tide, for Leuinus, se consul, of Macedonia on 
Sicilie mia scip-here ; and })8er ge-eode [Agrigentum] jia burh, 
and gefeng Hannonam heora ladteow ; and si55an him eodan 
on hand xl burga; and xxvi he gc-eode mid gefeohte. On 
bare tide, Hannibal ofsloh Gneus Fuluius |)one consul on lo 
Italium, and eahta m mid him^ JEher ]>am. Hanniball feaht [wi5 
Marcellus] })one consul J)ry dagas : j)y fonnan dspge, |>a folc 
feollan on aegSre healfe gelice; J)y sefteran da*ge. Hannibal 
haefde sige ; \>y }>riddan daege hiefde se consul. ^Efter bam, 
Fauius Maxinms, se consul, for mid scip-here to Tarentan paere w 
byrig, sua Hannibal nyste, and pa burn on niht abraec, swfi J>d 
nystan, J)e ]>ver inne wjeron ; and Hannibales ladteow ofsloh 
Cartolon, and xxx m mid him. 

8. ]7aes on j^am aefteran genre, Hannibal bestael on Marcellus 
Claudius, l>one consul, j^ser he on fyrde sret, and bine ofsloh, ?• 
and his folc mid him. On |iam dagum, Scipia geflymde Has- 
terbal on Ispanium, Hannibales oj^oerne bro5or; and })»s 
folces him eode on hand bund eahtatig burga. Swa IfiS \v«es 
Pena folc Scipian jia he by geflymed haefde, swa )>eh \ye he by 
sume wi5 feo gesealde, pact he ]>dct weorS nolde agan, J)aBt him " 
mon wi8 sealde, ac hit o5rum mannum sealde. On ])am ilcan 
geare, beswac eft Hannibal twegen consulas, Marcellus and 
Cirspinus, and by ofsloh. 

9. ])a. Claudius Nerone, and [Marcus IJvius] Salinatore 
waeran consulas, Hasterbal, Hannibales broj^or, for mid fyrde ^o 
of Ispanium on Italia [Hannibale] to fultume. pa geahsedon 
\)Si consulas J)aet aer aer Hannibal, and him ongean comon, swa 
he [swa] pa muntas ofcrfaren haefde, and pvev haefdon lang- 
sum gefeoht, aer |)aera folca ajier fluge. ]>aet waes swiSor on 
]?am gelang, }>aet Hasterbal swa late fleah, for|>6n ]>e he elpendas ^ 
mid him haefde ; and Rumane haefdon sige. par wear8 Has- 
terbal ofslagen, and liii m [his] heres, and v m gefangen. pa 
heton ]>a consulas Hasterbale past heSfod of aceorfan, and 
gworpan hit beforan Hannibales wic-stowe. Da Hannibale 
cu8 waes, |)aet his bro5or ofslegen waes, and )?aes folces swa fela <• 
mid him, j)a wear5 him aerest ege fram Romanum, and gefor 
on Bruti ^aet land, pa haefde Hannibal and Romane an gear 
stilnesse him betweonum, forj76n ]>e ])S folc biitu on fefer-adle 
mid ungemete swulton. On J>aere stilnesse, Scipia ge-eode 
ealle Ispanie, and siSSan com to Rome, and Romanum to rsede «» 


gelaerde, baet hy mid scipum f6re on Hannibales land, pa 
i.endon [Roniane] hine, jjael he J>8bs faereltes consul waere ; 
and ra5e J)aBs J)e he on Pene com, him com oiigean H^inno se 
cyning, uinvajrlice, and ]>sev wearft ofslagen. On J)flere tide, 

5 Hannibal feaht wi5 Sempronius ])one consul on Italiam, and 
liine bedrfif into Rome byrig. 

10. ^fter })am,foran Pene ongean Scipian mid eallum heora 
fultume, and [wic-stowa] namon on twam stowum, neah J)are 
byrig, \)e inon U'tica het: on o5re wseron Pene, — on o6re 

10 NumeSe, ])e him on fultume waeran, and gej>6ht hsefdon J)aBt 
hy ]>dP'T sceoldan winter-setl habban. Ac siSSan Scipia geah- 
sode }>aBt ])a fdrewcSrdas waeron feor ]^am faestenne gesette, 
and eSc baet [)>8Br] nane o5re neSr nseran, he })S dygellice 
gclsedde his fyrde betuh J>am weardum, and feawa menn to 

u o5rum Jjaera faestenna onsende, to bon j^aet hy his aenne ende 
onbaerndon, ])aet si85an maest ealle J^e })ser binnan wasran, 
waeron wi8 })acs fyres weard, to |?on \>set hy hit acwencan 
bohton. He ]>& Scipia, gemong J)am, hy maest ealle ofsloh« 
Ua }>aBt })a o8re onfundon, ]>e on J>am oSrum [faestenne] waeron, 

whi waeron floc-mselum j^ider-weard J>am o5rum to fultume; 
and hy Scipia waes ealle J)a niht sleande, swa hf })onne c6mon, 
o5 daeg; and si5San he [hie] sloh, ofer ealne []>one] daeg, 
fleonde. And heora twegen cyningas, Hasterbal and Sifax, 
o5fIugon to Cartaina baere byrig, and gegaderedan })one fultum, 

M })e hi ]>S haefdon, and ongefin Scipian comon, and eft wurdon 
geflymed into Cartaina. Sume o5f lugon to Cretan Jjam i^lande ; 
and him Scipia sende scip-here aefter, j^aet mon sume otsloh, — 
sume gefeng. And Sifax wear8 gefangen, heora o6er cyning, 
and sipjjan waes to Rome on racentan sended. 

•• 11. On }>am gefeohtum, waeron Pene swa forhfnde, \>set hf 
nS, si55an hy wi5 Romane to nahte ne bemaeton ; and sendon 
on Italic aefter Hannibale, and baedan J)aet he him to fultume 
come. And he him wepende Jiaere bene getygSade, for})6n 
]>e he sceolde Italiam forlaetan, on ))am ]7reoteo6an geare [}>aes] 

" pe he fier 6n com ; and he ealle ofsloh, J>e of })am landum his 
men waeron, and mid him ofer sss noldan. 

12. pa he hamweard seglede, |>a het he anne mann stigan 
on J>one maest, and locian hwae^er he })aet land gecneowe, ^aet 
111 toweard waeron. pa ssede he him, })aet he gesawe ane to- 

<• brocene byrgenne, swylce heora ))eaw waes ))8et mon ricum 
mannum bufan eor5an of stanum worhte. pa waes Hannibale, 
aefter heora hae})eniscum gewunan, ))aet findwyrde swiSe la&; 
and him un])anc saede })aes Sndwyrdes, and ealne })one here he 
het mid ))am scipum })anon wendan, J)e he [an: to] ge))oht 

« haefde, and up comon aet Leptan ]7am tune, and hraedlice f6r 

'JO KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; liouK IV; Ch. XI §1,2. [b. c.801 

to Caitaina and biddcnde wres ])aBt he moste wi8 Scipian 
sprecan, and wilniende waes ]^8et lie fri5 betweox bam folcum 
findan sceolde. Ac hy heora sundor-spi aece, ]>e hy betweox 
])ani [folcum] togajdere-weard gespraecon, to unsibbe brohton, 
and hy to gil'eolite gyredon. And ra5e j^aes ])e hi togaedere* 
comon, Hannibales folc wear5 geflymed, and xx m ofslagen, and 
V hinid and eahtatig elpenda, and Hannibal oSfleah feowera sum 
to A))ranietuni ham faestenne. pa spndon })a burh-leode of 
Cavtaina a?fter Hannibale, and cwaedon [j^aet] hhn selest waere, 
])apt hy fri5es to Romanum wilnade. pa })a Gains Cornelius «• 
and Lentulus Pnblius waeron consulas, wear5 Cartainum friS 
alyfed fram Scipian, mid ])iura [Senata] willan, on Jiaet ger&d, 
l^ktt ]m igland Sicilia and Sardinia hirdon to Romanum, and 
]>aet hy him aelce geare gesealde swa fela talentana seolfres, 
SNNa hy him ]ionne alyfde; and Scipia het v hund heora scipa i» 
lip ateon, and forbaernan, and siS5an to Rome hamweard for. — 
])a him mon pone triumphan ongean brohte, J)a eode ]>ddr mid 
Terrentius, se mrera Cartaina sceop, and baer haett on his 
heafde, forpdn Romane haefdon ])&, nivvHce gesett, |)8et ])& pe 
haett beran moston,])onne hy [hwelc] folc ofer wunnen haefdon, «• 
paet ])S moston aegSer habban ge feorh ge freodom. 

[Boc IV : Capitul XL] 

1. iEfter pampe Rome burh getimbred waes v hund wintrum 
and L. waes ge-endad ])aBt aeftere Punica gewinn and Ro- 
mana, paet hy dreogende waeran xiin winter. Ac Romanes 
raSe l^a^s o&er ongunnon wi6 Maecedonie. pa hlutan pa 
consulas, hwylc heora paet gewinn aerest underfon sceol- 
de. pa gehleSt hit Quintius Flaminius, and on pam ge- 
winne monega gefeoht burhteah, and oftost sige haefde, 08 
Philippus heora cyning iripes baed, and hit him Romane alyf-2» 
don ; and siSSan he for on Laecedemonie, and Quintius Flami- 
nius genydde begen pa cyningas, paet hy sealdon heora suna 
to gislum. Philippus, Macedonia cyning, sealde Demetrias hys 
sunu, and [Naui5a], Laecedemonia cyning, sealde ArmenSn his 
sunn. And ealle pa Romaniscan menu, pe Hannibal on Crece « 
geseald haefde, him behead se consul, paet hy eall heora hea- 
fod bescearon, to tScne paet he hy of peowdome Sdyde. 

2. On paere tide, Subres, and Cenomanni pa folc hy togae- 
dere hy gesomnodan for Amilcores lare, Hannibales [broSor], 
pone he aer on Italium him beaeftan forlet ; and si58an forah 4# 
on Placentie and on Cremone pS land, and h^ mid ealle awes- 
ton, pa sendon Romane pider Claudius Fuluius, pone consul, 
and he hy uneaSe oferwann. iEfter pam Flamineus, se con- 
sul, gefeaht wi5 Philippus, Maecedonia cyning, and wi8 ThrSci, 




and wi8 Ilirice, and wi5 nionega o5re ]>eoda, on anum gefeohte, 
and hy ealle geflynide. paer wees Macedonia ehta m ofslagen, 
and VI M gefangen. JFJter bam, Sempronius, se consul, wearS 
ofslagen on Ispania mid ealre his fyrde. On Jjajre tide, Mar- 
• cellus, se consul, wearS geflymed on Etruria }>am lande, })a 
com Furius, o8er consul, him to fultume, and sige haefde ; and 
hf si56an J)set land eall awestan. 

3. pa })a Lucius Ualerius and Flaccus Marcus wseron consulas, 
pa, on^n Antiocjius, [Sira] cyning, winnan wi5 RomSnum, and 

^^ of Asia on Europe mid fyrde geior. On Jjaere tide, hebudon 

Romane Jjset mon Hannibal, Cartaina cyning, gefenge, and hine 

si£5an to Rome brohte. pa he jjset gehyrde, Jja fleah he to 

Antiochdse, Siria cyninge, }iaer he on tweogendlican onbide 

w-jes, hwaB}>er he wi5 Romanum winnan dorste, swa he on gun- 

^^ i^cn hsefde. Ac hine Hannibal aspon, J)aBt he j^aet gewinn leng 

o migan. pa sendan Romane Scipian Affricanus, heora asrend- 

•^^can, to Antiochuse, pa het he Haimibal, J>aet he wi8 ba 

^^^rendracan spraece, and him geandwyrde. pa hi nanre siboe 

•^ ^ gewearS, 8a c6m sef ter ]^am Sci})ia, se consul, mid Claf none, 

^^^irum consule, and Antiochuses folces ofsloh xl m. Da&s on \>am 

^^^^fteran geare, gefeaht Scipia wi8 Hannibal ute on sse, and sige 

*^ ^fde. Da Antiochus Jjaet gehyrde, J}a baed he Scipian fri})es, 

^^- nd him his sunu ham onsende, se waes on his wealde, swa he 

^^^yste hu he him to com ; butan, swa sume menn saedan, Jjaet 

** *^e sceolde beon on hergunge gefangen, o55e on wearde. 

4. On j^aere firran Ispanie forwearS Emilius, se consul, mid 
^^allum his folce fram Lusitaniam })aere }>eode. On ]>am dagum, 
^orwear8 Lucius Beuius, se consul, mid eallum his folce fram 

^tusci J)am leodum ; }>aet |)aer nan to lafe [ne] wear8 ]>2et hit to 
^ome gebodade. 

5. iEfter pam, Fuluius, se consul, for mid fyrde on Crece to 

^am beorgum, pe mon Olimphus hset, ba waes paes folces fela on 

^n faesten o8flogen. pa, on j^am gefeohte, pe hy ]>aBt faesten 

V)recan woldan, waes fela Romana mid flanum ofscotod, and 

'^nid stanum oftorfod. pa se consul ongeat, baet hy baet faesten 

^ibrecan ne mihton, ba behead he sumum pam folce, baet hy 

5ram \>am faestenne aioran, and J)a o5re he het paet hy wio paera 

^8erra flugan ponne paet gefeoht maest waere, paet hi mid pam 

aloccodan (it pa be paer binnan waeran. On pam fleame, be pa 

^ burh-ware eft wi8 pa3S faestenes flugon, heora wearS ofslagen 
:XL M, and pa pe paer to ISfe wurdon, him on hand eodan. On 
7>am dagum, for Marcus, se consul, on Ligor paet land, and 
geflymed wear8, and his folces ofslagen iiii m. 

6. pa pa Marcus Claudius and Marcellus Quintus waeron 
^» consulas, Philippus, Maecedonia cyning, ofsloh Romana aerend- 

13 • 


dS KING ALFRED'S OIIOSIUS; Book IV: Cii. XII i 1 [b. c. 151 

racan, and sende Demetrias his sunu to j^am senatum, }>flet he 
baet yrre gesette \vi6 hy ; and, J>eh pe he swa gedyde, })a he 
nam com, Philippus het his o])erne sunu pajt he hine mid 
attre acwealde, forjjon ]>e he teah hine j^aet he hys ungerisna 
spraece vviS ]>a, senatus* On j^a^re ilcan tide, Hannibal hiss 
agnum willan hine sylfne mid attre acwealde. On }>»re tide, 
ooiewde Fulcania pedi igland on Sicilium, \>est naes gesewen »r 
ba. On ]>H*re tide, Quintus Fuluius, se consul, gefeaht wi8 }>a 
fyrran Ispanie, and sige haefde. 

7. Da \>a Lapidus Mutius waes consul, wolde seo strengste it 
})eod ^vinnan on Romane, \>e mon J>a het Basterne, and nu hy 
mon het Hungerie : hy wolllan caman Perseuse to fultume, 
Maecedonia cyninge. pa waes Donua seo efi swa swi5e oferfro- 
ren, J^aet hy getruwedon Jjaet hi ofer ]>am ise faran mihton ; ac 
hi maest ealle J)aBr forwurdon. » 

8. Da ]}a P. Licinius Crassus and Gains Casius waeron con- 
sulas, ))a gewear5 ))aet Maecedonisce gewinn, ]>xt mon ea5e 
mceg to )>am maestan gewinnum getellan ; for bam ]>e, on paxn 
dagum, wasron ealle Italie Romanum on fuitume, and eac 
Phtolomeus, Egypta cyning, — and Argeatus, Capadotia cyn-«o 
ing, — and Emenis, Asia cyning, — ^and Masinissa, Name))ia 
cyning. And Perseuse, Maecedonia cyninge, him wa&ron on 
fuitume ealle Thraci and Ilirice. And ra5epaes }>e h^ t6 somne 
comon, Romane wurdon geflymed ; and ra5e })aBS, aet oSrum 

fefeohte, hy wurdon eac geflymed. And aefter f>am gefeohtum, «« 
^erseus waes ealne ])one gear Romane swi5e swencende, and 
si55£.n he for on Ilirice, and abraec Sulcanum heora burh, seo 
waes Romanum underpeod ; and micel ]>aBS mann-cynnes, — sum 
acwealde, — sum [on] Maecedonie laedde. JEher f>am, gefeaht 
Lucius Emilius, se consul, wi5 Perseus, and hine oferwonn, st 
and his folces ofsloh xx m ; and he sylf aet j^am cyrre o5fleah, 
and ra5e aefter })am gefangen wear5, and to Rome broht, and 
}>aer ofslagen. And monega gefeoht gewurdon, on ]>am dagum, 
on monegum landum, Jjaet hit n(i is to longsum eall to [gesec- 
genne]. u 

[Boo IV: Capitul XIL] 

1. iEfter })am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes vi hund win- 
frum, \>a J)a Lucius Lucinius, and Lucullus Aula waeron con- 
sular, wearS Romanum se maesta ege fram Sceltiferin, Ispania 
folce : and nanne mann naefdon, ^e I>ider mid fyrde dorst« « 
gefaran, buton Scipian })am consule, se waes aefter J>am faerelte 
Affricanus hfiten, for})6n be he ]>a o8re si6e }>ider for }>g nfin 
o})er ne dorste ; ]>eh pe Romane hacfde geworden, bwene &r, 
f aet he on Asiam faran sceolde ; ac he monega gefeoht on 


Ispanium on missenlicum sigum }>urhteah. On |)am daguin, 
Serius Galua, Scipian gefera, gefeaht wi5 Lusitaniani, Ispania 
folce, and geflymed wearS. 

2. On J)am dagum, bebudon Romana godas bam senatum. 
* }>set mon Tbeatrum worbte him to plegan ; ac nit Scipia oft- 

raedlice ham ahead, \>?et hy hit ne angunnon ; and eac sylf 
s^de, ))a he ham of Ispanium com, })aet hit vvaere se msesta 
unraed, and se maesta gedwola. Hy ba Romane, for bis ci- 
dinge, and |)urh his lare, oferhyrdon pam godum ; and eall 

10 J>aBt feoh, })a3t hi jjaer tosamnod liaefdon, j^e hy wi5 ])am sylum 
and wi5 ]>am worce syllan woldan, hy hit wi5 oSrum Jjingum 
sealdau. — Nu maeg J}am Cristenan gescomian. })e swylc deofol- 
gyld iufia5 and begongaS, ]>a, se, be Cristen naes, hit swa swiSe 
forseah, se ]>e hit fyrSriau sceolde, aefter heora agnum ge- 

w wunan. 

3. iEfter bam, Serius Galua for eft on Lusitanie, and fri5 
[genam] wio by, and by under ]?am friSe beswSc. Seo d»d 
\vear8 forneah Romanum to J)am maestan hearme, j^aet hira ndn 
folc ne getruwode, ]>e him under})eod waes. 

fo [BiklV: Capitul XIIL] 

1. JEiter J)am ]>e Rome burh getinibred waes vi hund win- 
trum and ii, ])a ))a Censorinus Marcus and Mallius Lucius 
waeron consulas, pa gewearS j^aet ])ridde gewinn Romana and 
Cartaina ; and gewearS })a senatus him betweonum, gif hy mon 

rs J)riddan si5e oferwimne, baet mon ealle Cartaina towurpe. 
And eft sendon Scipian })iaer, and he hi ast heora forman ge- 
feohte geflymde, and bedraf into Cartaina. Jtliter pam, by 
ba&dan friSes Romane, ac hit Scipia nolde him alyfan wio 
nanum o6rum J^inge, buton by him ealle heora waepeno agea- 

» fon, and ]>a burh forleton, and paet nan ne ssete hyre x milum 
neab. JEher j^am ])e J>aet gedon waes, hy cwaedon |)aBt [him] 
leofre waere, ))aBt by mid })aere byrig aetgaedere forwurdon, 
)>onne hi mon buton h'.m towurpe. And him eft waepeno 
worhton ]>h ])e isen baefdon ; and jia j^e naBfdon,hy worhton, — 

w sume of seolfrc, — sume of treowum, and gesetton him to cyn- 
ingum twegen HasterbSlas. 

2. " Nu ic wille," cwaB5 Orosiu-, '* secgan hiilucu heo waes : — 
hyre [ymbegong waes xxx inila] ; and eall heo waes mid sae 
utan [befangen], bqtan l)riin milum. And se weall waes xx 

4« fota J}icce, and xl [elna] beab ; and }^aer waes binnan o5er 
laesse faesten, on J)am sses clife, Jiaet woes twegra inila beab. 
Hf })a Cartainienses aet bam cyrre, [])a] burh aweredon, peh 
pe Scipia ^r fela }>aes wealles tobrocen haefdc, and si65an bam- 
weard for.** 


100 KING ALFRED'S OllOSIUS, Bouk V: Cii. I | 1. [«. c. I4!5. 

3. pa \>a Gneo Cornelius, and Lentulus Lucilius waeron 
coiisulas, })a for Scipia |?riddan si5e on Affrice, to})6n }>act he 
]>ohte Cartainan toweorpan. And ]>a, he }>aBr to com, he waes 
VI dagas on ]>a burh feohtende, o}) ]Ja burh-warc baedon ]>aet hj^ 
nioston beon heora underJ>eowas, J>a hy [hie] bewerian ne mih- s 
ton. pa het Scipia ealle \>a, wifmenn [aerest utgSn], })aera wacs 
XXVI M ; and ]>a ba waepned-menn )>JBra waes xxx m. And se 
cyning Hasterbal hine sylfne acwealde, and his wif, mid hyre 
twam sunum, hi sylfe forbasrnde for ]>ves cyninges dea5e. And 
Scipia het ealle ^a burh toweorpan, and aelcne hiewe-stfin to- lo 
beatan, ]>vet by to nanum wealle si65an ne mihton. And 
seo burn inneweard bfirn xvi dagas, ymb vii bund wintra pass 
])e heo aer getimbred waes. 

4. pa W8BS Jjaet })ridde gewinn ge-endod Punica and Romana, 
on ]?ani feorSan geare J)aes }>e hit ser ongunnen waes ; ]>e\\ pe is 
Romane haefdon aer langsum gemot ymbe baet, hwaeSer him 
raedlicre waere, pe hi pa burh mid ealle fordyaon, paet hy S si6- 
6an on pa healfe friS haefdon, pe hy hi [stondan forleten,] to 
"»6n paet him gewinn eft ponan awdce, forpcin by ondredan gif 

i hwilum ne wunnon, paet hy to raSe fislSwedon and S- w 

5. " Swa paet eow Romanum nu eft cu6 wearft, si65an se 
Cristendom waes,** cwaeS Orosius, " past ge eowra yldrena hwet- 
stan forluron, eowra gewinna, and eovvres hwaetscipes ; forpon 
ge syndon nu utan faette, and innan hlaene ; and eowre yldran 25 
wieron utan hlaene, and innan faette, stronges modes and faestes. 
Ic nSt eac," cwaeS he, "hii nylt ic pa hwile beo pe ic pas word 
sprece, buton paet ic min geswync amyrre. Hit bio eac ge- 
ornlic, paet mon heardlice guide pone hnescestan mealm-stan, 
cefter })am paet he pence pone selestan [hwet-stan] on to geraecan- ao 
ne. Swa bonne, is me nu swiSe earfeSe heora mod to ahwet- 
tanne, nii hit naSor nele beon ne scearp ne heard." 

[Boc V : Capitul I.] 

1. " Ic wSt,*' cwaeS Orosius, " hwaet se RomSna gilp swifiost 
is, — forpon pe hi manega folc oferwunnan, and [monege] cyn- w 
ingas beforan heora triumphan oftraedlice drifan. paet sindon 
pa [godan] tida, pe hy ealne weg fore gilpap ; gelicost pam pe 
hi nil cwaedon, pa^t pa tida him anum gesealde waeran, and 
iKTran eallum [folcum] ; ac, paer hi hit geome ongitan cuSan, 
ponne [wisten hie, paet hie waeronj eallum folcum gemaene. 40 
Gif hi ponne cweSap paet pS tida gode waeron, forpon [pe] hi pa 
ane burh welige gedydan, ponne magon hi rihtor cweSan, 
bget paet [waeren pa] ungesaeligestan, forpon pe purh paere anre 
burge wlenceo.wurdon ealle opre to waedlan gedone. 


2, Gif hi ]>onne J^aes ne gelyfan, acsian J^onne Italia, hyra 
agene land-leode, hu him J^a tidagelicodon.^a hi man sloh and 
hynde, and on o6re land sealde xx wintra and c. 

3. Gif hi J^onne him ne gelyfan, acsige }>onne Ispanie, ]>e 
* Jjaet ylce waeran dreogende twa hund wintra, and nianige o)>re 

]7eoda; and eac |>a manegan cyningas, hu him licode, }>onne hi 
man on geocon, and on racentan, beforan heora triumphan 
drifon, him to gilpe, wi8 [Rome] weard ; and syJ^J^an on carcer- 
num lagon, [o}>] hi dea&e swulton. And hi manige cyningas 

'• geswenctan, to jJon ]>sdt hi eal gesealdon J^aet hi )>onne hsefdon 
\vi8 heora egnnan life. Ac for)>6n hit is us uncu5 and ungely- 
fedlic, for}>6n J^e we synd on })am friSe geborene, J^e hjr ]>& 
uneaSe heora feorh mid geceapodon. pset waes sy)>}>an Crist 
geboren waes, }>aBt we waeron of aelcon beowdome alysede, and 

" of aelcon ege, gif we him fulgangan wyllaS." 

[Boc V : Capitul II.] 

1. iEfter J?am ]>e Romana burh getimbred waes vi hund win- 
trum and vi, — paet waes ]>y ilcan geare )>e Cartaina toworpen 
waes, — aefter hyre hryre — Gneo Cornelius and Lentulus Lucio 

" towurpon Corinthum, ealra Creaca heafod-burh. On hyre 
bryne, gemultan ealle |>a anlicnessa togaedere, ])e j^asr binnan 
waeran, ge [gyldene], ge sylfrene, ge aerene, ge cyperene, and 
on pyttas besuncon. Git to daege, man haet Corinthisce fatu 
ealle \>e J^aerof geworhte waeran, for})6n )>e hi sint faegeran and 

'* dyrran ]^onne aenige ojpre. 

2. Be tham yrde uariato : — On }>am dagum, waes fin hjh'Je on 
Hispanium, se waes Uariatus haten, and waes my eel j^eof-man ; 
and on l^aere stalunge he \vear8 reafere ; and,^on ]>ani reaf-lace, 
lie him geteah to mycelne man-fultum, and manige tunas 

*• oferhergode. /Efter }>am, his werod weox to ])6n swiSe j^aet he 
manige land forhergode, and Romanum wearS micel ege 
fram him, and Uecilins, }>one consul, ongean hine mid 
fyrde sendan, and he )>aer geflymed wear5, and his folces 
se maesta dael ofslagen. JEt o5rum cyrre, ]>yder for Gains 
Folucius, se consul, and eac geflymed wear8. -/Et j^riddan 

** cyrre, )>yder for Claudius, se consul, and }}ohte |?aet he Romana 
bysmor gebetan sceolde, ac he hit on pam faerelde swy5or 
geycte, and uneaSe sylf aweg com. 

3. iEfter J)am, Ueriatus gemette, mid |>rim hund manna, Ro- 
mana an M on anum wuda, ]>ser waes Ueriatuses folces hund 

" seofontig ofslagen, and Romana in hund, and )>a o5re gefly- 
mede wurdon. On ])am fleame, wearS an [Ueriatuses] J>egen 
|iam 0|>rum to lange aefterfylgende, o5 man his hors under him 
ofsccat. pa woldan ]>& o5re ealle hine aenne ofslean, o58e 

102 KING ALFRED'S OftOSlUS; Book V: Ch. IJ, {5—8. [b.c.116— HO 

gebindan, J?a sloh he anes mannes hors mid his sweorde, padt 
him wand }}aet heafod 6f. SiSSan waes eallum J>am oSnim swa 
mycel ege fram him, Jiaet hi hine [leng] gretan ne dorstan. 

4. iEfter bam, Apius Claudius, se consul, gefeaht wi5 Gselle, 
and |>ajr geflymed wearS ; and raSe baes eft fyrde gelaedde wi8 « 
hi, and sige haefde, and heora ofsloh vi m. pa he hamweard 
waes, l^a baed he J^aet man dyde beforan him j^one triumphan ; 
ac Romane him untreowlice his forwyrndon, and hit under Jiaet 
ladedon, for])6n J>e he aer aet J^am oSrum cyrre sige naefde. 

5. Be bAM MANN-cwEALME I — iEftcF J^aiu, wflBs swa mycel lo 
man-cwealm on Rome, baet J^aer nfin uten-cumen man cuman 
ne dorste, and manige land*binnan j^aere by rig wseran butan 
aelcum yrfewearde. Hi witon |>eah }>aet f^aet yfel ofereode 
butan geblote, swa pa, manegan ier dydon, J^e hi wendon J^aet 
hy mid heora deofol-g}^ldum gestyred haefdon. Butan tweon, >* 
gif hi pBL blotan mihtan, hi woldan secgean Jiaet him heora 
godas gehulpan. Ac hit waes Codes gifu, j^aet ealle p& l^on, 
^e hit don sceoldan, o5 hit sylf ofereode. 

6. iEf ter j^am, Fauius, se consul, for mid fyrde ongean Feriatus, 
and geflymed wear8. Se consul gedyde eallum Romanum pa, «o 
bysmerlicestan daede, pa, he aspeon of Sci})J)ium syx hund 
manna to him his ge)>oftena ; and, j^a hi him to coman, he het 
him eallum pa handa of aceorfan. — yEfter )>am, Pompeius, se 
consul, for on Numentmas, Ispania beode, and geflymed wear8. 
Ymbe feowertune gefir baes j^e Uenatus wi8 Romane [\vinnan] » 
ongan, he wearS fram his agenum mannum ofslagen ; and swa 
oft swa hine Romane mid gefeohte gesohton, he hi simle ge- 
flymde. paer dydan j^eah Romane lytle treowJ>a, )>aet him pa 
wjeran laoe and unw}T8e, pe heora hlaford beswicon, J^eah pe 
hi him leana to }>aere tide wendan. «• 

7. Ic sceal eac nyde }}ara manegra gewinna geswigian, pe on 
}>am east-landum gewurdan : his me sceal abreotan for Romana 
gewinnum. — On paave tide, Metridatis, Partha [cyning], ge-eode 
Babiloniam, and ealle |}a land pe betweox }>am twain [eaum] 
waeron Hiduse and Tdasfe, }>a waeran aer on Romana anwealde. « 
And si55an he gebraedde his rice east o5 I ndea gemaero ; and 
Denietria, Asia cyning, hine twiwa mid fyrde gesohte. JEt o8- 
rum cyrre, he wearS geflymed ; aet o)>rum, gefangen. He waes 
on Romana anwealde, for]?on pe hi hine J)aer gesettan. 

8. iEfter|?am, Mantius, se consul, for on Numentine Ispania 40 
folc, and paer waes winnende, o5 he nam frifi wi5 }7aet folc ; and 
sy55an hine aweg bestael. pa he ham com, |}a heton hine 
Romane gebindan, and gebringan beforan Numentia faestenes 
geate. pa naSer ne hine ]>a eft ham la^dan ne dorstan, be hine 
^yder laeddan, ne his J?a onfdn noldon, pe hine man to brohtc ; « 

B. c. 137.] SCIWO SENT TO SPAIN. 103 

ac swiSe hreo'.vlice swa gebend he on anre stowe beforan }>ain 

geate wajs wuniende, oh he his Hf forlet. 

9. On J>am dagum, Brutus, se consul, ofsloh Ispania folces 

LX M, J>a waeran Lusitgniam on f ultume ; and raSe ])sds he for eft 
* on Lusitfinie, and hyra ofsloh L m, and vi m gefeng. On J>ain 

dagum, for Lapidus, se consul, on J^a nearan Ispanie, and 

geflymed wearS, and his folces waes ofslagen vi m ; and ^a J>e 

J^aer aweg conian, hi ofiflugon mid J^am maestan bismore. 

Hw»5er Romane hit witon [nu] a^nigum men to secganne, 
'• hwtet heora folces on Ispaniam on [feawum gearum] forwurde, 

]>onne hi fram gesaelgum tidum gilpaS, J^onne waeron ]>a, him 

sylfum J7a ungesaligestan ? 
10. pa}>a Seruius Fuluius and Flaccus Quintus waeron consulas, 

wearo on Ptome an cild geboren, j^aet haefde feower fet, and 
** feower handa, and feower [eagan], and feower earan. — On }>ara 

geare, asprang up Etna fyr on Sicilium, and mare j^aes landes 

forbaernde ]>onne hit aefre aer dyde. "" 

[Bog V : Capitul III.] 

1. iEfter }>am be Romana burh getimbred wacs vi hund ^vintrum 

" and XX, ba ]>sl Mantius gedyde J)one yfelan fry 8 on NumSntiam^ 
swa hit Komane [selfe] saedon, }>aet, under heora anwealde, nfin 
bysmorlicre d»d ne gewurde, buton on J>am gefeohte aet 
Calidenes Furculus ; pa, sendon Romane Scipian on NumSntie 
mid fyrde. Hi [sindon] on \>am norS-west-ende Ispania, and 

" hi hi [selfe] aer |>am mid iiii m, [aweredon] f eowertyne winter, 
wi5 Romana xl m, and oftost sige haefdon. 

2. pa besaet hi Scipia healf gear on heora facstene, and hi to 
bon gebrocode, j^aet him leofre waes j^aet hi hi sylfe [fomeSdon], 
ponne hi ]}» yrmpa lencg |>rowedon. pa se Scipio onget baet 

■• hi swylces modes waeran, pa het he sum his f olc [feohtanj on 
baet faesten. paet hi mid pam paet folc ut aloccodan : pa [waeron 
pa] burh-ware to pon f agene, and to pon bli5e, paet ny feohtan 
mostan, and, gemang pam gefean, hi hi [selfe] mid eala5 ofer- 
drenctan, and utyrnende waeron aet twam geaton. On paere 

'* byrig waes aerest ealo-geweorc [ongunnen], forpon pe hi win 
naefdon. On pam swicdome, wear5 Numentia dugu5 gefeallen, 
fond] se dael, pe paer to lafe wearS, forbaerndon ealle pS burh, 
forpon pe hi ne u5on paet heora fynd to heora ealdan gestreo- 
non fengon, and aefter pam hi hi sylfe on pam ff re forspildon. 

*• 3. pa se Scipio bine hamweard wende of pam lande, pa com 
him to an eald man, se waes Numentisc. pa fraem se Scipio 
hine, on hw^ hit gelang waere paet Numentie swaraoe ahnesco- 
don, swa hefirde swa hi lange waeran. pa saede he him, paet hi 
waeran hearde, pa hwile pe hi heora anraednesse geheoldan him 

1 04 KING ALFKEDS OROSIUS; Boor V: Cii. IV { 1—3. [b. c. 131 

betwenan and finfealdnysse, and sona swa In* him betweo- 
nuni ungcraednesse updhofon swa forwfirdon hi ealle. pa, 
wearS ]>ani Scipian baet andwyrde swi8e andrysne, and eallum 
Romanum witum : lor ])am andwyrde, and for |>am wordum, hi 
wurdon swi5e mid ge-effesode, pa, he ham com, forjxin ]>e hi }>a » 
haefdon ungeraednysse nim betweonum. 

4. On l^aere tide, Creaccus wses haten an ])ara consula, and he 
winnan ongann wi8 ealle }>a o5re, o]j hi bine ofslogon. 

5. And eac on j^aere tide, on Sicdium ])a |>eowas wunnaii wi5 }>a 
hlafordas, and unea5e oferwunnene wurdon, and vii m ofslagen lo 
ffir man by gebigan mihte. And aet j^aere anre byrig, Mintur- 
nan, beora man fibeng fifte healf [hiind]. 

[Boc V: CapitulIV.] 

1. JEher J>am ]>e Romeburh getimbred waes vihund wintrum 
and XXI, Lucinius Crassus, se consul, — be waes eac Romana « 
yldesta bisceo^, — he gefor mid f^rde ongean Aristonocfise, |>am 
cynincge, se wolde him geagnian pa laessan Asiani.jieb pe hi »r 
A'ttalis, his agen broSor, baefde Romanum to boc-lande geseald. 
Crassuse waeron manige cyningas of manegum land urn to ful- 
tume [cumene : — an waes of Nicomedia, — oj^er of Bip}>inia, — to 
pndddL of Ponto, — feorjia of Armenia, — ^fifta of Argeate, — sixta 
of Cappadocia, — seafo5a of Filimine, — eabtej^a of Paflogo- 
niam.] And jieah hwaej^ere ra5e Jjaes pe hi togaedere coman, 
se consul wear8 aflymed, f)eah pe he mycelne fultum haefde. 
pa }7aet Pei-pena gehyrde, se o5er consul, be p6, braedlice fyrde n 
gegaderade, and on ])one cynincg [ungearone] becom, |?a his 
fyrd eall tofaren waes, and bine bedraf into anum faestene ; and 
bine besaet o5 bine ealle f)a burh-leode ageafan }>am consule, 
and he bine bet sy|)f)an to Rome bringan, and on carcerne 
[bescufan], and he |?aer laeg 08 he his lif forlet. »o 

2. On l^aere tide, Antiochuse Asiria cyninge, ge}>ubte j^aet he 
rice genoh naefde ; and wilnode jjaet he Parthe begeate, and 
}>yder for mid manegum }>usendum. And bine J^ffir Parthe 
yj^elice oferwunnan, and J>one cyning [of slogan], and him J^aet 
rice geahnedon ; forbon Antiochus ne gymde hwaet be baefde « 
manna gerimes, and ne nam nfine wfire piulice] hi waeran, 
forbon beora waes m& forcuSra }>onne aeltaewra. 

o. On j^aere tide, Scipia, se besta and se selesta Romana 
witena, and J^egena, maende his earfeSa to Romanum witum, 
J^aer hi aet beora gemote waeron, for hwi [hie] bine swa un- <« 
wyrSne on his ylde dydan, — and absode hi for hwi hi noldon 
gebencean ealle J^a brocu, and J?a geswinc pe he for beora 
willan, and eac for [hiera] neod-J>earfe fela wintra dreogende 
waes unarimedlice oft-siSiim ; — and hfi he hi adyde of Hanni- 

uc- 12.^—111] SCIPIO'S OeATH: METELLOS: JUOUKTMA. 1o5 

bales J>eowdome, and of manigre o|)re Jieode ; and hu he him 
to )>eowdome gewylde ealle Ispanie, and ealle Affrice. On 
j^aere ilcan niht, J>e he on dag |)as word spraec, Romane liira 
gejiancedon ealles his geswinces, mid wyrsan leane ]>onne he to 
s him ge-earnod hsefde^ ]>a hi hine on his bedde asmoredan and 
a})rysemodan, J>3Bt he his lif alet. — Eala Romane ! hwS m«g 
eow nu truwian, ])a ge swylc lefin dydon eowrum J?am getrj^- 
westan witan. 

4. Da |>a Emilius [Orestes] waes consul, Etna f^r afleow dp 
10 swa brad and swa myceU p2£t feawa ]>ara manna mihte beon 

eard-fseste, ]>e on [Lipara] waeron j^am iglande, J>e baer [nihst] 
waes, for paere haete and for J>am stence. Ge ealle pa clifu, J?e 
neah J>aere sae waeron, [forburnon] to ahsan, and ealle ]>& scipu 
formultan, \>e [neah] ])am safe farende waeron. Ge ealle J>a 
IS fixas, ]>e on bam sae waeron, acwaelan for J^aere haetan. 

5. pa J>a Marcus Flaccus waes consul, coman gaerstapan on 
Affrice, and aelc [wuht] forscrufon, ])aes ])e on j^am lande waes 
weaxandes and growendes. [iEfter j^aem, com fin wind, ond 
forbleow hie ut on safe.] JEiter ]jam ]>e hi adruncene waeran, 

w hi wearp seo sae up ; and si]7]?an maest call forwearS, ])aet on 
}}am lande waes, ge manna, ge nytena, ge [wildeora], for ]jam 

[Bog V: Capitll V.] 

1. iEfter |?am J^e Romana buruh getimbred waes vi bund 
« wintrum and [xxvii], J^a j^a Lucius Mella, and Quintus Flami- 

neus waeron consulas, Jia gewearS })am |>a senatus, baet man eft 
sceolde timbrian Cartaina. Ac j^asre ilcan niht pe man on 
daeg haefde ba buruh mid stacum gemercod, swa swa hi hi ])a 
wurcean woldan, [wulfas fitugan |>a stacan up, ond I>a men 
«^ forleton ]7aet] weorc for jjam, and lang gemot [ymb baetl haef- 
don, hwaej^er hit tacnode ]>e sibbe, |>e unsibbe ; and ny hi swa 
})eah eft getimbredan. 

2. On J^are tide, Metellus, se consul, for on Belearis baet 
land; and oferwann ba wicinejas, be on baet land hergoaan, 

M J^eah Jie ])aera land-leoda [eac] ^ela forwurae. 

[Boc V: Capitul VI.] 

1. iEfter bam J>e Romana burh getimbred waes vi hund 
wintrum ancl [xxviii], Fauius, se consul, gemitte Betuitusan, 
Gallia cyning, and hine mid lytlum fultume ofercom. 

[Boc V: Capitul VII.] 

1. iEfter bam ])e Romana burh getimbred waes vi hund 
wintrum and xxxv, ba ba Scipia [Nasica], and Lucius Calfur- 


IOC KING ALFUEDS OROSIUS; B«m.r V. Cm. VII | 1,2. [». c. 111—103 

nius waDimi consulas, R.omane wunnon \vi6 GeoweorSan, Nu- 
meba cyning, Se ilea Geoweoifia wajs Mecipsuses ma?g, Nii- 
niepa c\ ninges, «iul he hihe on hU [geogoSe] underfeng, and hine 
fedan liet, and lieran mid his twain sununi. And ])a se cyning 
gefor, he behead his twain sunum, }}aet hi ))aes rices ]>riddan * 
dael Geoweor|)an sealdon. Ac, si]7]>an se [Jmdda] diel on liis 
gewealde waes, he beswac begen J7a [hunaj : oSerne he ofsloh, 
oJ)erne he adnefde, and he sifiSon gesohte Roniane him to 
friSe, and hi sendon Calfurnan, J>one consul, mid him mid 
'fyrde. Ac GeoweorSa geceapode mid his feo aet J>am consule, lo 
Jiaet he ]>2es gewinnes lytel |)urchteah. iEfter j^am, GeoweorSa 
com to Rome, and digellict- geceapode to ])am senatum, to 
anum and to anum, ]>ast hi ealle wa?ron ymbe hine twy wyrdige. 
pa he hine hamweard of J^aere byrig wende, J>a tielde he Ro- 
mane, and hi swi5e bismorode mid his wordum, and scede — " J^aet i* 
man nSne burh ne mihte y8 mid feo geceapian, gif hyre aenig 
man ceapode." 

2. Dses on pam aefteran geare, Romane sendon Anilius 

S*ostumius], }7one consul, mid lx m ongean Geoweor5aii. 
eora gemittincg waes aet Colima J^aere byrig, and Jjaer waeran » 
Romane oferwunnen : and si|>f)on lytle hwfle hi genamon fri8 
him betweonum, and si]7}7on maest ealle Affrice gecyrdon to 
Geoweor}>an. iEfter bam, Romane sendon eft Metellus mid 
fyrde ongean Geoweoroan ; and he sige haefde aet twam cyrrum. 
And aet ^riddan cyire, he bedraf GeoweorSan on Numejiian his « 
agon land, and hine genydde |>aet he sealde Romanum j^reo hund 
giiila ; and he ]>eah si]?}>on na ]>e laes ne hergode on Romane. pa 
sendan hi eft Marius, ])one consul, ongean GeoweorSan, 6. swa ly- 
tigne, and [ft swa braegdenne] swa he waes ; and for to anre byrig, 
gelicost )>am ])e he hi abrecan ]7ohte. Ac sona swa Geoweor5a «> 
haefde his fultum to j^aere byrig gelaed ongean Marius, }>a forlet 
he Marius j^aet faesten, and for to o}>rum }>aer he geahsode baet 
GeoweorSan gold-hord waes, and genydde |>a burh-leode, paet 
hi him eodan on hand, and him ageafon [eall] j^aet licgende feoh, 
j^aet J^aer binnan waes. pa ne getry wode GeoweorSa his age- « 
num folce ofer j^aet, ac ge)>6ftude [him] wi5 Bohgn, Mauritania 
[cyning], and he him com to mid miclum man-fultume, and 
oftraedlice on Romane stalode, o5 hi gecwaedan folc-gefeoht 
him betweonum. To J?am gefeohte, haefde Boh6 GeoweorSan 
gebroht to fultume lx m gehorsedra buton feSan. [Naes na] « 
mid Romanum, ^r ne si]7]>an, swa [heard] gefcoht swa J^aer 
waes, for)>on ]ie hi wurdon on aelce healfe utan befangen ; and 
heora eac maest forJ>on forwearS ]>e heora [gemitting] waes on 
sandihtre dune, j^aet hi for duste ne mihtan geseon hu hi hi 
behealdan sceoldan. To [eacan] |>am, hi derode aegjjer ge45 

.. c.lll-105] JUOURTHINE WAR: MARIUS. 107 

))urst ge h«te, [ond] ealne }>one daeg waeron ]>aBt l^afiende op 
iiiht. pa on mergen, hi waeron J>a?t ilce donde, and eft waeron 
on »lce healfe utan befangen, swa hi »r waeron. And ba hi 
s\\i5ost tweode hw^Ser hi aweg coman, )?a gecwaedan hi J>aBt 

s hi sume hi beseftan waeredon, and sume })uruh ealle ]ja truman 
iitan afuhtan, gif hi mihton. Da hi swa gedon haefdon, J^a 
com an ren and swi5e, pset Mauritanie waeron mid ]jam gewer- 
gode, for|>on pe heora scyldas waeron betogene mid [elpenda] 
hydum, |>aet hi heora feawa for |iam vvetan ahebban [mehton] : 

10 and for \>am [geflymede] wurdon, for|>6n ]ie elpendes hyd wyle 
drincan waetan gelice and spinge deS. paer wear8 Mauritania 
ofslagen [lx m ond an hund] manna. iEfter|iam,Boh6genam 
friS wi5 Romanum, and him GeovvedrSan gebundenne ageaf ; 
and hine man dyde si]>)7an on carcern, and his twegen suna, o5 

I* hi J>aer ealle acw^elon. 

[Boc V: Capitul VIII.] 

1. -^fter J>am ]>e [Rome] burh getimbred waes vi hund 
wintrum and xlii, \>a, jia [Mallius] and Quintinus waeron con- 
sulas, Romane gefuhton wi5 Cimbro \ and wi? Teutonas, and 

to wi6 Ambrdno3 — j^as ]jeoda waeron on Gallium — and jiaer ealle 
of:»lagene wurdon, buton x mannum, ])at waes xl m. And 
}>acr waes Romana ofslagen hund eahtatig m, and heora consul, 
and his twegen suna. ^'Efter ])am, )ia ylcan beoda besaetan 
Marius, J>one consul, on anum faestene, and hit lang fyrst waes 

25 »r he ut faran wolde to gefeohte, ser him man i^aede, ]?aet hi 
woldan faran on Italiam, Romana land. Ac si55on, he him 
for to, vit of ]m\x\ faestene. pa hi hi on Snre dune gemetton, 
J>a maende |>aes consules folc to him heora j^urst, j^e him ge- 
tenge waes. pa andwyrde he him, and cwaeS: — **Ea5e we 

30 magon geseon on oj^re healfe urra feonda, hwaer se drinca [is] 
gelang, .}>e us nyhst is; ac, for ]iam \>e hi us near synd, we 
[him] ne magon buton [gefeohte to cuman].** paer haefdon 
[Romane] sige ; and J)aer waes Gallia ofslagen, twa hund J)u- 
senda and heora ladteow, and hund eahtatig m gefangen. 

« [Boc V: Capitul IX.] 

1. yEfter |iam ]>e Romana burh getimbred waes vi hund win- 
trum and XLV, on \>am fiftan geare ])e Marius waes consul, and 
eac J?a mid [Romanum] waes sib of o})rum folcum,}>a ongunnon 
Romane }>a maestan sSce him betweonon uparaeran : '* peah ic 

<o hit nd sceortlice secgan scyle," cwaeS Orosius," hwa |?aes drdfru- 
man waeron.** 

2. paet waes aerest Marius, se consul, and Lucius, and Apul- 
ciiis, and [Saturninus], ]iaet hi adnefdon Mctcllus, })one consul, 

108 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book V: Cm. X { 1—4. [•. c. 101— 91. 

on elj^eode, se waes consul cer Marius. Hit w«s [J>a] 8wi5e 
of))incende J>am oj^rum consulum, Ponipeiuse and CatSn, j^eah 
1>e hi mid bsere wrace ]>am [adraefdan] 6n nanum stsele 
oeon ne mintan ; hi beah ]>urhtugon Jiset hi ofslogon Lucius 
and [Satuminus], ana eft waeran biddende ]>aet Metellus to » 
Rome moste ; ac him Jia gyt Melius and Furius forwyrndan. 
And him bS 8i|>]7an se feondscipe w»s betweonum wexande, 
]>eah pe nit hi openlice cySan ne dorstan, for }>aera sena- 
tum ege. 

[B6c V : Capitul X.] !• 

1. iEfter |>am ]>e Romana burh getimbred waes vi bund 
wintrum and lxi, — on }>am vi geare ]>e lulius se Casere waes 
consul, and Lucius Martius,-=-wear5, ofer ealle Italia, unge- 
faerlic unsib, and openlice cu5 betuh luliuse and [Pompeiuse] ; 
beah hi hit ^r swioe him betweonum dyrndon. And eac, on » 
pam geare, gewurdon manlge wundor on manegum landum. — 
A^n waes, }>aBt man geseah swylce an f yren hnncg norjjan cumen 
mid mycclum swege. — 0})er wearS on Tarentam J^aere byrig aet 
anre feorme, |>onne man pa, hlSfas wrat to ])icgenne, J>onne am 
])aBr blod ut. — paet f)ridde waes, ]>edt hit hagolade [seofon niht] to 
dasges and nihtes ofer ealle Romane ; — and, on Somnia J>am 

ande, seo eorj^e tobaerst, and Jianon (ip waes byrnende fyr \vi8 
>a9s he6fones, and man geseah, swylce hit waere, an gylden 
irincg cm heofonum, braddre |>onne sunne, and waes fram \>am 
leofone bradieude ni5er o5 }>a eor)}an,and waes eft farende wi8 « 
Jjaes heofones. 

2. On l^aere tide, Pincende }?aet foIc,and Uestme, and Marse, 
and Peligni, and Marrucine, and Somnite, and Lucani, hi ealle 
gewearS him betweonum, jiaet hi woldan Romanum geswican, 
and ofslogon f Gains] Seruius, Romana ealdor-man, se waes mid *• 
oerendum to him asended. On ])am dagum, aweddan ]>a ny* 
tena and j^a hundas, ]>e waeran [on] Somnitum. 

3. vEfter bam, gefeaht Pompeius, se consul, wi5 [eal] |>a 
folc, and geflymed wear|>. And lulius se Casere, gefeaht wi8 
Marse |>am folce, and geflymed wearS. And ra5e jjaes, lulius » 
gefeaht wi5 Somnitum and wi8 Lucanum, and hi geflymde. 
^fter bam, bine man het Casere. pa baed he, }>aet man |>one 
triumpnan him ongean brohte, J>a sende him man ane blace 
hacelan ongean, him on bysmor, for triumphan. And eft hi 
him sendan ane tunecan [ongean], Jia )ie hi togeheton. paet ^ 
he ealles buton Sringe to Rome ne com. 

4. ^f tcr |>am Silla, se consul, Pompeiuses gefera, gefeaht wiS 
Esernium pam folce, and hi geflymde. ^Efter |}am, gefeaht 
Poinpeius wi5 Pincentes |iam folce, and hi geflymde. pa 


brohtan [Romane] Jione triumphan ongean Pompeius mid mi- 
celre wyrSfullnysse, for J>am lytlan sige, ]>e he ^a hacfde, and 
noldon luliuse nanne weorSscipe d6n, peah, he maran dasde 
gedon haefde, buton ane tunican ; and heora gewinn mid ]>am 
• 8wi5e [ge-iecton]. iEfter Jiam, lulius and Pompeius abraecon 
[Asculum] ]>a burh on Maersum^ and beer ofslogon ehtatyne 
M. iEfter ]>am, gefeaht Silla^ se consul^ wiS Somnitum, and 
heora ofsloh xviii m. 

[B6c V : Capitul XL] 

•• 1. iEfter bam J>e Romana burh getimbred waes vi hund 
wintrum ana lxii, baet Romane sendon Sillan, ]7one consul, 
ongean Metridatis, Partha [cyning]. pa of})uhte ]>tet Mariuse, 
)iam consule, luliuses eame, ]>sst man baet gewinn him betas- 
cean nolde, and baed ]>edt man him seafde ]>one seofo^an con- 

" sulatum, and efic J>aet gewinn ; forbon hit waes ])eaw mid heom, 
baet man ymbe xii monaS dyde aelces consules setl animi pyle 
liyrre, ]>onne hit &r waes. Da Silla geahsode, on hwylc gerad 
Marius com to Rome, he pa hr^dlice mid eallre his fyrde wiS 
Romeweard farende waes, and Marius bedraf into Rome byrig 

•• mid eallum his folce ; and hine syppon pa burh-leode gefengon 
and gebundon, and hine sippon pohton Sillan [agifan]. Ac he 
fleah paere ilcan niht of pam bendum, pe hine man on daege 
gebende ; and si})pon fleah su5 ofer sse on Affricam, |?a;r his 
fultum, mo^st waes ; and ra5e eft waes cyrrende wi5 Rome- 

•• weard. Him waeron twegen consulas on fultume, Cinna and 
Sertorius, pa waeron sinible aelces yfeles ordfruman. 

2. And ra&e paes ])e pa senatus gehyrdon piet Marius to 
Rome nealaehte, hi ealle ut flugon on Greaca land aefter Sillan 
and aefter Pompeiuse, }}yder hi pa mid fyrde gefarene waeron. 

■• pa waes [Silla] mid mycelre geornfulnesse farende of Grecum 
wi5 Romeweard, and wi5 Marius heardlice gefeoht puruhteah, 
and hine geflymde, and ealle ofsloh binnon Rome byrig, pe 
[Mariuse] on fultume waeron. RaSe paes, ealle }>a consulas 
waeran deade buton twam. Marius and Silla geforan him 

•*sylf; and Cinna waes ofslagen on Smyrna Asia byrig; and 
Sertorius waes ofslagen on Ispania. 

3. Da underfeng Pompeius Partha gewin, for}>6n Metreda- 
tis, heora cyning, teah him t6 pa laessan Asiam, and eall Creaca 
land; ac hine Pompeius of eallum }>am lande aflymde, and 

•• hine bedraf on Armenia, and him aefter fylgende waes o5 hine 
o8re men ofslogon, and genydde Archalfius bone lateow, paet 
he waes his under|>eow. — *' Hit is nfi ungelyfedlic to secgenne,** 
cwaeS Orosius, " hwaet on pam gewinne forwearS, |?aet hi waeron 
dreogende xl wintra, «r hit ge-endod beon inihte, aegper ge on 

1 10 RING ALFUCD'3 OROSIUS ; Book V : Ch. XII { 1—4. [b. c. 88^-55 

]>e6da, f orhergunge^ ge on cyninga slihtutn, ge on hungre." 

4. pa Pompeius hamwew-d waes, ]>& noldan piim Jia lond- 
leodej jjaet faesten [Sliefan] aet Hierusalem. Him waeron on 
fultume XXII cyninga. pa het Pompeius j^aet man J)oBt fssten 
braece^ and onfuhte daeges and nihtes, simble [anleo;] aefter* 
o5re unwerige, and ]>B^t folc mid ]7am a&rytan, ]>aet hi tiim on 
hand eodan ymbe bry monSas Jiaes )>e hi man «r [ongon]. 
paer waes luciea ofslagen xiii m, and man towearp pane weal 
niSer o8 ))one grund; and man la^dde Aristopolus to Rome 
gebmidenne : se waes aegSer ge heora cyning ge heora bisceop. lo 

[B6c\.: CapitulXIL] 

1. JEfter ]>am be Rome burh getimbred waes vi bund win- 
trum and lxvii, Romane gesealdon Caiuse [luliuse] seofon 
legion, to})6n ]>2et he sceolde fif winter winnan on Gallie. 

2. -^fter bam J?e he hi oferwunnen haefde, he for on Brj't- u 
tonie \>tset igland, and wi5 J>a Bryttas gefeaht, and geflymed 
wear5 on bam lande, pe man haet Centland. Ra&e psds, he 
gefeaht wio J?a Bryttas eft on Centlande, and hi wurdon fifly- 
roede. Heora j^ridde gefeoht waes neah \>?ere efi J>e man haet 
Temese, neah bam forda, J>e man haet Welinga ford, ^f ter le 
J>am gefeohte, nim eode on hand se cyning and [Jia] burhware, 
J>e waeron on Cyrnceastre, and si&Son ealle pe on ^am iglande 

3. iEfter pam, lulius for to Rome, and baed baet him man 
brohte ]7one triumphan ongean. pa bebudon hi him, pBdt he » 
come mid feawum mannmn to Rome, and ealne his fultutn 
beaeftan him lete. Ac, pa, he haniweard for, him coman on- 
gean l^a ]iry ealdor-menn, j^e him on fultmne waeron, and him 
saedon ]>aet hi for his |>ingum adraefde waeron ; and eac j^aet 
ealle pa legian, pe on [Romana] onwealde waeron, waeron Pom- «• 
peiuse on fultume [gesealde,] }>aBt he pe faestlicre gewin mihte 
habban wi6 bine. Da wende eft lulius to his agenum folce ; 
and wepende, maonde pa unfire pe man him buton gewyrhton 
dyde, and swiSost J^ara manna pe for his }>ingum forwurdon. 
And he him a^peon to si|7}>an pa seofon legian pe waeron on m 
Silomonc ]>am lande. 

4. pa Pompeius, and Cato, and ealle Jia senatus }>aet geh^r- 
don J>a foran hi on Greacas, and micelne f ultum gegaderodan 
on Thraci j^aere dune, pa f6r lulius to Rome, and tobraec 
heora madm-hus, and eall gedaelde [his firde] ]iaet }>aer inne waes. <• 
** past is unal}'fedlic to secganne,** cwaeS Orosius, '* hw aet J^aes 
ealles waes." ^Efter ])am, he for to [Massiliam] }>aBt land, and 
J^aer let preo legian beaeftan him, tob6n j^aet hi paet folc to him 
genyddon ; and he sylf, mid ]:>am oorum daele, for on Ispanie, 


b«r [Pompeiusesl legian waeron mid his frini latteowum ; and 
ne hi ealle to him genydde. ^^fter ]iam, he for on Creaca 
land, ])aBr his Pompeius, on anre dune, onb^d mid [xxx-gum 
cyningum], baton his agenum fultume. Da for Pompeius 

• J>«r Marcellus wajs, lulinses latteow, and hine ofsloh mid 
eallum his folce. yEfter ]7am, lulius besaet Tarquatus, Pom- 
peiuses latteow, on gnum fsestene, and him Pompeius aefter f6r. 
paer wear8 lulius geflymed, and his folces feala forslagen, forj^am 
pe him man feaht on, [on] twa healfa : on oJ>re healfe Pom- 

'• peius, — on o5re healfe se ladteow. Si85an for luhus on The- 
saliam, and J^ser [eft] his fultum gegaderade. 

5. pa Pompeius J7»t gehyrde, pa. for he him sefter mid 
ungemaetlicum fultume. He haefde [eahta ond] hund eahtatig 
[c6ortgna],]>8et we nu truman hataS, J^aet waes, on \>am dagum, 

'• [fif] hund manna, and an m. pis eall he haefde buton his 
agenum fultume [ond] butan Catone his geferan, and buton 
bara senatuses. And lulius hscfde hund eahtatig coortana. 
Heora aeg5er haefde his folc on ]7rim heapum, and hi sylfe 
waeron on Jiam midmestan, and J?a o5re on twa heaKa heora. 

*• pa lulius haefde aenne J^aera daela geflymed, J?a clypode Pom- 
peius him to ymbe Romane ealde gecwydraedene, |>eah })e [he] hi 
sylf gelaestan ne }>ohte : '* Gefera, gefera, gemyne Jjaet ^u ure 
[gecwedraedenne ond geferraedenne to longe ne oferbrec].** 
pa andwearde he him, and cwae8 : " On [sumre] tide, bu waere 

** min gefera ; and, f oi-bam J^e ]>\\ nu ne eart, me is eal leofost 
}>aBt pe is laSost/* paet waes seo gecwydraeden, ]>e Romane 
geset naefdon, baet heora nSn o5erne on ]ione andwlitan ne 
sloge, J^aer ]iaer ni aet gefeohtum gemetton. 

6. -Sifter ]>am wordum, Pompeius wear5 geflymed mid 
*^ eallum his folce ; and he sylf si]7]^an o5fleah 6n Asiam mid his 

wife, and mid his bearnum ; and sy58on he for on Egyptum, 
and [him] fultumes baed jet Pholomeuse })am cvninge. And 
ra8e J^aes }>e he to him com, he him het )>aet heafud of [aceor- 
fan], and hit sy&5on het luliuse [onsendan], and his bring mid. 

*• Ac, })a man hit to him brohte, he waes maenende J>a daede mid 
miclum wope, for})on he waes ealra manna mildheortast on J>am 
dagum. a^fter Jjani, Pholomeus gelaedde fyrde wi8 luhuse, 
and eall his folc wear8 geflymed, and he sylf gefangen ; and 
ealle )>a men lulius het ofslean, ]>e aet ])aere lare waeran J^aet 

" man Pompeius ofsloh ; and he swa |>eah eft forlet Ptholomeus 
to his rice. iEfter J^am, lulius gefeaht ^vi8 Ptholomeus }>riwa, 
and aet aelcon cyrre sige haefde. 

7. iEfter pam gefeohte, ealle Egypti wurdon luliuse under- 
peowast and he him syJ>^on hwearf to Rome, and eft sette 

^*senatus; and hine sylfne man gesette J^aet he waes [hierra] 

n2 KING ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book V: Cm. XIII § I, 2. [•. c. 55-^4 

]>onne consul, baet hi hetan tictfitor. iEfter J>am, he for on 
ATfrice sefter Catdne J^ain consule. pa he J^eet geahsode, }>a 
Iserde he his sunu psdt he him ongean fore, and hine him to 
f riSe gesohte : — ** For}>on " — c\vaB6 he — '* J?e ic wat, J>«t nfin 
swa god man ne leofaS, swa he is, on ]^isson hfe, }7eah ]>e he • 
me sy se laSosta; and for])on e&c ic ne maeg finaan aet me 
sylfum, j^aet ic hine afre geseo.** iEfter }>am [wordum] he 
eode to ]>adre burge weallum, and fleah ut ofer, pxt he eall 
tobaerst Ac, ]>a lulius to ]7aere byrig com, he him wass swyfte 
[waniende] pxt he to him cucon ne com, and ]>aet he swylcon i« 
deaSe swealt. 

8. iEfter bam, lulius gef Aiht vrib Pompeiuses genefon, and 
wi5 manige nis magas, and he hi ealle ofsloh, and sij^jion to 
Rome for ; and \>&r waes swa findrysne, J^aet him man dyde 
feower si|>on J>one tnumphan }>a [he] ham com. Si}>])on he 
for on Ispanie, and gefeaht wi6 Pompeiuses twam sunum ; and i» 
J>aer wees his folc swa swiSe forslagen, J^aet he, sume hwfle, 
wende ])xt man hine gef6n sceolde ; and he for Jiaere ondrsed- 
inge ]>8BS }>e swiSor on |>8et werod brang, forjjon }>e him waes 
leof re baet hine man ofsloge, Jonne nine man gebunde. 

9. iEfter )>am, he com to Rome, and ealle ba gesetnyssa ])e «• 

t>ffir to strange waeron and to hearde, he hi ealle gedyde 
eohtran and liSran. Hit pa, eallum }}am senatum of))incendumy 
and pom consul um, }>8et he heora ealdan gesetnyssa tobrecan 
wolde, ahleopon \>k ealle and hine mid heora met-seaxum 
ofsticedon [inne] on heora gemot-erne. para wunda waes [xxiii.] t$ 

[66c V : Capitul XIIL] 

1. iEfter ])am be Romana burh getimbred waes vii bund 
wintrum and [x], leng Octauianus to Romana anwealde, heora 
un}>ances, aefter luliuses siege, his maeges, forbon }>e hine «• 
haefde lulius him cer mid gewritum gefaestnod, paet he aefter 
him to eallum his gestreonum fenge; for|>6n \>e he hine for 
maegraedene gelaerde and getyde. And he sy]7}>on [v] gefeoht wel 
cynelice gefeaht and }7urhteah, swa swa lulius his maeg dyde 
ffir: — Sn wi5 Pompeius, — o5er wi6 Antonius, J?one consul, — »* 

mdde wi5 Cassus, [ond wi8 Brutus], — feorSe wi5 Lepi&us, 
}eah ]>e he raSe \>&s his freond wyrde; and he efic gedyde 
)8et Antonius his freond wearS, \>ddt he his dohtor seaJde 
Octauiane to wife, and eSc )7aet Octauianus sealde his sweostor 
Antoniuse. <• 

2. Sib})on him geteah Antonius t6 gewealdum ealle Asiam. 
iEfter pam, he forlet Octauianuses sweostor, and him sylfum 
onbead gewinn and [openne] feondscipe. And he him het to 
wife gefeccean Cleopatran, ))a cwene, |)a haefde lulius ser, and 


hire for]7am haefde geseald eall Egypta. RaSe ]>ses, Octaiiianus 
gelaedde fyrde wi5 Antonius ; and hine raSe geflymde J>aes ]>e 
hi togaedere coman. paes ymbe J?reo niht, hi gefuhton ut on 
see. Octauianus hsefde xxx scipa, and cc }>ara micelra Jjryre- 

« firena, on ]jam waeron farende eahta le^an. And Antonius 
hsefde hund eahtatig scipa, on ])am waeran farende x legian; 
forjion swa micle swa he laes haefde, swa micle hi waeron be- 
teran and maran ; for]>on hi waeron swa geworht, j^aet hi man 
ne mihte mid mannum oferhljestan, )>aBt hi [naeren] tyn fota 

10 heage bufan waetere. paet gefeoht wear8 swiSe maere ; ^eah J>e 
Octauianus sige haefde. ])ser [Antoniuses] folces waes ofslagen 
XII M, and Cleopatra, his cwen, wear5 geflymed, swa hi togae- 
dere coman, mid hire here. iEfter j^am, Octauianus gefeaht 
wi8 Antonius, and wi5 Cleopatran, and hi geflymde. paet 

14 waes on ])aere tide [Calendas] Agnstus, and on J^am daege J>e 
we hataS hlaf-maessan. Si|)))on waes Octauianus Agustus ha- 
ten, forJ>on be he, on }>aere tide, sige haefde. 

3. JEher pam, Antonius and [Cleopatra] ha^fdon gegaderad 
scip-here on J^am Readan sae ; ac, j^a him man saede f aet Oc- 

M tauianus J?yder[-weard] waes, ]ia gecyrde eall ]?aet folc to Oc- 
tauianuse, and hi sylfe o8flugon to anum [tune] lytle werode. 
Heo J>a Cleopatra het adelfan hyre byrigenne, and J)aer on 
innan eode. pa heo J^aer on gelegen waes, }>a het heo niman 
[ipnalis] ^a naedran, and don to hire earme, j^aet heo hi abite, 

M [forpon pe hiere puhte paet hit on paem lime unsarast waere], 
forpon be baere naedran gecynd is paet aelc uht paes pe heo abit, 
sceal his lif on slaepe ge-endian. And heo [paet] for pam dyde 
[pe] heo nolde paet hi man drife beforan pam triumphan wi8 
Romeweard. pa Antonius geseah paet heo hi to dea5e gy- 

wrede, pa ofsticode he hine [selfne], and bebead paet hine man 
on pa ilcan byrgenne to hire swa [somcucre alegde]. pa Oc- 
tauianus pyder com, pa het he niman o5res cynnes naedran, 
Uissillus is haten, seo maeg ateon aelces cynnes attor ut of men, 
hi gif man tidlice to [bring5] ; ac heo waes f orSfaren »r he pyder 

« c6me. Sippon Octauianus begeat Alexandriam Egypta heafod- 
burh, and mid hire gestreone he gewelgode Rome burh [swa] 
swiSe, paet man aelcne ceap milite be twam fealdum bet [geceap- 
ian], ponne man ser mihte. 

[BocV: CapitulXIV.] 

4« 1. iEfter pam pe [Rome] burh getimbred waes vii hund 
wintrum and fif and xxx, gewear5 paet Octauianus Ceasar, on 
his fiftan consolato, betynde lanes duru ; and gewearS paet he 
haefde anweald ealles middangeardes, pa waes sweotole getac- 
nod, pa he cniht waes, and hine man wi8 Romeweard Taedde 


124 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book V : Ch. XV | !>-4. [•. c. 27— a. ». I. 

aefter luliuscs siege. ]>y ilcan daege, J>e hine man to consule 
sette, [gewearS] ])8Bt man geseali ymbe J>a sunnan swylce an 
gylden bring ; and, binnan Rome byrig, weoll an ^vylle ele 
[ealne] dasg. On })am hringe wnes getacnod, })aBt on his da- 
gum sceolde weor^an geboren se, [se] ]>e leontra is and sci-* 
nendra J^onne seo sunne J>a waere ; and se ele getacnode milt- 
sunge eallum man-cynne. Swa he eac mtenig tacen sylf gedyde, 
J)e eft gewurdon, j^eah he hi unwitende dyde on Godes bysene. 

2. Sum waes serest, — j^aet he bebead ofer ealne middangeard, 
)aet a?lc maegS ymbe geares ryne togaedere come, \>&t aelc man !• 
)y gearor wiste [hwaer he gesibbe haefde]. paet tacnode, — 
^aet, on his dagum, sceolde beon' geboren se, [se] J)e us ealle 

o anum maeg-gemote gela8oJ>, j^aet bi}) on Jiam towerdan life. 

3. OJ>er waes, — |>aet he bebead, Jjaet eall man-cyn fine sibbe 
haefdon, and an g&fol guidon, paet tacnode, — f aet we ealle i* 
[sculon aenne geleafan habban], and aenne willan godra weorca. 

4. pridde waes, — ^j^aet he bebead, J>aBt eelc J^ara )>e on ael]>eo- 
dignysse waere, come to his agenum gearde, and to his faeder 
e\>\e, ge j^eowe, ge frige ; and se |>e }>aBt nolde, he bebead Jiaet 
man }?S ealle ofsloge. para waeron vi m, J>a hi gegaderad »• 
wasron. past tacnode, — J^aet us eallum is beboden, J^aet we 
sceolon cuman of Jiisse worulde to ures faeder ej>le, J^aet is to 
[heofon-rice] ; and se ])e j^aet nele, he wyr5 aworpen and of- 


[Boc V : Capitul XV.] « 

1. iEfter |>am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes vii hund wint- 
rum and xxxvi, wurdon sume Ispaniae leoda Agustuse wi8er- 
winnan. pa ondyde he eft lanes duru, and wi5 hi fyrde laedde, 
and hi geilymde, and hi sy]j})on on anum faestene besaet, baet hi 
sipl^on hi sylfe sume ofslogon, — sume mid attre acwealaan, — » 
[sume hungre Scwaelan]. 

2. iEfter J^am, maenige j^eode wunnon wiS Agustus, — aegper 
ge Ilirice, ge Pannonii, ge Sermenne, ge masnige o5re peoda. 
Agustuses latteowas manega micle gefeoht wi6 him purhtugon, 
buton Agustuse sylfum, aer hi [hie] ofercuman mihtan. »* 

3. iEfter pam, Agustus sende Quintillus, pone consul, on 
Germanie mid prim legian ; ac heora wearS aelc ofslagen, bu- 
ton pam consule anum. For j^aere daede, wearS Agustus swa 
sang, l^aet he oft unwitende sloh mid his heafde on jjone wah, 
ponne he on his setle ssit; and pone consul lie het ofslean. 40 
yEfter pam, Germanie gesohton Agustus ungenydde him to 
inpe ; and he him forgeaf pone niS, pe he to him wiste. 

4. iEfter pam, eall J^eos woruld geceas Agustuses friS and 
his sibbe ; and eallum mannum nanuht swa g6d ne }>uhte, swa 

B. c. 2182— A. D. H.] THE FOUR CHIEF EMPIRES. 115 

hi to his [hyldo] becoman, and baet hi his underJ>eowas wnr- 
don. Ne forSon ]>sdt jenigum folce his [agenu] ai gelicode to 
healdenne, buton on ba wisan }>e him Agustus bebead. pa 
\vurdon Ifines duru eft betyned, and his loca rastige, swa hi 

* naefre aer nseron. On }7am ilcan geare J?e |?is call gewearS, J^set 
wfiBS on bam twam and feowertigban wintre Agustuses [rices], 
ba wearo se geboren, se ]>e ]>a siboe brohte ealre worulde; }>a?t 
IS, ure Drihten Haelende Crist. 

5. "Nu ic haebbe gesaed,** cwaeS Orosius, "fram frj-mj^e 

i«])isses middangeardes, hfi eall man-cyn ongeald ]7aes aerestan 
mannes synna mid miclum teonum, [ond witum]. Nu ic wylle 
efic for8 gesecgan, hwylc miltsung, and hwylc gej^waemess 
si}7]7on waes, — sij7]Jon se Cristendom waes, — gelicost J>am pe 
manna heortan awende [wiirden], forj^on be \)a, aerran J?ing 

13 Sgoldene waeron." — Her enda5 seo v boc ana ongin5 seo vi. 

[Boc VI : Capitul I.] 

1. "Nu ic [wille,** cwaeS Orosius], on foreweardre [Jisse] vi 
bee, •' gereccean, Jjaet hit |>eah Codes bebod waes, })eah hit Strang 
waere, hu emlice })a feower anwealdas j^ara feower heafod-rica 

20 }>isses middangeardes geatodon.** 

2. paet aereste waes on Asirium, on |>am eastemaestan an- 
wealde, on Babylonia J^aere byrig ; seo gestod tuwa seofon bund 
wintra on hire anwealde, ar heo gefeolle, — fram Ninuse, heora 
fierestan cyninge, o\> [Sardanopolim], heora nehstan, — J^aet is 

w [nil] hund wintra and an m. 

3. pa Cirus benam Babylonia hire anwealdes, ])a ongan 
asrest Roniana weaxan. — ESc, on pam dagum, waes j^aet norfie- 
meste micliende on Maecedoniam, J^aet gestod lytle [leng] 
bonne vn hund wintra, fram heora aerestan cyninge Canone, 

M [o|j] Perseus, heora seftemestan. 

4. Swa efic on Affricum, on })am su8emestan, Cartaina seo 
burh, heo gefeoU eSc [ymb] vn hund wintra, and ymbe lytelne 
fyrst, — }>aBS ]>e [hie] aerest Di]>a se wifman getimbrede, o5 hi eft 
Scipia towearp se consul. 

»$ 5. Swa eSc Romana, se is maest and westemeste, ymbe vn 
hund wintra, and ymb lytelne eacan, com mycel fyr-cyn, and 
mycel bryne on Rome bmh, })aet paer binnan [forburnon] xv 
tunas, swa nfin man [nyste] hwSnon ])aet fyr com ; and }>aer 
forwearS maest eall ]>aet J^gei: binnan waes, J^aet \>ser unea5e aenig 

40 [grot] staSoles oSstod, Mid jiam bryne, heo waes swa swiSe 
forhyned, Jiaet heo [naefre] s\]>])on swilc naes, aer hi Agustus eft 

IIG KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book VI: Cu. II | 1. [a. d. 1—14 

swa inicle bet getimbrede, })onne heo [aefre] &t ware, by geare 
l>e Crist geboren waes, swa J^aet sume men cwaedan, paet heo 
ware mid gim-stanum gelVajtewod. pone fultum and faet 
weorc Agustus gebohte mid fela m talentana. 

6. Hit wres elc sweotole gesyne, ]>8Bt hit wses Godes stihtuug » 
yrabe })ara rica onwealdas, J)a ]>a Abrahgme waes gehaten Cris- 
tes cyme^ on ]7am twam and on feowertigan wintra ^ms ]>e 
Ninus ricsode on Babylonia. Swa eSc eft on ]7am sipemestan 
anwealde and on ]>am westemestan, pset is Rome, wearS se ilea 
geboren, pe cer Abraharae gehaten waes, on J)am twam and it 
feowertigeban geare J)aBS pe Agustus ricsode ; baet waes sibbon 
Rome burn getimbred wses tii hund wintra and twa and fiftig. 

7. SiJ)|)on gestod Rome burh twelf winter, mid miclum 
welum, fa hwile be Agustus [Ja] eaSmeto wi6 God gcheold, J)e 
he ongunnen hsefde : ]>8et W8ss, paet he fleah and forbead psdt u 
hine man god hete, swa nfin cyning nolde, ]>e »r him waes, ac 
woldon })a&t man to him tobaede, and him ofrede. Ac }78es on 
]>am twelftan geare. Gains, his genefa, f6r [of] Eg}T)tum on 
SyrisB, — hit haefde Agustus him to anwealde geseald,— }>a nolde 
he him gebiddan to J>am aelmihtigum Gode, [pa] he to Hieru- ?o 
salem com. pa hit man [Agustuse] saede, |)a herede he J)a ofer- 
raetto, and nanuht ne lehtrade. Rape jjses, Romane onguldon 
bffis wordes mid swa miclum hungre, J^aet Agustus adraf of 
Rome byrig healfe pe paer binnan waeran. Da wear]) eft lanes 
duru undon, for}>6n pe |)a latteawas waeron Agustuse of mane- m 
gum landum ungerfide, peah |)a*r nan gefoht ])uruhtogen ne 

[Boo VI : Capitul II.] 

1. iEfter J^ara pe Rome burh getimbred waes vii hund win- 
trum and lxvii, feng Tiberius to rice se Cesar, jefter Agustuse. » 
He waes Romanum swa forgyfea and swa milde, swa him nan 
anwealda naes ser |)am,o]) Pilatus him onbeadfram Hierusalem 
ymbe Cristes tacnunga, and ymbe his martrunga, and ecc ])a2t 
hine maenige for god haefdon. Ac pa he hit saede })am sena- 
tum, pa wurdon hi ealle wi5 hine swy5e wiSerwearde, for])6n » 
pe hit man ne saede [him] aeror, swa hit mid him gewuna waes, 
paet hi hit sy65on mihton eallum Romanum [cy])an] ; and 
cwaedon ])aet hi hine for god habban noldon. pa wearS Ti- 
berius Romanum swa wra6 and swa heard, swa he him aer waes 
milde [ond iepe], ])aet he forneah naenne paera senatussa ne let<o 
[cucne], ne para twa and twentigra manna, pe he him to ful- 
tume haefde acoren, ];act [hi] his rfed-])eahteras waeron, pa man 
het patricius. Ealle pa he het ofslean, buton twam ; ge, his 
agene twegen suna. Hu God pa pa maestan ofermetto gewraec 


on }>am folceyandhli swi5e hi his onguldon fram heora agenum 
Casere! )?eah hit ealluin pam folce on o6rum landum swa 
swi&e gewrecen ne wurde, swa hit oft »r waes. 

2. On J)ani xirgeare Tiberiuses rices, wearS eft Codes wracu 

s Romanuniy J>a hi »t heora theatrum waeron mid heora ple- 
gon, J)a hit eall tofeoU, and heora ofsloh xx m. " WyrSigre 
wrace hi forwurdon J)a/* cwaeS Orosius, " J)aBt pa heora synna 
sceoldon hrywsian, and daed-bote don, swiSor }>onne heora 
plegan began, swa heora gewuna waes aer J>am Cristendome/' 

!• 3. On pam eahtateo}7an geare his rices, }m Crist wses onh^ln- 
gen, wearS mycel ])eostemys ofer eahie middangeard, and swa 
mycel eor5-beofung, J)aBt cludas feollan of muntum ; and Jjaet 

{>jBra wundra niaest waes, J)a se mona ful waes, and ])8ere sunnan 
yrrest, J)aet heo ba aj)ystrade. iEfter }>am [Romane] acweal 
w don Tiberius mid attre. He hcefde rice xxiii wintra. 

[Boc VI : Capitul III.] 

1. iEfter J>am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes vii hund wint- 
rum and lxxxx, wear5 Gains Gallica Casere lui gear. He 
waes swiSe gefylled mid nnjieSwum, and mid firen-lustum, and 

w eall he waes swylce [Romane] ])& wyrSe waeron, for]>6n j^e hi 
Cristes bebod hyspton, and hit forsawan. Ac he hit on him 
swa swiSe wraec, and hi him swa la6e waeron, J^aet he oft 
wiscte, ])aet ealle Romane haefdon aenne sweoron, paet he bine 
ra})ost forceorfan mihte; and mid ungemete maenende waes, 

» Jjaet jjaer ]>& naes swilc sacu swilc ])aer oft ser waes ; and he 
sylf for oft on o6re land, and wolde gewin findan ; ac he ne 
mihte, buton sibbe. 

2. " Ungelice waeron])a tida," cwaeS Orosius, " si}>{>on Crist 
geboren waes, si])J)on man ne mihte unsibbe findan ; and, aer 

so^aip, [hie] man ne mihte mid nanum }>ingum forbugan.** 

3. On jJam dagum, com eac Godes wracu ofer ludam, Jjaet 
hi aegSer haefdon unge]>waernesse, ge betweonum him sylfum, 
ge to eallum folcmn ; swa }>eah heo waes swi)>ost on Alexand- 
ria ])aere by rig, and hi Gal us bet ut adrifan. pa sendon hy 

wFilionem, heora ])one gelaeredestan man, toJ)6n j?aet he him 
sceolde Gaiuses miltse [ge-aerendian]. Ac he [hie] for J)aere 
gewilnunge swy6e bysmorade, and bebead }>aet hi man on aelce 
heSlfe hynde J^aer man ]>onne mihte, and bebead ]>aet man 
fifylde diofol-gylda pa cyricean aet Hierusalem, — ^baet man his 

« agen dioful-gyld j^aer 'to middes asette, J^aet waes his agen an- 
licnes. And Pilatus he haefde on ]>reatunga, o]> he hine sylfne 
ofstang. — He gedemde urne Drib ten to deaSe. 

4. Ra6e faes, Romane ofslogon Gains [slaependne]. pa 

118 KINO ALFRED'S OROS1U8; Book VI : Cm. IV, 1 1—4. [a. d. 37—13 

funde man on his [maSm-huse] twa cysta, ]7a wseron attres 
fulle; and on o}>re waes 6n gewrit, J)»r wseron on awritene 
ealra j^aera [ricestena] manna [noman], pe he acwellan J)ohte, 
}>»t he hi be laes forgeate. pa geSt man paet attor fit onbone 
s&, and raoe J^ses ]>&t com fip mycel wsel daedra fisca. iEgfter » 
waes swiSe gesvne, [gej Godes wracu, }>aet he pa^t folc costian 
let, ge eft his [miltsung], J)a he hi fordon ne let, swa hit Gains 
gej^oht haefde. 

[Boc VI : CAPiTUL IV.] 

1. lifter J)am pe Rome burh getimbred waes vii hund wintra lo 
and xcv, ]>a feng Tiberius Claudius to Romana anwealde. On 
J}am serestan geare his rices, Petrus, se apostolus, com to Ro- 
me, and baer wurdon aerest Cristene men purh his lare. p^ 
woldon Komane ofslean Claudius, for Gaiuses ]7ingum his 
maeges, j^aes aerran Caseres, and ealle |)a pe jjaere maegj^e waeron. « 
Ac, mid J)on \>e hi J^aes Cristendomes onfengon, hi waeron swa 
ge^w^re and swa gesibsume, psdt hi ealle f orgeafon ]>am Casere 
J)a faehj^e \>e his maeg haefde wij) hi [aer] geworht ; and he for- 
geaf him eallum [p^i] unriht and paet facen, Jjaet hi him don 
}7ohton. M 

2. On l^aere tide, gewearS efic o|)er tacen, on Romana an- 
wealde, si})]7on him se Cristendom to com,]>aBt waes, — ]>aet Dalma- 
tiae woldon gesyllan Scribanianuse ])am latteowe heora cynerice, 
and sib}?on wi6 Romane winnan. Ac, ])a hi gesomnad waeron, 
and hme to cyninge don woldon, ])a ne mihum hi J)a guSfanan «» 
upa^iebban, swa heora ]>ea\v waes, ))onne [hie] aimealdi^s 
setton ; ac wurdon him sylfum wiSerwearde, J^aet hi hit ffifre 
ongunnon, and Scribanianus ofslogon. — "iEfc-ace iiu,** cwaeB 
Orosius, " se ])e wylle, o66e se pe durre, |)act ])aet angin naere 
gestilled for |)tes Cristendomes [gode], and gesecge hwar [aenig] »• 
gewin ser J)am Cristendome swa gehwurfe, gif hit ongunnen 

3. 0]>er wundor gewear6 efic J)y feorjjan geare Claudiuses 
rices, }>aBt he sylf for aefter gewinne, and nSn findan ne mihte. 
On ]>am geare waes mycel hunger on Siria, and on Palestina, » 
buton }>aet Elena, iE'tiubena cwen, sealde ])am munucum corn 
genoh, pe waeron a^t Hierusalem, for])6n pe heo pS waes niwlice 

4. On J^am fiftan geare Claudiuses rices, wearft 6}?^wed an 
igland betuh TherSm and TherfisiSm, [v] mila brad, and fif *• 
mila lang, — On ])am [seofe}>an] geare his rices, wearft swa 
mycel ungej^waernes on Hierusalem, betuh J^am J)e J^aer Cris- 
tene naeran, J)aet jjaer waeron xxx m ofslagen, and aet }>am 
geate oftreden ; swa nfin man nyste hw&non seo wroht com. — 


On })am nige))OTi geare his rices, \vear5 mycel hunger on Rome, 
and Claudius het (it adrifan ealle pa iudeas, pQ ]}edr binnon 
waeron. ^fter J^am, [Romane] witon Claudiuse J^one hungor, 
be him getencge waes ; and he \vear6 him swa gram, J>«t he 
4 net ofslean J^aera senatorum xxxv, and ])8Bra o6ra }>reo hund, 
J>e })8er yldeste waeron. iEfter pam, [Romane] hine acweal- 
don mid attre. 

[B6c VI : Capitul V.] 

1. iEfter ])am pe Rome burh getimbred waes viii hund 
10 wintra and ix, feng Nero to Romana anwealde, and hine hsefde 

xiiii gear. And he haefde gyt m& unbejiwa })onne his earn 
haefde &t Gaius. To-eScon ^am maenigfealdum bismrum J^e 
he donde waes, he h^t aet sumon cyrre onbaeman Rome [burg], 
and bebead his agenum mannum }>aet hi simble gegripon ]}8es 

14 licgendan feos, swa hi maest mihtan, and to him brohton, 
bonne hit man fit o5brude. And gestod him sylf on })am 
tiyhstan torre, J^e J^aer binnan waes, and ongan w'jTcean sceop- 
leop be pam bryne, se waes vi dagas bymende and vii niht. 
Ac he wraec his ungewealdes, aerest on J^aere byrig heora mis- 

M daeda — and si}>J>on on him sylfum, ba he hine ofstang — ^J)aet hi 
Petrus and Paulus gemartredan. He waes manna aerest ehtend 
Cristenra manna. iEfter his fylle wearS ]}ara Casara maeg5 

[Boc VI : Capitul VI.] 

«» 1. iEfter J)am J^e Rome burh getimbrec waes viii hund wint- 
rum and xxiiii, feng Galfa to Romana anwealde. )?aes on J)am 
VII monSe, hine ofsloh Othon fin man, and him to J)am an» 
wealde feng. 

2. Sona swa Romane aerest Cristenra manna ehton, swa 
40 [hit] Nero onstealde, swa wurdon ealle })a folc heora wi5er- 

winnan, ]>e be eastan Siria waeron ; ge, efic hi sylfe him be- 
tweonum haefdon ungeraednesse. Uitellus, Germana cyning, 
gefeaht )>riwa wi5 Oth6n, and hine ofsloh on ]>am ]7riddan 
mon]7e ]7aes \>e hi winnan ongunnon. 

u [B6c VI : Capitul VII.] 

1. iEfter }>am pe Rome burh getimbred waes dccc wintra 
and XXV, feng Uespassianus to Romana anwealde. Da wear5 
eft sib ofer ealne Romana anweald. And he bead Tituse, his 
suna, J^aet he towearp J^aet tempel on Hierusalem, and ealle}>a 
40 burh — [forJ}6n] pe God nolde, J)aet hi J^one [Cristend6m leng] 
myrdon — and forbead J)aBt man na5er eft ne timbrede. And he 
fordyde J)ara ludea endlufon siJ)on [hund] m, — sume he of- 

120 KINO ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book VI: Ch. VIII, IX, X. [a. d. W— 96 

sloh, — sume on oSer land gesealde^ — sume he mid hungre ac- 
wealde. /Eiter Jjam, man dyde him twam ])one trimnphan^ 
Uespassiane and Tituse. Seo finsin wear5 mycel wundor Ro- 
nianum, for}>on be hi fier ne gesawan twegen men aet somne 
))fler on sittan. Hy betyndon lanes duru. iEfter pam, Ues- « 
passianus gefor on utsihte, on })am,ix geare his rices, on anum 
tune buton Rome. 

[B6c VI : Capitul VIII.] 

1. iEfter J)am pe Rome burh getimbred waes viii hand win- 
tra and xxix, feng Titus to Romana anwealde, and hine haefde it 
twa gear. He waes swa godes willan, J^aet he sasde^ baet he 
forlure J)one dag, J)e he noht on to gode ne gedyde. Me gef6r 
e&c on ]>am ilcan tune "pe his fasder dyde, and on })aere ilcan 

[B6c VI : Capitul IX.] u 

1 . iEfter ))am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes viii hund win- 
tra and xxx, feng Domicianus to Romana anwealde, Tituses 
hrdpoTj and hit haefde xv gear. He wear5 eft ehtend Cristenra 
manna ; and waes on swa micle ofermetto astigen, J^aet he bead 
Jjaet man on gelice to him onbugan sceolde swa to gode. m 
And he behead jjaet man Iohannes, bone apostol, gebrohte on 
[Bothmose] }>am iglande, on wraec-sipe fram oSrum Cristenum 
mannum. And [he] behead J>aet man acwealde eall Dauides 
cyn, to J)6n, gif Crist J)a git geboren naere, ])8Bt he si])bon nS 
geboren ne wurde ; for)76n witegan saedon, \>ddt [he oi baem] m 
cynne cuman sceolde. ^Efter ]>am bebode, he wearS sy'lf un- 
wyrSlice ofslagen. 

[Boc VI : Capitul X.] 

1. iEfter }>am J^e Rome burh getimbred waes dccc wintra 
and XLVi, ]>a feng Nerfa to Romana anwealde ; and, forj^am J>e » 
he eald waes, he geceas him to fultume Traianus ]7one man. 
pa gespaecon hi him betweonum, J^aet hi woldon [onwendan] 
ealle 'pa gesetnessa, and ealle pa, gebodu, pe Domicianus haefde 
aer geset, for}>on ^e he him waes eer bam la5 ; and heton eft 
Iohannes gebringan aet his mynstre on Effesum, fram })am» 
woruld-yrmbum be he hwile on waes. 

2. pa geior Nerfa ; and Traianus haefde J)one anweald xix 
gear aefter him. And he underj^eodde Romanum ealle }>a folc 
^e him niwlice geswicen haefdon ; and [he] behead his ealdor- 
mannum, })aet hi waeron Cristenra manna ehtend. pa saede him 40 
hiora Sn, Plenius waes haten, paet he w6h bude, ana miclum on 
pam syngode. He hit J^a hraedlice eft forbead. 

3. On })aere tide, waeron ludei on miclum geflite and on 


miceire unsibbe wi5 })a land-leode, baer j^ner hi ]>om\e waeron, 
ob heora fela m forwurdon on ajgpre hand. On J^aere tide, 
Traianus gefor on utsihte on Seleutia J^aere byrig. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XL] 

$ 1. iEfter J>am pe Rome burh getimbred waes dccc wintra 
and Lxvii, feng Adrianus to Romana anwealde, Traianuses 
genefa, and hine hasfde xxi wintra. And ra6e })aes })e him 
Cristene bee cu}>e waeron, J)urh aenne J^ara apostola geongrena, 
QuadrStus wses haten ; he forbead ofer ealne his anweald^ ]>(st 

10 man naniim Cristenum men ne abulge. And gif senig Cristen 
agylte, J^aet se })onne wsere beforan him [gelaedd], and [he[ 
him J^onne demde sylf, swa him riht j^uhte. 

2. He wearS }>a Romanum swa leof, and swa weor5, }>aet hi 
hine nSnuht ne heton buton f aeder ; and, him to weorSscype, 

w hi heton his wif Casern. And he het ofslean ealle J)a ludeis- 
cean men, J>e waeron on Palestina, })8et man het ludea land, 
forj^on be hi Cristene men pinedon. And he behead J^aet man 
timbrede on psere stowe Hierusalem )>a burh, and J^aet hi 
mon siJ)J)on hette be naman EliSm. 

«o [B6c VI : Capitul XIL] 

1. iEfter |>am ))e Rome burh getimbred waes dccc wintra 
and Lxxxviii, feng [Antoninus] to Romana anwealde, J)e man 
oj^re naman het Pius. And him sealde lustinus se Philosophus 
fine Cristene b6c for heora freondscipe. SiJ)J>on "he }>a geleor- 
« nod hafde, he wearB Cristenum mannum swa leof, and swi8e 
hold o)> his lifes ende. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XIII.] 

1. iEfter J^am pe Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc and in 
wintra, feng Marcus [Antoninus] to Roinana anwealde, mid 

« his bre})er Aureliuse. Hi waeron ]?a aerestan men ]>e Romana 
anweald on twa todaeldon, and hi hine haefdon xiiii gear. And 
hi bebudon baet man aelcne [Cristenne] man ofsloge. iEfter 
j>am, hi haefdon mycel gcwin wi5 ParBe, for))on ])e hi haefdon 
awest ealle Capedociam, and Armeniam, and ealle Siriam. 

« iEf ter J)am, hi genamon f ri5 wi5 Parthe ; and him si}?})on be- 
com on swa mycel hunger, and micel man-cwealm, J^aet heora 
feawa to lafe wurdon. 

2. iEfter })am, [him becom] on J^aet Denisce gewin, mid 
eallum Germanum. pa on J>am daege, J)e hi feohtan sceoldon, 

40 him com fin swa mycel haete, and swa mycel ^urst, J^aet hi him 
heora feores ne wendon. pa baedan hi ^a Cristenan men, ]>aet 
hi heora on sume wisan gehulpon, and ongeatan })act hit waes 

122 KINO ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book VI: Cb. XIV— XVII. [a. o. 177— 217 

Codes wracu. ]>a abaedan hi ast )>ani aelmihtigum Gode, \pBst 
hit swa s\vi5e rinde, baet hi haefdon waeter genoh on ufon Jisere 
dune ; and |>a*t J^aer [waes] swa micel J^unor, J^aet he ofsloh feala 
M manna gemang (Jfleml gefeohte. 

3. Da aefter J^am ealle [Romane] wurdon Cristenum man- » 
num swa holde, pajt hi on manegum templum awritan, )>«t 
a^lc Cristen man haefde fri5 and sibbe ; and eac, ]7£et selc ]>8era 
moste Cristendome onfon, se be wolde. And Antonius forgeaf 
eall ]>tBt gafol, ]7aet man to Kome syllan sceolde, and het for- 
baeman })8st gewrit be hit on awriten waes, hwaet man on geare lo 
gyldan sceolde ; ana ]>xs on })am aeftran geare he gef6r. 

[B6c Vi : Capitul XIV.] 

1. JEhev }>am ]>e Rome bm'h getimbred waes dcccc wintra 
and XXX, feng Lucius Antonius to rice, and hit haefde xiii gear. 
He waes swySe yfel man ealra ]?eawa, buton paet he waes cene, i» 
and oft feaht ani/\ig. And feala ])ara senatorum he het ofslean, 
pe J^aer betste waeran. iEfter J^am, an })unor tosloh heora Ca- 
pitolium, [J^aet bus] \>e heora godas inne waeron, and heora 
deof ul-gyld ; and heora biblij^eca waer5 [onbaBrned]| fram bam 
h'g^tte, and ealle heora ealdan bee [forbumon] ]>aer mne. paer » 
waes an swa micel dem geburnen, swa on Alexandria waes 
Jjaere byrig, on heora bibl$ecan, Jjaer forbumon feower bund 
M boca. 

[B6c VI : Capitul XV.] 

1. iEfter ])Bm ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra » 
and XLiii, feng Seuerus to Romana anwealde, and bine haefde 
XVII gear. He besaet Piscenius on anum faestenne, o5 he him 
on hand eode ; and he hine si)>}>on het ofslean, f orJ)on he wolde 
ricsian on Sirie and on Egypte. iEfter ]?am, he ofsloh Albi- 
nus Jjone man on Callium, for)>on \>e he efic wolde on hine »o 

2. SibJ^on he for on Brytannie, and J>aer oft gef eaht wi5 Peoh- 
tas, and wi8 Sceottas, aer he [pa] Bryttas mihte wi8 hi bewe- 
rian ; and het aenne weall ])w^res ofer eall ]?aet land asettan 
fram sae o5 sse. And raSe })aes he gef6r on Eofer-wic ceastre. u 

[Boc VI : Capitul XVI.] 

1. JEiter })am J>e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra 
and LXTi, feng his sunu to rice Antonius, and hit [haefde] vii 
gear. He haefde twa gesweostor him to wifum. He haefde 
folc gegaderad, and wolde winnan wi5 Parthe ; ac he wearS <• 
ofslagen, on [])aem faerelte], fram his agenum mannum. 

[B6c VI : Capitul XVII.] 

1. iEfter pam ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra 


and Lxx, feng Marcus Aurelius to Romana anwealde, and hine 
haefde feower gear. Hine ofslogon eac his figene men, and his 
modor mid. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XVIII.J 

4 1. iEfter bam J)e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra 
and Lxxiiii, teng Aurelius Alexander to Romana anwealde, and 
hine haefde xvi gear. And Mammea» his seo gode modor, 
sende aefter [Origenise], J^am gelseredestan maesse-preoste, and 
heo wearB sibj^on Cristen fram him; and wel gelaered; and 

logedyde ]?aBt hire sunu waes Cristen urn mannum swyj^e hold. 
He gefor mid fyrde on Perse, and ofsloh [Xersan] heora cyn- 
ing. iEfter fani, he forlet his lif on Magestan j^aere byrig. 

[Bdc VI : Capitul XIX.] 

1. iEfter ]?am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra 
w and [lxxxvii], feng Maximus to Romana anwealde. He be- 
head eft Jjaet man Cristene men brocude, and ]>aet man ]?a 
gddan M&mmeam gemartrode, and ealle J)a preostas J)e hire 
folgedon, buton [Origenis] : he oSfleah on Egypte. And Max- 
imus ofsloh his [agen] ealdor-man, on ]>arti ]^ri(ldan geare his 
» rices, on Aquilegia J^aere byrig. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XX.] 

1. iEfter J^am })e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra 
and xc, feng Gordianus to rice. And hit haefde vi gear. He 
ofsloh ])a twegen [gebroSor], J)e «r Maximus ofslogon; and 
M he sylf raj>e J^aes gefor. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXI.] 

1. iEfter J)am ])e Rome burh getimbred waes dcccc wintra 
and xcvii, feng Philippus to Romana anwealde, and hine haefde 
VII gear. He wearS digellice Ciisten, forj^on he eawunga ne 

so dorste. On pam iii geare his rices hit gewearS, swa hit God 
gestihtade, J^aet waes ymb fin ]^usend wintra J^aes J)e Rome burh 
getimbred waes, jjaet aegSer ge heora Casere wear5 Cristen, ge 
eSc J^aet hi )>a miclan feorme ]7igedon, Crist es )>ances, aet ])Vds 
Caseres palentsan, }>e hi ^r aelce geare ])igedon aet heora deoful- 

« gyldum, [deofla )>onces ; ]?aet waes,] })aet ealle [Romane] woldan 
ymb xii monaS [bringan] togaedere Jione selestan dael heora 
goda gegearod to heora geblote, and heora si])|)on f eala wucena 
aetgaedere brucan. — iEfter ]?am, Decius,. an rice man, beswac 
}?one Casere, and feng him si}^J)ont o ])am anwealde. 

40 [Boc VI : Capitul XXIL] 

1. iEfter J^am ))e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 

124 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS ; Book VI : Ch. XXIII^XXV. [a. d. 251—268 

nil, feng Decius to Romana anwealdc, and hine hsefde ui 
gear; and sona gedyde sweotol tacn, pddt he Philippus ser 
besyrede, mid }>am ^set he het Cristenra manna ehtan, and 
manige gedyde to halgum martyrum. And gesette his sunu 
to ])axa anwealde to him, and ra5e \>8ss hi wurdon begen aet * 
somne ofslagen. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXIIL] 

1. JEiter })am \>e Rome burh getimbred wses m wintra and 
viii, feng Gallus Ostilianus to rice, and hit haefde twa gear, 
pa wearo eft Codes wTacn^ on Rome ; swa [lange] swa seo '• 
[ehtnes] waes J)ara Cristenra manna, swa lange him [waes] 
ungemsetlic man-cweahn getenge, ]7aet n&i h(is naes binnan 
J^aere [by rig], ])sdt hit nsefde J^aere wrace angolden. 

2. iEfter ^am, Emelianus ofsloh Callus, and haefde him bone 
[anweald]. paes efic, on J)am ])riddon mon])e, hine man otsloh. " 

[B6c VI : Capitul XXIV.] 

1. iEfter J)am J)e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and x, 
])a gesettan [Romane] twegen Caseras : oj^er waes mid Emili- 
tum J)am folce, Ualerianus waes haten ; oJ)er waes binnan Rome 
byrig, Callienus waes haten. pa sceoldon on simbel beon win- *• 
nende, ]>8er hit ])onne J^earf waes. pa bebudon hi begen Cris- 
tenra manna entnysse, ac hraedlice on hi begen becom Codes 
wracu. Ualerianus f6r mid fyrde ongean Saphan, Persa cy- 
ninge, and ])aer gefangen waes ; and si])]^on he waes SapSn J)am 
cyninge to J^am gesett, o5 his lifes ende, })aet he sceolde swa " 
oft stupian, swa he to his horse wolde, and he ]7onne se cyning 
haefde his hric him to hl^pon. 

2. And |)am o)>ran, Callianuse, waeron maenige folc on win- 
nende, ])aet he his rice mid micelre [unweorSnesse], and mid 
micelre unea6nysse gehaefde. iErest Cearmanie, J>e be Donua •• 
waeron, forhergodon Italiam 0J7 Refennan }>a burh ; and Swaefas 
forhergodon ealle Calliam ; and Cotan oferhergodon [eall 
Creca' land, and ba laessan Asiam ; and Sermenne genyddon 
ealle Datie fram Romana anwealde ; and Hunas forhergodon 
Pannoniam ; and Parthe forhergodon Mesopotamiam, and ealle " 
Siriae. To-eacon }>am, Romane haefdon gewin betuh him sylf- 
um. iEfter }>am, Callienus wear5 ofslagen on Mediolane 
]>veTe byrig, fram his agenum mannum. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXV.] 

1. iEfter bam ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and" 
XXV, feng Claudius to Romana anwealde. py ilcan geare, he 
oferwan Cotan, and hi adraf fit of Creacum. And him [Ro- 


mane] gedydon anne gyldeniie scyld baere daede to weorSmynte, 
and Sne [gyldene] anlicnysse^ and Lfihengon] hi tip on heora 
Capitolium. paes on J^am seftran geare he gefor, and his brojjor 
Qumtillus feng to pom anwealde ; and ])aes on ])am xvii daege 

9 he wearS ofslagen. 

[B6c VI : Capitul XXVL] 

1. ^fter })am )>e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
XXVII, feng Anrilius to Romana anwealde, and hine haefde v 
gear and vi monaS, — and adraf Gotan be norJ>an Donua, and 

10 ^anon for on Syrie, and hi genydde eft to Romana anwealde. 
And sibJ>on he f6r on Gallic, and ofsloh Tetricum })one man, 
for by [])e] he hi him teah to anwealde. iEfter }>am, he be- 
beaa Cnstenra manna ehtnysse, and ra5e pass waes ofslagen. 

[BocVI: Capitul XXVII.] 

w 1. iEfter bam ]>e Rome burh getimbred wres m wintra and 
xxxir, feng Tacitus to Romana anwealde: and ))sbs on bam vi 
monj^e he wearS ofslagen on Ponto lande. — .Efter J^am Floriam 
feng to J^am anwealde, and waes ofslagen, on ]5am }>riddan 
moiipe, on Tharsa J)am lande. 

» [B6c VI : Capitul XXVIIL] 

1. iEfter bam ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
xxxHi, feng [Probus] to Romana anwealde, and hine haefde vi 
pear and im mon}>as. And he adyde Hunas of Gallium, and 
he ofsloh Saturninus, };e aefter [J)aem] anwealde wan. iEfter 
«3 J^am, he ofsloh Proculus, and Bonorum, J)a gyrndon eSc aefter 
])am anwealde. iEfter J)am, he wear6 sylf ofslagen [on] Syr- 
mie J^aere dline. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXIX.] 

1. iEfter }>am ])e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
30 xxxix, feng Carus to Romana anwealde, and hine haefde twa 
gear, — and gefeaht twy wa wi5 Parthe, and ge-eode heora burga 
twa, })a waeron on Tigris stsipe J^aere eS. Ra}>e J^aes, hine ofsloh 
fin ^unor, and his sunu Numerianus feng to j^am anwealde, and 
raj>e })aes hine ofsloh his [agen sweor]. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXX.] 

1. iEfter l^am J>e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 

xli, feng [Dioclitianus] to Romana an wealde, and hine haefde xx 

wintra. He gesette under him gingran Casere, Maximus waes 

haten, and hine sende on Gallic, f or}>on ]>e hi [J^a] niwlice haefdon 

^ogewin (ipahafen, ac he hi [Jia] eaj^elice oiercom. On faere 

126 KING ALFREDS OROSIUS; Book Vi : Ch. XXX | 2, i. [a. d. 2S4— SOI 

tide, waeron Dioclitiae J)ry cyningas on winnende : — Caucarius 
on Bretlande, — Achileus on Egypta lande, — and Marseus of 
Persum. pa gesette he iii Caseras under him : — Sn w«s 
[Maximianus,] — oJ)er [Constantius, — pridda] Galerius. Max- 
iniianus he sende on Mfrice, and he ofenvan heora wi})erwin- s 
nan. [Constantius] he sende on Galliae, and he oferwan Ala- 
manise |)ajt folc, and si|)})on he ge-eode Brittaniam J^aet igland. — 
And he sylf Diachtianus for on iEgypte, and besaet Achileus 
bone cyning vni inonJ)as on Alexandria ])3Bre byrig, o5 hine ba 
burh-leoda him ageafon, and [he] si)>j7on oferhergode ealle lo 
iEgypte. — And Galerius he sende on Perse, and gefeaht tweowa 
wi5 Marseus, J^one cyning, ]5aet hebra na^or naefde sige. ^Et 
heora |)riddan gefeohte, Gallerius wearS geflymed, and mid 
micelre fyrhtnesse com to Dioclitiane ; ac he his afeng mid 
micelre unwyrSnesse, and hine het yman on his agenum pur- « 
puran feala mila beforan his raedwaene. iEfter }>am J)e his mod 
waes mid \>am bismre ahwset, he for eft on Perse, and hi ge- 
flymde, and Marseus gefeng^ and his wif, and his beam, pa 
onfeng [Dioclitianus Galeriuse] weorSfullice* 

2. Dioclicianus and Maximianus bebudon ehtnysse Cristenra so 
manna, — Dioclicianus eastene, and Maximianus westene ; 
and, for J)am gebode , wurdon feala martyras on x [wintra] 

3. l?a gewearB hi him betweonum» J)CBt hi woldan |)a anweal- 
das forlsetan, and |)a purpuran alecgan, ]>e hi weredan, and » 
woldon heora dagas on seftnesse ge-endian ; and baet swa ge- 
lajstan. Dioclicianus gesaet on Nicomedia )>aere [byrigj, and 
Maximinianus gesaet on Mediolane ]>aBre byrig. And letan }>a 
anwealdas [to Galeriuse] and to [Constantiuse], and hi hine 
todseldon siJ)|)on on twa. — Galerius [nom] llirice, and begeon- »o 
don })am }?one east-ende, and }>one maestan dael bisses middan- 
geardes. — And [Constantius] nam ealle Italie,ana Affricam, and 
Ispanie, and Gallie, and Bryttanie ; ac he waes hwon gyrnende 
bissa \voruld-J)inga and micelra anwealda, and for}>am he forlet 
his agenum willan Itaham, and Affricam to Galleriuse. pa ge- «* 
sette [Galerius] twegen cyningas under him : — 0}>er waes haten 
Seuerus, bam he gesealde Italiam, and Affricam ; and [Max- 
imianus] he gesette on ba east-land. 

4. On }>am dagum, [Constantius, se mildesta] man, for on 
Bryttanie, and ]^«r gefor; and gesealde his suna paet rice, <© 
Constantinuse, j^one he haefde be Elenan his [ciefese]. 

5. pa wolde Maxentius, [Maximianuses] sunu, habban })one 
an weald on Italiam. pa sende Galerius him ongean Seuerus 
mid fyrde, J)e him se anweald aer geseald waes, and he ]>ser be- 
swicen wear& fram his agenum mannum, and ofslagen neah « 


Rafenna Jjaere byrig. pa Maximianus geahsode J)aet his sunu 
feng to J)ani anwealde, ne |)a hraedlice forlet J^a burh, J^e he on 

?reseten was, and }>ohte his sunu to beswicanne, and [him] sij^jjon 
on to ))am anwealde ; ac, J)a hit se sunu afunde, J>a adraefde 
• he ])one fseder, and he fleah on Galliae, and wolde Constantinus 
[beswican], his aj)um, and habban him pset rice; ac hit on- 
funde his dohtor, and hit Constantinuse gesaede, and he bine 
geflymde si}>J>on on Masiliam, and he jjser ofslagen wear5. 

6. pa gesealde Galerius Luciniuse Italiam and Affricam, and 
'• he bet ealle J>a Cristenan, J^e J)aer beste wseron, [gebringan] on 

elj^eode. iEfter J}am, he wear6 on micelre untrumnesse^ and 
him to gehet manige laeceas, and hyra nfin him ne mihte beon 
on nanum gode ; ac him sffide hyra fin, J)aet hit waere Codes 
wracu. pa bet he jjaet man }>a Cristenan men eft gebrohte on 
" hyra earae, selcne j^aer he &r waes ; swa J)eah he gef6r on J^asre 
mettrymnysse, and Lucinius feng to J^am anwealde. 

7. ^fter bam, wearft gewin betuh Constantinuse and Max- 
entiuse ; ana ra&e ]>?ds Constantinus ofsloh Maxentius binnan 
Rome, 8Bt J)aere [brycg \>e] man Moluia hagt. — On J>am dagum^ 

•• Maximinus behead Cristenra manna ehtnysse, and ra5e baes gef6r 
on [Tharsa] paeie byrig. — On |)am dagum, Lucinius beoead J)aet 
ngn Cristen man ne come on his hireae, ne on his faerelde ; and 
ra)>e J^aes wearft gewin betweoh hun and betweoh Constantinuse^ 
and oftraedlice [gefeoht], o5 Constantinus Refeng Lucinius, and 

••hine si])}>on bet beheafdian, and siJ)J)on feng to eallum Ro- 
mana anwealde. 

8. On ))am dagum, Anius, se maesse-preost, wearS on ged- 
wolan ymbe J^one rihtan [geleafan]. Ymoe J>one teonan, waes 

gegaderod J^reo hundred bisceopa and ehtatyne, bine to ofer- 
itenne, and to amansumianne. 

•• 9. On ])am dagum, Constantinus ofsloh Crispum his sunu, 
and Lucinius his sweostor sunu, Jjaet nan man nyste hwaet se 
gylt waes buton him anum. iEfter J)am, he underj^eodde him 
sylfum manige peoda }>e aer waeron [Romanum] ungewylde ; 
and het atimbrian ane burh on Grecum, and bet hi be him 

•* hatan Constantinopolim. He het aerest manna Jjaet man 
cyricean timbrede, and J)act man beluce aelc deoful-gyld-hus. 
He gef6r ymbe Sn and J^rittig wintra Jjaes J^e he rice haefde, on 
anum tune neah Nicomedia ^aere byrig. 

[Boo VI : Capitul XXXL] 

" 1. ^fter ]>am J>e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
xci, feng [Constantius] to J)am anwealde mid his twam broJ)rum 
Constantine, and Constante ; and he [Constantius] hit haefde 
[xxiiii] wintra. Hi wurdon ealle J)a gebroJ)ru on ])am Arianis- 

128 KING ALFRED'S OROSIUS; Book VI: Cu. XXXI— XXXII. [a. d. 337— 3G3 

can gedwolan. Constantinus and Constans wunnon him be- 
tweonum, o5 [Constantinus] wear5 ofslagen. iEfter }7am^ 
Magnentius ofsloh Constans, and feng him to })am rice, [J>»t] 
wsis Galliam, and Italiam. On ]>am dagum, Ilirice gesettan 
Ueteromonem J)one man to hyra anwealde, to J)on }>8Bt hi siJ^J^on » 
mihton winnan wi8 Magnentiuse ; and hi hine n5ddon to leor- 
nunga, peah he gewintrad wsere; ac [Constantius] hine be- 
nsemde aegSer ge paes anwealdes, ge j^aere purpuran ]>e he we- 
rede, ge baere [scole] }>e he on leornode. iEfter J)am, he 
gefeaht wio Magnentiuse, and hine geflymde, and bedraf into 'o 
Lucchina paere byrig, and he hine syftne siJ)}>on ofsticode. 
^fter J^am, [Constantius] gesette' lulianus to Casere under 
him, se waes &r to diacone gehalgod, and sende hine on Galliae 
mid fyrde; and he hraedlice oferwan ealle }>a ]>e on Gallie 
wunnon, and waes asfter ))aere daede swa lipahafen, }>aet he » 
wolde ealne Romana anweald him geagnian, and mid fyrde 
waes farende, baer [Constantius] waes mid oj^ere fyrde wi8 Par- 
the. pa he past geahsode, and him ongean weard wass, ]>a 
gefor ne on fam faerelde. 

2. And lulianus feng to 'pam anwealde, and hine hasfde fin so 
gear and cahta mon})as. pa waes he sona geornfuU, baet he 
wolde digolice ]7one Cristendom [onwendan], and torbead 
openlice })a&t man nane faeste b6c ne [leornode], and saede e&c 
]}aet nfin Cristen man ne moste habban naenne his underf olgo}7a, 
and hi mid pam pohte beswican. " Ac ealle hi waeron baDS »» 
wordes, swa we hit eft secgan gehyrdon," cwae]) Orosius, "paet 
him leofre waes se Cristendom to beganne, J)onne his scira to 

3. iEfter J)am, he gegaderode fyrde, and wolde faran on 
Perse, and behead }>onne he eft waere eastene hamweard, paet »o 
man haefde anfiteatrum geworht aet Hierusalem, }>aBt he mihte 
Godes ])eowas on don, baet hi deor baer inne fibitan. Ac God 
gewraec on J)am faerelde swi8e geaafenlice on J>am arleasan 
men his [arlease] ge^oht, mid J)am baet hine gemitte fin man, 
ba he f6r fram fCtesiphonte] j^aere oyrig, gelicost J)am be he » 
llyma waere, and him saede, J)8et he hine mihte laedan puruh 
baet westen, J)aet he on Perse on ungearuwe become. Ac, ba 
ne hine to middes })aes westenes haefde gelaedd, pa, geswac he 
him, paet nan man nyste ]7aes faereldes hwar he com ; ac foran 
hwearfiende geond J)aet westen, })aet he nyste hwar he (it^ 
sceolde, o8 J^aes f olces waes fela f orworden, aegj)er ge for J^urste, 

f;e [for haete]. pa com him ongean fin uncuft man, and 
ofstang] lulianus. 


[Boc VI : Capitul XXXII.] 

1. iEfter J)am ])e Rome burh getiiiibred waes m wintra and 
an hund and xvii, feng luuinianns to Romana anwealde. 
Hine man geceas on |)am westenne ]>y ilcan dnege, ]>q man 

6 lulianus ofstang. He gesealde Persum Nissibi ba burh, and 
healfe Mesopotamiam paet land, wi6 ]?am j^aet hi mostan of 
\>am lande buton la6e. 

2. On )>am viii mon]?e bfes ]>e he to J^am anwealde feng, he 
wolde faran on Ilirice. pa waes he sume niht on anum niw- 

10 cilctan huse, ]>a het he betan Jjaer inne mycel fyr, forj^on hit 
waes ceald weder. pa ongan se cealc mid ungemete stincan, 
}>a' wearS [luuinianus] mid pam brae)>e ofsmorod. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXXI II.] 

1. iEfter })am J)e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
1* [an hund and xviii], feng Ualentinianus to Romana anwealde, 

and hine haefde xi gear. He wa?s aer }>ain lulianuses cenipena 
ealdor-man. He him behead j^aet he forlete }>one his Cristen- 
dom 6p]>e his folgoS, \>a, waes him leofre J^aet he forlete his 
folgo5, ^onne bone Cristendom. Ac him gefylste God eft to 
20 maran Sre, ]>sl he ])a laessan for hi lufe forlet, and ])vdt he J^aes 
ilcan rices ahte geweald, be his wi]>erwinna aer ahte. 

2. RaJ^e }}aes, he gesealde Ualente his bre])er healf his rice ; 
and he het ofslean [Procopius] }>e })a ricsian wolde, and manige 
o)>re mid him. Ualens waes gelaered fram anum [Arrianiscan] 

*5 bisceope, Eudoxus waes haten ; ac he hit hael swi6e fasste wiS 
his broJ>or, for}>on he wi.^te, ])aet he hit on him [wrecan] wolde, 
gif he onfunde })aet he on oJ)rum geleafon waere, on o}>rum he 
sylf waes; forj^on he wiste hu foRstmod he waes ^r on his 
geleafon, ba he laessan anweald haefde. 

» 3. On pam ilcan geare, Godenric, Gotena cyning, gedyde 
feala martyra on his |>eode Cristenra manna. On )>am dagum, 
Ualentinianus genydde eft J)a Seaxan to hyra agenum lande, 
])a hi woldon winnan [on Romane] : ba waeron eard-faeste 
neah J^am garsecge. And Burhgendum [he] gestyrde eSc, J^aet 

"hi on Gallic ne wunnon. Mid bam him waes swibost gestyred, 
J^aet him man gehet fulluht. On })am xi geare nis rices, Ser- 
menne hergodon on Pannoniam : ])a he jjyderweard waes mid 
fyrde, J7a gefor he on blod-ryne. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXXIV.] 

1. iEfter })am be Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and c 

and XXIX, feng Ualens, Ualentinianuses bro|)or, to Romana 

« anwealde ; and Gratianus, Ualentinianuses sunu, feng to Italia 

anwealde, and to Gallia, and to Ispania under Ualense. He 


150 KlXCi ALFUED'S OllOSIUS ; Book VI : Cii. XXXIV, XXXV. [a. d. 364—378 

])a Ualcns ojywde openlice, J>0Dt he ar digelice gehyd haefde, 
swa }7a?t he bebead ))aet munucas, — ]>e woruldlice J)ing forggn 
[sculonj, and WtTepna gefeoht, — bset hi waepna namon^ and mid 
^am fuhton, and j'fel dydan mid o])rum mannum. And sende 
on iEgypte, and het towyrpan ealle }>a munuc-lif ]>e his brojior » 
ser gestaj^elode ; and sume ])a munucas he het ofslean, — sume 
on elj^eode [fordrifan]. 

2. On ])am dagum. Firm us waes haten sum man on Affricum, 
se waes j^aer wihiiende ]>8bs anwealdes. pa sende Ualens })yder 
peodosiushis ealdor-man mid fyrde, — jJaes godan peodosiuses >« 
iseder, j^e eft waes Casere. On })am faerelde, rirmus wses 
gefangen, and forS gelneded to [sleanne] ; ba baed he sylf paet 
hine man aer gefuUode. And ]>a he gefullod waes, he waes, 
])uruh paes maesse-preostes lare, ]>e hine fullode, on swa fuUan 
geleafon heofun-rices, pxt he cwaeS to pam folce — '* Dop nu »* 
swa ge ^villan ; " and him sylf leat for5, paet him man asloh 
]>tet heafod of ; and wearB Cristes martir. 

3. On ]7am dagum, Gratianus gefeaht on Gallium wiS Ala- 
manne pam folce, and hyra fela m ofsloh. On pam priddan 
geare his rices, ]ia he }>aBt maeste woh dyde wiB pa Godes 20 
}}eowas, pa adrifon hine Gotan (it of hyra earde ; ana hi foron 
sippon ofer Donua |>a eS on Ualenses rice, and wilnodan to 
him, baet hi mostan on his rice, [mid] frij^e gesittan. pa ofer- 
hogoae he paet he him aSer dyde, oB5e wyrnde, oppe tij^ode ; ac 
hi let sittan j^aer ])a2r hi woldon. Ac his [gerefan] and his ^ 
ealdor-men nyddan hi acfter gafule, and micel geflit haefdon 
ymb ])aBt. o]> ])a Gotan hi mid gefeohte geflymdon. 

4. pa Ualens })aet geahsode on Antiochia [])aere] bjTig, ]>a 
wear5 he swi5e sarig, and gej^ohte his misdaeda, hu hi hine 
baedan rihtes [geleafan], and fulhvihtes baej^es ; and he him ^ 
sende Arrienisce bisceopas to lareawum, and gedwol-men, swa 
he sylf wacs; and liwaet he haefde Godes peowum on oft-sipas 
to laBe gedon. Het J)eah sendan aefter, }>aer he aenne lib- 
bendne wiste, J)eah he pxt late dyde, and him sij^pon het 
ge-Srian. — On ]^am feor]mn geare his rices, he feaht wi6 Gotan, « 
and gefljTned weav5 and bedrifen on aenne tun, and wearft on 
anum huse forbaerned. paer waes swi6e riht dom ge-endod, 
past hi }7one woruldlice lorbaerndon, }>e hi }>ohte baernan on 

[Bog VI : Capitul XXXV.] 4. 

1. iEfter [)am ])e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
c and XXXIII, feng Gratianus to Romana anwealde, and hine 
hajfde vi gear ; — and gesette Theodosius him to fultume, for- 
)}on him gejnihte ])aet J)a ])eoda, ]>e hyra winnan waeron, waeron 


to svvi8e gestrangode, l^aet hi man leng ne mihte mid gefeoh- 
tum ofers\vi5an. Ac Theodosius genam fri5 \vi8 hi ; and, on 
]>sere sibhe, he Isedde Athanaricus, hira cyning, mid him to 
Constantinopolim )?aere byrig, and ]>&t ra5e ^aes his lif ge- 

» endode. Rape J>ffis J>e Gotan ongeatan hu god ITieodosius 
waes, aegj^er ge hi, ge ealle [pa] }>eoda pe on Sci}))}ium waeron, 
gecuron his fri5. 

2. On J)}am dagum, gecuron'^Bryttannie [Maximus] him to 
Casere ofer his willan, se waere wyrbe ealra Romana anweajda, 

"•for his msenigfealdum duguj>mn, buton J^aet he J^a wi8 his 
hlaford wan for o]>ra manna lare. And ra]?e pvds, he for in 
Gallic, and Gratianus ofsloh, and Ualentinianus, his bro|>or, he 
adraf (it of Italiam, j^aet he o])fleah to Theodosiuse. 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXXVI.] 

»» 1. iEfter J^am pe Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and c 
and XXXVIII, feng Theodosius to Romana anwealde, and hine 
hsefde xi gear. He haefde vi gearum «r, anweald ofer J)a east- 
daelas. He pa Theodosius wjes ]iencende hu he Gratianus his 
hlaford gewrecan mihte, and eac his bro]?or on ham anwealde 
20 i^ebringan, and fyrde gelsedde on Italia, j>»r Maximus mid 
tyrde abSd set Aquilegia ]>aere byrig, and his ealdor-men, 
Andregatia, haefde beboden J)a clusan to healdenne; ac se 
ealdor-man hi betaehte lij>rum mannum to healdenne, and 
l^uhte] him sylf on scipum to farenne east ymbutan, and 
« yonne bestelan on Theodosius hindan. Ac mid ]>am pe he fram 
>aere clusan afaren waes wi5 para scipa, pa com Theodosius J)^r 
to, and funde Jjajr set feawa manna, |)a waeron yfele and earge ; 
and he hi raSe aweg a])ywde, and J^a clusan tobraec, and 
siJ>))on f6r ofer ])a muntas, o]> he com to Aquilegia, and Maxi- 
wmus ofsloh. pa j^aet se ealdor-man gehyrde, J>a adrencte he 
hine sylfne. Hu y|>elice God ge-endode f>aet micle gewin, mid 
hyra twegra fylle, pe Maximus and his ealdor-man haefdon 
up-ahafen mid manegum ]?eodum ! 
2. iEfter }}am, feng eft Ualentinianus to his rice. And |)aBS 
w ymb twa gear,})a he on [Gallic] com, hine ofsmorode Ambogaes- 
tes, his ealdor-man, and hine si)?)7on mid rapum be ]?am sweo- 
ran up-aheng, gelicost )?am ])e he hine sylfne unwitende haefde 
awirged. And gesette Eugenius to [J^aem] rices naman, J>aet 
he Casere waere and feng him sylf to ]?am anwealde ; for]^am 
^he ne mihte sylf habban J^aes anwealdes naman, for]?y he naes 
Romanise; ac laerde j^one o]>eme Jjaet he deoful-gyld georne 
be-eode. pa gelaedde eft Theodosius fyrde wi5 him twam to 
Jjaere ilcan clusan, pe he aer haefde wi5 Maximus. ]>a sende 
Theodosius Gotena fultum beforan him, j^aet [hie] ]ia clusan 

132 KING ALFREDS OROSIUS ; Book VI: Cn. XXXVII. | 1-^ [a. b. 380-^95 

tobrsecon ; ac hi wurdon uton ymbfaren of bam muntum, and 
ealle ofslagen : J>8Bt waeron x m. pa f6r Theodosius }>yder- 
weard, and wiste ]>Bdt bine man wolae mid J>am ilcan wrence 
bej>ridian. pa hi togaedereweard foran, ))a |>ohton Eugenius 
and Arbogestes, }>8Bt hi sceoldan aerest of }>am muntum hi ge- • 
bigean mid heora flana gesceotum; [ac him onsende God 
swelcne wind ongean, ]>xt hie ne mehton from him nsenne flan 
asceotan,] ac aelc com o]>er ]>ara, oSSe on hi sylfe, oSSe on ]>sl 
eor]ian. And Theodosius hasfde }>one wind mid him, ]>B^t his 
fultum mihte [msestra] selcne heora flana on heora feondum w 
afcBstnian. paer wear8 Eugenius ofslagen, and Arbogsestes 
ofstang hine sylfne. iEfter ])am, Theodosius f6r on Italiae : 
J>a he com to Msegolange J>8ere byrig, }>a ge-endode he his Kf, 
and betaehte his twam sunum }}one anweald. 

[B6c VI : Capitul XXXVIL] 

1. "iEfter |)am }>e Rome burh getimbred waes m wintra and 
candxLix, feng Archadius toanwealde toj^aem east-daele, and 
hine haefde xii gear ; and Honorius to }>am west-daele, and nu gi* 
haefS," cwaefi Orosius. 

2. And, for]>am ]>e hi geonge waeron, he hi betaehte h 
[twaem] ealdor-mannum to bewitanne : Archadius waes betaeh . 
Kufinuse, and Honorius waes betaeht Stilecan. Ac hi [gec; ^^- 
don] ra5e }?aes hwylce hlaford-hyldo hi }}ohton to [gecy]>ann.\ 
on heora eald-hlafordes beamum, gif hi hit J^urhteon mihtoi*. 
Rrfinus wolde habban him sylf Jjone anweald J)aer east ; and «* 
Stileca wolde syllan his suna J)isne her west. And, for J>am 
feondscipe, he forlet Gotan on Italiae, mid heora twam cynin- 
gum, Alrican and Raedgotan ; and bohte si|^]>on, ]>2et folc 
oferfunden waere, l^aet hi syjjpon wolaon eall }>aBt he wolde; 
and wende eSc }>aet he ]?am Gotan \>sds gewinnes mihte raj)e »o 
gestyran, for]?am he of heora lande geboren waes. Ra5e }>aBS, 
Alrica wearS Cristen, and Raedgota haej^en purhwunode, and 
daeghwamlice waes blotende deoful-gyldum mid man-slihtum, 
and simle him waes leofost, J)aet ]>a, waeron Romanisce. 

3. " Nfi git, eow Romane maeg gescamian,** cwaeS Orosius, »* 
" J^aet ge swfi [heanlic] ge)}oht sceoldon on eow geniman for anes 
mannes ege, and for anes mannes geblote, []>aet] ge saedan paet 
ba hac]?enan tida waeron beteran ^onne ^a Cristenan, and efic 
paet eow sylfum waere betere }>aet ge eowerne Cristendom 
forleton, and to bam hae}}eniscean })eawum fengan, pe eowre ♦• 
yldran aer be-eodan. Ge magon efic gej^encean hu hean he 
gft wearB his geblota, and his deoful-gylda, ]>e he on lyfde, pa 
]>a ge hine [gebundenne haefdon], and hine si}>})on atugon swa 


swa ge woldon, and ealne his fultum^ psdt waes^ swa swa ge 
sylfe ssedon, twa c m, swa eower nfin ne wearj> gewundod." 

[Boc VI : Capitul XXXVIIL] 

1. Miter J>am ]>e Rome burh getimbred waes m ^^^ntra and 
i c and iiii and sixtegum^ God gedyde his miltsunge on Roma- 

num, }>a }}a he heora misdseda WTecan let, ]>set hit ]>eah dyde 
Alrica, se Cristenesta cyning, and se mildesta. And he mid 
swa lytlum ni}}e abraec Rome burh, }>8et he behead }>8Bt man 
nanne man ne sloge, — and eSc J^aet man nanuht ne wanode, ne 
10 ne yfelode ]>aBs \>e on J>am cyncum waere. And sona }>8bs, on 
J)am J^riddan dsege, hi gef6ran fit of Jjaere b}Tig heora agenum 
willan ; swa ]>&y ne wear5 nfin hus heora wyllan forbsenied. 

2. peer genam Hettulf, Alrican maeg, Honoriuses sweostor, 
w }>aes cyninges, and siJ)J)on wi8 hine gepingode, and hi him to 

wife gen&tn. Sibj^on ssetan }>a Gotan baer on lande, — sume be 
baes Caseres willan, — sume his unwillan: sume hi foran on 
Ispanise, and }>aer gesaetan, — sume on Affrice. 





The Anglo-Saxon printed text is baaed upon tbe Cotton manuscript, whicli 
18 in the British Museum and marked Tiberius B. I. Where there are evident 
mistakes or omissions in the Cotton, they are corrected bj the Lauderdale 
manuscript, now in the possession of John Tollemache Esquire, M.P., a con- 
nexion of the Duke of Lauderdale. Erery word, clause, or sentence, taken from 
the Lauderdale, is inclosed in brackets [ ] ; in short, every word varying from 
the Cotton is thus inclosed, the particulars being given in the following notes. 
The exact reading of both manuscripts is, therefore, easily discovered; or 
rather, it is at once evident by the mode of printing the text, for whatever ia 
not included in brackets is from the Cotton, and every word in brackets is from 
the Luuderdale, imless otherwise mentioned in the notes. 

As the font, tcom which the Anglo-Saxon text of tliis work is printed, did 
not contain any accented capital letters, a separate accent has been generally 
plaeed i^ier the accented capitals, as in PAOB 84, 84/E'lena; but, when the 
accent would remove the following letter too far from the capital, the accent 
has sometimes been placed before the capital, in accordance with what is often 
found in the MSS., as in PAOB M, 87 b 'Asiam. 

In L and C, the contraction *] is generally used for ond, and ; but it is often 
written, in full, and, ond. In these cases, L uniformly writes ond, and C gene- 
rally and; therefore, the 3 of L has been printed ond, and the 3 of C and. 
In the few instances, where C writes ond, the ond is, of course, retained in the 
printed text. 

The punctuation of both manuscripts is very imperfect and often confused; 
but this refers particularly to the Cotton, which has been altered in punc- 
tuation, in accents, and often in orthography and in grammatical construction, 
by a more recent hand than that in whidi the original manuscript is written. 
Judging from the form of the letters, colour of the ink, etc. these alterations 
appear to have been made several centuries after the writing of the Cotton, 
and yet before the knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon idiom had entirely passed 
away. The Lauderdale is very sparing in its punctuation and accents, but 
upon the whole accurate: the Cotton is very profuse in both« but it often 


appears to be erroneous. The scribe of the Cotton generally used our period 
or full stop, for our present comma, semicolon and colon ; and often for our 
period. For our full stop or period, he used a semicolon (;), or a colon (:), and 
sometimes an inverted semicolon (!)* and more frequently a colon, with a dash 
after it. To prevent this confusion, it has been deemed advisable to adopt the 
modem English punctuation in printing the Anglo-Saxon text. 

In the notes, however, all the quotations from the Lauderdale and the Cotton 
manuscripts, are made to represent those manuscripts as nearly as possible, in 
their peculiar punctuation, accents, letters, and in the division of words. In 
all these respects the scribes have made absurd mistakes : even these arc left 
unaltered in the quotations, that scholars, to whom almost exclusively tiie 
various readings are useful, may see the exact state of the manuscripts. 

In referring to the printed Anglo-Saxon text, throughout the following 
various readings and notes, it must be observed, that the PAOSS are given in 
thick figures, and the lines in thin figures, and the succession of the words in 
each line is denoted by small Italic letters: the first word by a, the second by 
5, the third by r, and so on, in alphabetical order. Thus 2 a denote line 2, 
ward 1 : and 7 d denote line 7, word 4, because d is the 4th letter in the alphas 
bet. TVlien two Italic letters ore used, with a short dash between them, these 
two letters include the two extreme words of the text referred to, as well as tlie 
intermediate word or words. Thus PAOB 16 7 d-^ refer to ye man hcet Fortu- 
n&tus, which are in page 16 line 7, words 4 and 7, namely the extreme words j^ 
and Fortun&tus, and the intermediate words man hset. Again, 12 a-14ie refer 
to the same page, to line 12 and word a or 1, and to line 14 and word e or 5, 
including not only the extreme words Asia and Indisc, but all the inter- 
mediate words. 


A S. standB for Aiiglo-Sazon. 
hv. .... written a5o90 the line. 

C .... the Cotton MS. Tiberins B. I, and iti reading. 
C f. 2. or f. 2 a stands for the Cotton MS. folio or leaf 2, and a the flnt or right-hand page of 

this second leail 
f. 8 b .... the Cotton MS. folio or leaf 8, and b the second or left-hand page 

of this third leaf. 
OH .... the transcript of the Cotton MS. by Hampson. 

C, L or C and L ... the reading both of the Cotton and Lauderdale MSS. 

"Eva. or Eng the Eirolish or f'li^lish translation, in the same paragraph* 

jETao. or Haver. . . . JETavercamp's ed. of Oros. 4to. Leyden 1767. 
L stands for the Lauderdale MS. and its reading. 
Ljp • • . the ^age of the Lauderdale MS. 
• LB ... the Laudmlale MS. quoted by Ballard in looo. 
Ob08. or Oroi. stands for the Latin original of Oronva by Saver, 
p stands for ptigo. 
rd, .... reaa. 

rku • • . in a recent ^nd and ink. 
IP . • • • foanting or omitted. 


TO PAQB 9-12 : CONTENTS, BK. I — ^IT, CH. VI. 

PAGE 9. 1 a-e Inserted, througliont the work 
by the editor, like the head lines, to facilitate 
reference. 2 a Ck>tton 2CS. folio 1.— 2 a-3 h 

I. 4 a lAnderdale K8. page 1.— 4 a Hu to C. 
—4 a-f Hu ure ieldran ealne higne middan 
geard L. 

II. 6 d kjningc C— 7 h middan g C— ^ os-en 
L.— 8 Ik fsMtneese C. 

III. 10 c hcofoniftce L. — g lend L. — 11/-A so- 
dome ond go morre L. 

IV. 12 Ih^ thelefld ond ciarset hi L. — i wmi- 
nan C. 

T. 15 a seofan L. — I gearon C. — g wisdome. — 
15 1~17 d hn hie 8i»an ealra hiora waestma 
h>ne fiftan dcel dee geare heora cyninge to 
gafole ge Bella's L.— 16 «/ttlce geare tc C— 
k kjninge C— 17^ getette C 

VI. 18 e achiae C-^h ambictiones L. 

VIII. 22 1 monna L.->28 a b from hiora L. — 
23 g bodridiB L. — 24 a don C. — i ge wLtan 
L.— 25 a-e ymbe monegra o>erra folca ge 
winn L. 

IX. 26 <{ athaniense L. — h betweonn C. 

X. 29 rf k>ning C— * ge w C— 28 1 f. 1 b. 
— 29 d e i^aia C : is asia L.— ^ sint L. 

PAGE 10. 1/ aflymde C.~2 c-3 5 >a wif )>e 
man het amathenas and ymbe 'Sa C.—S^ an- 
dredan L. — I Creca w L.~4 a kyning C. 

XI. 5 A t on liecedomonia In — 6 i gefor L.—- 7 a 
read on Italie. 

XII. Saltp 2.-8/ kyning C— 10 h wiftnan 
C. — 11 a ond L.— (2 argeotere L. — h on lie- 
nesse L. 

XIII. 13 h pelo pentinm C. — d athinentimn C. 

XIV. 15 d meaiane L. — 16 h hiora L. 

Ch. 10, line 20 a on wealdas 'L.^c mid- 

n. 21 e-22 c H ge bro>>or getimbredan rome 

borg on italiam L. 
III. 23 d bmtof C — h i hi gchalgcdon L : hi 

gehalgodan C. 

V. 27^ A egyptiescan diofolgield L.— 28 h deo- 
[0 t 2] folgyld.— 28c<2 darios geif^in C— 

VL 80^ o> iewed L. 
VIII. 83<{ ndorem a--84c gallis L. 


Ch. I. 86 b^ tio bytmerlice sibb L. 
IL 38cachieC. 

III. S9d monn cwealm L. — 40^' gcnigendnii L. 

IV. 42 b galliiB L. — e-h lond on ni mila L. 

PAGE U. Y.lald p S,—h c cartaina a7rend 
wracan L. 

VI. 8^ betweonmn h,^A e cuca L. 

VII. 5 d kyning C. — e-g woun wi^ romane L. 
— 7 e read Macedonia C. — g ond L. — 8 rf 

Ann. 10 c read bysmere C. 

IX. 12/bi8ceo C: biscep L.— -IS/darins L. — 
h kyning C— t oferwou L. 

X. 15 a f. 2 b.— 16 A man w L.— 17j-18 a 
gefecccan to L. — 18^ scinlacan L. 

XI. 21/ ond L.— 22 b heretogan.— 22 d llf L. 
—if read ge-endedon. 

BOOK rv. 

Ch. I. 25 a-26 b Hu tarentine gcsawan roniano 
scipa on "Sicm sgC* ^ahie plcjeUon L. — 25 » 
ymau w L. 

III. 28 a-29 c. This title is printed from C, 
though the order of the clauses varies from 
the text, inp 79, 34/-85/. The fiile in L 
it — Hu mon ge seah weallan blod of eor|>{:n 
ond rinan meolc of hcofbcam. The clauses 
are thue arranged in the bodg of the work, 
both in C and L. 

rv. 31/--d2/ond hn >aburg leode on cartaina 
bleo[ton] men iiiora godum L. In the M8. 
bleo is at the end of the line, and ton is eri« 
dentlg omitted by the scribe, 

v. 34(ftf &n mon L.— 34 g It p 4.— 35»* 
a broken C. — 36 c burg L. 

VL 37 A be tweonum L.— 38^ kyning.— 42 5 
C t 3.-42^ hunda L.— t xxx. L. — ^ e ofslog 

PAGE 12. la enilius C. — l^-2c and 8^ 
mid. IIL hunde scipa L. — i ofer heargede L. 
— 5 c kyning C. — 2(f-5^. L has transposed 
these clauses thus; — ond hn .II. oon sulas 
foran mid .III. hunde scipa on afince ond hn 
cotta se oon sul ofer heargede sidlie. Ond hio 
on >riora con sula dasge com hasterbal se niwa 
cyning to libeum ^aim iglande. — 6j gains C : 


VII. 11 c romane L. — 12 ^ toHem godan 
tidan L. — 15 d monig: L.— ^ gescwen C. — 16/ 
ofolog L. — A [xxx .]M] w C, hut given in p 
89,9 c. 

VIII. 18 a burg L.— ^ Pcna cjning » L. — 
20 c rnouige L. 

XX. 21 c bcijwdc C— 21^ heora L.— 22 a L j> 
5: also C f. 3 b. — 22 h gcfpian C — 23 
him gesetton L. — 24 (2 legian L. 

X. 25 e f6r L.— 28 e oftlog L.— A asterbal L.— 
80 d-h aliefed from scipian >em ooDsule L. 

XI. 31/ read ge-endod. — 31 a-f Ha roinaoe 
sftcrre ge winn ond sonica \^for punica] 
wear'5 gc-endod L. — 33 de max:edomacyng 
L. — (J romano L. — 35 c enilius L and C, for 
iEmiliuR.— / ofem'on L. — y-t persos >oiie 
cyniiig C. 

XIII. 39/ read ge-endod.— 40 h kyniage C, 
hut letter hate out kyninge, as it it w in L : 
the English will then he : — How the third war 
of the Romans, and of the Carthaginians, was 


Ch. I. 42 a Hu L and C, hut the Rd, and 42 gh 
hii lif, are accented here, and hd in p 13, 1 a, 
2 e, 3/, 4 d, and 5 e, on the authoritg of the 
Tahle of Contents, prints in these notes after 
Bk. V : ch. xv. — 12 ci-43/ymbe romano gielp 
hu hie moncga folc ofer wminon. ond hu hie 
moncge cyningus L. — 42 i MaDcga, to agree 
icith folc ought to he manege, hut as C has 
manega, a;wf L moncga, both endhg in a, here 
and in the body of the work, tJte manega ofC 
is allowed to iland in the text. — 43 ef manega 
kyningas C. — 41 c romc wcard L. 

PAGE 13. II. If-i hatwa byrg toworpena L. 
2/-3 a ueriatus schicrde en gon L. — Exo. 
p 23, 25 e Viriathiis. — 4 e mantris C. — 5 i-O h 
of slog ispania Ix. m L. — Sj C f. 4. — 6 h w C. 

III. 10^, IT L and C, tnil wunnan, /or wunnon, 
is inserted in the text from the Contents, 
printed in these notes ajter Bk. V : ch. xv. — 
A ^*ij> L. 

IV. 12 5 Eng. Licinius.— 13 A kyninge C — 
l^de assia kyning C. — 17 aJjpQ. 

V. 17 h romana C. — 18 d metallua C— c ofcr 
won L : ofer wann C. 

VI. 19 6 nauius C. — e ofercom L.— /bet^^-itus 

VII. 21 c-e wa:ron wi)> geo weor>an L. — 
g cyning C. 

VIII. This title is neither in L nor C : it is taken 
from the body of the work, p 107, 19 6-20 h, 
and conform^ to the other titles by prefix- 
ing Ho. 

IX. 25 c on gun non L: agmman C: tn the 
Contents inserted in these notes, after Bk. V : 

ch. XT, ongunnon C— 25^ be tweonam tip 
ahebban L. 

X. 27/^ Eno. unnatural war.— ^A unsibb on 
>sm siextan L. 

XI. 29 wilian C— 30 h parhU C. 

XII. 81 d ga iuae L,/or gul iuse : inse C. The 
scribe of C appears to have omitted the first 
part ga or gul, and to have copied only the 
last iuse — 31 A legan C— 32/tarqnatus L. — 
g pompeius C. — 83 a ladteow L. — d fieetenne 
L.— 37 a Of. 4b. 

XIV. 37(2BecareL. 

XV. 88 d leode to L: thus, the L text seems 
to be the more grammatical — sume ispanie 
wieron some Spaniards were. The regular 
construction of C would be — sume ispanuctf 
(pr ispania) leode wssron some Spanish people 
(or of the Spaniards) were .* or as in the text, 
p 114, 27 e-g sume ispanias leoda sotne qf the 
people of Spain, — 38/ agustos C. 

Bendes the table of Contents of Bk. V : ch. 
i-xv: at jpl2, 42a-^13, 39, taken from C 
folio 3 2h-4 h, there is another table in C, 
occupying from folio 81, 19 to the bottom of 
folio 81 b. As it differs from the other tab1e» 
and will be a specimen of C, the whole of it is 
here printed, like the other notes, with a strict 
regard to the division of words, as weft as to 
the letters and points of the MS. 

f. 81 line 19.— Bk.V: ch. i. Hu drosius sprsec 
ymbe rcmana f^lp hii hf monega folc ofer 
wuunan. hu hf monega cyniugas beforan hyra 
triumphum f wiiS rdme weard drifan. 

II. H{i on anum geare wurdon )>a twa byrig 
toworpene. cartago and coTin>um. and hu 
uariatus se hyrde ongan rixian on ispanian. 
and hd daudius se consul gcfl^-mde gallic, and 
hu mantius se consul genam fritS witS ispanie. 
and hd bnitus se consul of:iloh ispania Jx. in. 
and hu [0 f. 81 b] an cjld wearS geboren on 

in. Hu romane sendon scipian on ispanie mid 
f^Tde. and hu craccus se consul [wan] • wi^S |>a 
o^re consulas o"5 hi bine of[8]logon K and hu 
^a heowas wunnan wiS )>a hlafordas. 

nil. Hu lucinius se csul se )>e eac was romana 
yldesta bisceop for mid fyrde ongean aris- 
tonocuse )>am cyninge. and hu antiochus aua 
cyning w^lnode partha onwealdes. and hu 
scipio se besta romana hegen maende bis 
earfoSa to romanum. and hu e)>na fyr afleow. 

.U Hu romana hetan eft getimbriau cartuna. 
and hu csul meteUus oferwan ^ wicingaa. 

• Not in MS., but inserted from p 18, 9/. 
^ The2is.has Ofploson for on-loson. 


•YI Hn fanins ee ooxunl oferoom betnitnsui 

galtina cyniDg. 
VII Hq roinone wserun witS geoweor^n ma- 

me>ia (^nge. 
Till Ha rcmume ongnnnon ansibbe b!m bete- 

onan up abebban on )>am fiilan gcare >e mariuf 

w«t eonsoL 
-IX: Hu ofer ealle Italia weafS tmgefsrlic ansib 

on >am sixtan geare >e iulios ae casere wss 

•X Hu romane sendon sillan |>one consul ongean 

metredaUs partba cyninge. 
JCl! Hu romane sealdan gainse >ani oonsnle 

.VIL legian. and bu iolius besset tarquatoi 

pompiuses ladteow on anom fscstene. and bu 

inlins gefeabt wi'S tbolomem .Ilia. 
Jill Hn octauianus se casere feng to romana 

anwealde beora nnwjllum. 
XII II Hq octaoianus se casere betynde ianes 

.XV Ha same ispania wocron agnstes wither- 

Ends at bottom of f 81 b o/C. 

Ch. I. 41 d read Fprecende C. — h on waldns L. 

—42 b beafed rica C. 
II. 43 d-f toromano anwaldc L. — 44 a agos- 


PAGE 14. III. 1 b gains L and C. 

IV. 2 e-ff toromano an walde L. 

V. 3 a^-c Ha ner onfeng C, for Hu nero feng. 
— (7-^ toromano an walde L. 

VI. 4 5 galua L. — de toromano L. 
VIL 5 b nespasianns L. — ds toromano L. 

VIII. 6 (20 to romano L. 

IX. 7/y to romano L. 

JL 9 b nerfa L. — d e toromano L. 

XI. 10 b £no. Hadrian. — d e toromano L. 

XII. 11 5 c pompcins C and L. — ef toro- 
mano L. 

XIII. 12 i c antonins C and L. — e f toromano 
L.— ^18 a aorelias C. 

XIV. 14 d e to romano L. 

16 L J) 7.— XV. 15 df toromano rice L. 
XVL 16^ antonins C and L. 
XVII. VI dt toromano L. 
XA^II. 18 <2 toromano L. 

XIX. 19 b maximos C and L. — d e toromano L. 

XX. 20 0/ toromano rice L. 

XXI. 21 <i0 toromano L.' 

XXII. 2,2 de toromano L. 

23 C f. 6.— XXIII. 23 d toromano L. 

XXV. 25 d toromano L. 

XXVI. 26 b £n6. Anrelian. 
XXVIII. 28&brobasC. 

XXXI. 21 d f tororaana ont\-alde L. — 32 a 
broiJ; orbrof; C, /or bro)»mm. 

XXXII. 33 b inainianas L. — EXG. Jovian. — 
/rice L. 

XXXIII. 34 J nalentinus C— Ekg. Valentinian. 

XXXV. 36 b Exo. Gratian.— 37 a brcttanie L. 
— e maximianom L. — Eyo. Maximos. — / 
kasere C. 

XXXVI. 38 i tbeodosinsL. — d-/toromana on 
walde L. — 39 b e ualentinns fengc C. 

XXXVII. 40 6 c arcbiadus fengc C: altered to 
arcbadins, adlos bv, rhi, 

XXXVIII. 42c^EyG. shewed Us mercy to. 
—/mild snnge L. 

Besides tbe table of Contents of Bk. VI : cb. 
i-xxxvin, at p 13, 40 a-j> 14, 42/, taken 
from C, folio 4 (-folio 5, there is another 
table, in C, folio 94, 15-folio 95, 2, of which 
tbe following is an exact copy, both as to the 
division of words, and the letters and points 
of the MS. 
C f. 94 line 16. — .1 Hn orosins wa?s sprecende 
ymb Jm .III I. anwealdas )>ara .IIII. heafodiica 
)>ise8 middangeardes. 

.II. Hu tiberius feng to romana anwealde se 

.111 Hn gains wenriS casere feower gear. 
.IIII Hn tiberius daudius feng to lomana 

.V Hu ncro feng to romana anwealde. 
.VI Hn galua feng to romana anwealde se 

.VII Hn uespassianus feng to romana an- 

.VIII Hn titus feng to romana anwealde. 
.IX Hu domitianus tituses broSor feng to ro- 
mana anwealde. 

.X Hu nerua feng to romana anwealde. 
.XI Hu adrianus feng to romana anwealde. 
[0 f. 94 b] .XII Hu pompeius feng to romana 

.XIII Hu marcus antonins feng to romana 
anwealde mid anrelins bis brewer. 
.XIIU Hu Indus feng to romana anwealde. 
.XV Hu seuerus feng to romana rice. 
.XVI Hn his sunn feng to rice antonins. 
.XVII Hu marcus feng to romana anwealde. 
.XVIII Hu anrdius feng to romana anwealde. 
.XIX Hu maximianus feng to roma anwealde. 
.XX Hu gordiauus feng to romana anwealde. 
.XXI Hu philippus feng to romana rice. 
.XXII Hu decins feng to romana anwealde. 
.XXIII Hu gallius feng to romana rice. 
.XXIIII Hu romane gesettan twegen cascras. 
.XXV Hu daudius feng to romana anwealde. 
.XXVI Ha aurdios feng to romana rice. 


•XXVII Hu tacitns feng to romauA anwealde. 

.XXVIII IIq probos feng to romana rice. 

.XXIX Ha cams fcng to romana anwealde. 

.XXX Ha diodtios feng to romana rice. 

.XXXI Ha coostantinas feng to romana an- 
wealde mid bis .II. brotSran. 

.XXXI I Ha iaainianus feng to romana rice. 

.XXXIU Ha aalentinianos feng to roma an- 

•XXXIIII Ha nalens feng to romana rice. 

.XXXV Ha gratinianoi feng to romana an- 
wealde. and ba brettannie namon maximianos 
bim to casere ofer bis willan. 

.XXXVI Ha tbeodosias feng to romana rice 
and ba oalcntinianas feng ell to anwealde. 

XXXVII Ha arcbadios feng to romana rice 
and bonorias to >am west rice. 

•XXXVIII Ha god gedyde romanom bis nult- 

Snd4 at£9B, line 2 ofO. 

Chapteb I. 
PAGE 15. § 1. 1 a Tbe Books and Cbap- 
ters are divided exactly as in tbe mana- 
scripts ; but tbe various subjects of tbe Cbap- 
tcrs are subdivided by tbe editor into jwira- 
prapbs and numbered, to facilitate reference. — 
Tbe L includes our first 4 paragrapbs in one. 
Our next 9— from 5 to 13 inclusive — are oom- 
prcbcnded in the second paragrapb of L. — 
The firit par? graph of C ends with our third : 
the 2Dd is commensurate with our 4th ; and 
tbe 3rd paragraph of C contains ours from 5 to 
23, both inclusive ; but in the body of tbe page 
of C, a new subject is often indicated by a red 
letter : in these cases, our paragraphs begin at 
tbe red letter, as in § 10,13,14,16,17,18and20. 

1 a-d See notes top 0,1 a-e. 
2a'LpB: Cf.5b. 

2 a The A. S. text, fromjp 15, 2a top 18, 27a, 
is, in substance, translated firom the Latin of 
Ones. Book I: cb.2. Barer. ^ 10-23. Alfred 
omits tbe dedication and ch. i. of Orosius. See 
ExG. Introduction, p 10, note 1 ; and p 29, 
note 1. 

§ 1. 2a-Z h. Uro ieldran ealne >isne ymb 
bwyrft hises middangeardes cwae|> orosius L. 
—3 a cwffit C— c oceanus C : oceanus L. — 
i man to L. — i a b garsegc bata'5 C : gansscg 
batetJ l*.—f~-j and hu by >a)>ry dajbis C : ond 
hie )>a J>rie dalas L. — 5 e europem L : europam 
C. — 6 c sajdcn L. — 7 d curopa C : europe L. 

§ 2. 8 e oceano L. — h, be before h,b€.rhiC: 
to L. — 11^* recui i6 C— 12 b-e L: togsedere 
ligcga^ C— /ond L. — 13 c read i€, — d danai 
C. — eread Wendel-sfl&s. — 14 i licgea'S L. 

§8. 15 It read i&— 16/riffeng L.-^' In C, the 

i is often converted into y by a recent acribe. 
Here tbe original rindoo is converted into 
syndon; bat the second or fine ftroke of y is 
evidently made by a sabteqoent scribe, as is 
teen from tbe lighter eoloor of tbe ink, the 
crowded letter, and also from tbe form it gives 
to tbe y. TIm i, in Anglo-Saxon, ia without a 
dot, but tbe y bas it, and to supply it to tbe y 
an accent is pat over tbe f, and tbe word b 
abeordly made s^don. This change of i into 
y is very frequent in C; bat, as it is by a 
recent band, and tbe i of tbe oiiginal scribe ia 
always retun^ in our tezt» this change of 
the letter need not be subsequently mentioned. 
—18 5 c im« >onan L.— 21 6 f . 6.— 2l/- 
22 (2 wilS eastan ^ on |»asi&flowe5 Nmonbsett 
euxinus L. — 21 i read Va C. — ^24 h read ^anon, 
— e-^ at on wendel-ase L. — 26/ giil^ C. — i 
sciet L. — k wendel sss C : wendel-scD L. — 27^ 
eac IP C— ^' ttondatS L. — 28 d ond w C— e/ 
on byreC. 

PAGB 16. § 4. 1 a The second paragrapb of 
C begins here. Afinca, tbe first word, is a 
little farther from the left margin than the 
other lines. A is a red letter. — e-e asia bierm- 
land ge mircu L. — 2 ^-3 a borge ond ligelS 
Hot londgemsere 8u)>)>onan ofemilus H ei L. — 
^e Zip 9. — 5 g Ik sjla stondatS L. — 6 h west 
^nde C : westende L. — ^^-t >emon atblans L. 
— 7 d-g >emon bsot fortunatus L. 

§ 5. 8 a, C Icgins tbe 3rd paragrapb here. Tbe 
first word, Scortlice, like 1 a, is indented, or 
is a little further from tbe left margin than 
the other lines. S is a red letter. — In L, 
Scortlice begins also with a capital, written 
with tbe same ink as tbe rest of tbe MS. 
Scortlice b^ns a line, which projects a little 
more into tbe left margin than tbe other 
lines, and thus indicates tbe second paragraph. 

* — 8/-A ymb H >rie L. — 10<f-ll a gereccan 
hu hie mid biera wstrum to licgeat^ L. — 10 h 

§ 6. 12 a-14 e &sia ongen %9sai middel dsele on 
bsem east ende l^ser lige'S se muHt nt on )>one 
garsccg >8eTe 16 >cmon batef? gandis )>one 
garsecg mon ba*t indisc L. — 13/ garsegc C. 
— h read ei. — 14 b garsegc C. — e indisc C : 
indisc L. — 14/-15 % witS )H>ne garsegc ia ae 
port caliganUmana. C. — \hf-k |»e mon bst L : 
to C— 16 a 6u>an-[C f. 6 b] eastan.— 16 d £b 
C. — rf-/ is hct igland L. — 17 e-* g^des 
muhan >ier)>83r caucasis se beorg endatS L. — 
18 h-\Oj se port samera be nor^an |>aem xxnte 
isse mu>a >8ere 16 )>emon nem nefS. ottorogorre 
L. — lOfread 14. — 19/-20 a o'Soorogone. >ODe 


§ 7. 21 c India L: fndca C— « beorg L.— 22 e 
fndos C. — e-e indns seo ei L. — 28 5' gnrsegc 
C. — 28 «-24 a On indea londe is *xliiii* L. — 
23/indea C — 24c bnton L. — 24^-26/ 
*z* byrg bnton orSernm monegnm gesetennm 
xglondnm: L. — T&fChoM — ^igbmdnm. of J^anre 
e indof— with only ( . ) <^ comma after iglan- 
dnm; while L makes (:) the common f^ stop, 
and begins the nest word with a capital, thns 
— ^iglondnm : Of )>8ere ie indns. The original 
Latin of Orosins begins the sentence like L — 
A flnmine Indus etc Saver, p 14. — ^25 % ia, 
the ain rki, and therefore omitted. — ^26 A-^ 
lige'S betnx >sere ie Indus L. — 26 a, I indus C. 
— 27 H C— 28 tf-29 a and be tux >sm 
tw«m ean nndon >as land arocana L. — 29^ 
passilSa C. — i me5ia L. — 80 ar4 )>eh >e ge 
writo oft nem nen eal|>a lond me>ia L. — 81 e-i 
8wi)>e beorhtte ond >ier sint L. The Latin it 
— situ terrarum montoso et aspero. Saver, 
p 14^ 5. Bcorhte 81/, C: and beorhtte L 
may he an unusual derivafivt of beorh a 
mountain, — 82 e stan ihte L. — 83/-A se reads 
soc L. — dSJ-^f on ^Smrn londe sindon twa 
micla ei L. — 84 e read myede. — 35 c twa and 
twentig C; hut L \aa XXXTT, uihiek agrett 
urith the Latin — In his sunt gentes trigiuta 
duffi. Saver, p 14, 8. 

§ 8. 86 a-87 c |»onne west from tigres ^asre i^ 
o|> eu (rates >a e£ ^onne betux >8em ean L. — 
86 f. 7 86/ read el— 88 e-89 d sindon 
•XXVIII' 'Scoda heora nor^ ge mscro sindon 
L.— 89 (2 Ljp 10.— 40 <f-41 d hiera 8a)> ge- 
macro Hcgea'5 to)>sem readan sk. Ond long 
[>aes redan sses L.— 41^-42/ scyt ligcS ]>aet 
land arabia ond nbei ond eudomane L. — 12/ 
Endomane; Eudsmon. JErar./>14n46; from 
tZ well, and Zrifios a people, trihe: a happy 
or well located people. Hence, Arabia Felix. 
42y-i ofer >9ere ei C: Of >SDrc i^ L. — 12 1 
read eL C.^43 ^n-44 e >cmon taurus h£'t L. — 
45 e monege L. 

PAGE 17. 1 h nenida C. — 1^'-3 e amon ond 
idumd ond iudd ond palestina ond sarraccne 
ond >eh hit mon hiet eal syria. L.— 4 h-e 
Hmon tauros haett L. — 5 d-f capodocia ond 
armenie L. — 6 a capodotia L. — 6 i-7 e bemon 
hastt seohnsse ana L. — S/capododa L. — 90 
cilia C — 11 a-0 read healfe. On nor5-healfe 
C. — 11 &-12 i On nor)> healfe isseo 8i6 euxinus 
ond onwest healfe se ssu >cmon hsett propon- 
ditis ond eOaspontus L.— 13 c C f. 7 b.— 18 i- 
140 se hehstabeorg olimpus L. — 13^* hyhsta C. 

1 9. 15 a Sio C. — h ngyptns L. — 16 a palaitine 
L. — 17 i-18^' hire se beorg Innnon hst climax, 
mius seo ei hire vwklmo is neh L. — 17 M80 

iSe climax hatte C— 18 1 is C— 19 e d readan 
sa C. — ^19 e-20 h >eah sume men aecgen het 
lure SBwielme sie L. — ^21 a-23 d ond )>onne fol 
raiSe Nes sie east imende on |>st sond ond 
|>onne be nnce eft on hct sand ond \>tsr neh 
sie eft flo wende up o(l«em sande L. — 21 a- 
80 1: Esq. p 88, 11-20. That rivers sank 
into sand, was a prevalent opinion long after 
the time of Alfred, but a recent traveller 
sayi, — "There is, I am convinced, no sudi 
thing in the country (Africa) as a river run*, 
ning into sand and becoming lost. This 
phenomenon, so convenient to geographers, 
haunted my *ikncy for years ; but I have 
failed in discovering any tlung except a most 
insignificant approach to it." Missionary 
TSraveU and- Researches in South Africa, hy 
David Livingstone, LL.D. London, 1857, 
p 68.— 21 A:-22/, w C— 22 i, w C— 28 ;-24 h 
ond )>ier hio SBrest upwielfS hie hata'S >aland 
men nuciiul L. — 24/, to C. — ^25^27^ he up 
oi>ffim sonde sc^ he is east imende from east 
dffile >urh Kthiopica weistenne ond >a*r mon 
hajt )>a ea ion L. — 25 m cymtJ C. — 27 a L jp 11. 
— 29/^ )>onan up aspryng^ L.— 80/-» hit 
aerbeforan sisde L. — 30 it-31/of>«m ewidme 
men hst \ntt waiter nilus L. — 81 k-%2 h forS 
west )>anon C. — 82 ^-33 >cmon beet meroen 
ond ^onan L. — Zlfread lande C. — 87^-88«I 
seo fyrre a^gyptus li)> cast ond long L. — 37 i 
f. 8.-39 b-d, io C— 39 h gar segc C. — iOy h 
nedre egypras C— 41 is C. 
§ 10. 42/ asian L. — 43 0-44 to hire norS 
dffile )>8et is ^onne of )>8em beorgum )7e mon 
haBt r;aucasu8 L.— 43 /-44 h w C— 44 h ssedon 
L.— 44 k-A^ c benorf^an india sindon L.— 455 
fndca C— 45 hie L. 

PAGhE 18. 1 0-2 west ryhte o^ armenia 
beorgas )>c (ya land leode hi hata'S L. — 2 a, w 
C. — 8 eufr^t^ C. — 8y~4 )>e mon parcoadras 
ha;tt L.— 4 h-^g |>e mon tauros hiett o)>dlium 
J>n».t lond ^onne L. — 65 ondlang L. — Ifecft 
L. — 8 ar-d a ^onan west endlong l^ee garsecges 
o}> Jjone see )>emon hsett caspia L. — 8/ on C, — 
9 h-d \>e\fvsr up scyt L. — ^9^ read beorgum. — 
9 1-10 h )>(et lond mon hiett L.— 10 1 londes 
L.— 12 k danais L.— 18 ^' pe mon hstt L. 

^ — 14^ L^i 12. — 14 1 beorg L. — 15 garsegc 
C— 15 1 lond L.— 15 h-lS h ]>eWnt mon L.— 
16^-^ ac }>a lond L.— 16 m f. 8 b.— 17 0-0 
read onst-bcnlfe Danais C. — 17 danais L. — 
17 <^18 a )^e ffast nihst sindon albani hidnt 
genemde L. — 18 0-19/ wehie hutafy nu liubene 
nu lucbbe we scortlice gesaxl ymbe ada lond- 
gemsro L. — 18 h read nti C. 

§ 11. 20 0-28 i nn wille we ymbe europe lond 



geroere arcccean swa mice] swawe hit fynnest 
witon ; From )>sre ie danaii west o|nrin ^ ea 
ieo wil^ ofj^em beorge )>e mon alpli h»tt ond 
irnfS ^oDne nor)' ryhte on f^es ganecges earm 
pe ]fsit lond nton ymb lit$ |»emon bryttania 
hstt ond eft 9vl\> o9 donua )« ea ^sere ewielme 
it neah rines ofre |>a?re ie (near the hanh qf 
the titer Shine) ond is si)>)mn eatt imende 
wi^S nor^n crecalond at on (nme wendelsi^ 
ond nor^ o)y f^one garsecg ^emon cwen se bet 
binnan l^iem tindon moneg^ )»eoda ac hit mon 
haet eall germania 'L. — 26 5 nor)>an to C. — ^26 1 
Obos. p 23. The Anglo-Saxon, from 26 1-28 c, 
and 29 a to |» 23, 10 e, is not in the original 
Latin of Orosins, bat written only in Anglo- 
Saxon by king Alfred. See £50. p 85, note2; 
and|»57 note 88. 

§ 12. 29 a-34 a ^on wilS nor)»an donna s& 
wielme ond be eastan rine sindon east francna 
ond besn)>an him sindon siii'sefas on of^re healfe 
^aere \€ donua ond be sa^n him ond be eastan 
nndon ba;g wore se dsl |>emon reg nes borg 
haett ond ryhte be eastan sindon btcme ond 
east nor)> sindon {^yringa L. — 35 d — 37 h sin- 
don frisan be westan eald seaxom is slfe mn^ 
)»aTe ie ond fnsland ond )>onan west nortS is 
Y«ii lond l^emon ongle htet L. — 38 d dene L. — 
h him Q,—j afdrede L.— 39 h-f wilte )»emon 
haj feldan b«tt L.— 39 e a'feldan C. — 40 h-g 
wiueda lond l^emon hajtt sysyle L. — 40 c 
f. 9. — 40/-41 e ofer sum diel maro ara ond 
hie maiX) ara L. — 42 e beg ware L. — 43 e ie 
L. — 44 i-45 h ^emon alpis ho^t to \>vcm ilcan 
beorgan licga'5 beg waraland gemrcro L. — 
45 e and tc L. 

PAGE 19. \hc londe bcgeondam L. — 2/L 
p 13. — 2 k-Zc maro ara londe is wisle lond L. 
— 3 A-5 h sint datia ha |>e lu wa^ron gotan be 
norhau eastan maro ara sindon dala ment san 
ond be eastan dala ment san sindon borigti 
ond be nor>an dala ment san L. — icd be 
eastan norSan C— ^ syndan C. — g dulamcnsan 
altered to dalamensan C. — 6 f nndon w L. — 
7 d-g horoti is msegl>a land L. — 8 a-h mKg>a 
londe ser mende o> ]>a beorgas rififen L. — 8 c 
sindon lo L,C. — 8 i and w L. — 10 d-W d bret- 
tannia ond benorl>an him is |>ses 8ii*s earm 
l>emon hajt ost sie L. — 11 / him to L. — 12 a-e 
sindon nor5 dene ffigj>er L. — 13^14 e sindon 
afdnede cud besuhan him is slfe mu>a ^vcre i^ 
L.— 14 c read ^Elfe muJJa.— 14^-15/ norS 
dene habbatS benor>an him )>one L. — 15^'- 
16 a >cmon hst ost sae L. — ^The East or Bal- 
tic sea, in opposition to west ss, 27 e/on the 
west of Norway and Denmark. — 16 h afrede 
Ii.— 17/ f. 9 b.— 17/ hfm C— 17/-18c 

him hone ilcan saw earm ond winedas ond bor- 
gendan L.— 19 c^ )K)ne nes earm L. — 19 d 
ylcan w L.— 22^23 benorhm him ofer)«. 
weatenne iscwenland L. — 22 1, te C — 24 a 
scride finne L. — ^24 e nor> menn L : nor5- 
menn C. 

§ 18. 25 a Oht here C : ohthere L. Opposite 
to ohthere in L, on the right margin, r il t, is 
written — Eie incipit Periplue OhfkerL — 25/ 
kynincge C. — 25^26 e |>et he eahra nor5 
monna nor^ mest bade L. — 27^28 e he sasde 
>eah |>flBt land sie swi^ lang nor|> |>onan L. — 
27^' >«t w L. — ^29 c stycce mdam L.— ^ han- 
to«e L.— 80/ fitca>e h.—j hi C— 81 d cirre 
L.— ^A ha longe L. — k nor> ryhte L. — 32/ 
mon L.— ^' westenne L. — 83 d hi C. — 83^ hfm 
C— 34al<ji 14.~84ty wid ssL: the same 
as 27 e/, west si^.— 35 a |»rie L.— 86a-37a 
firrest fara> Jwfor he >agiet nor^ ryhte swafeor 
swahe meahte L.— 86^1: feor swa w C— 36 1 
hi C.^ 87 ^-88 a ge siglan >ibe9g ]>8ct land 
L.— gweglian. "Sabeah >art land C— 38 d-iOl 
o^^ seo SIC in on "Kst lond benysse hws^er 
baton he wisae iSmt be iSter b£d westan windes 
ond hwon nor>an ond siglde "Sa east belande 
swaswahe meahte L.— 40 hCt 10.— 40 k he 
C— 41 d-iA a ge siglan hasceolde he tSffir 
bidan ryht norl>an windes for "Saem >8et land 
beag |>aer sa)> ryhte. Ohhe seo sse L. — 41 k 
)>asr w C— 43 a ss C : sse L. — g nysse L. — 
43 1-44 k J>asiglde he )>onan suS ryhte belande 
swaswahe mehte on fif dagum ge siglan L.— 
45^^ micel ea np in on \>wt land L. — 45^ 
tip C. — 45 f on IP C— 45 l-n hacirdon hie L. 

PAQS 5S0. 1 a>2 h np in on "Sa ea forl>sm hie 
nedorston for)> bi )»aere ea siglan forun fTil>e L. 
— 2 hr-B b gebun on o)>re healfe )>a?re eas L. — 
3 e-4 d he ar n£n gebun land si)>|>an he from 
his Hgnum ham f<5r L. — 5 c-6 d butan fisccmm 
ond fugelerum ond huntum ond |>aBt wteron 
eall finnas L.— 65 waeran C— 7c: 14A: in 
L, the first stroke of m has been scratched 
out, making beor nasi bnt the space between 
r and n, in 7 c, and the faint trace of the 
first stroke of m in 14 h, and the m being 
clearly written in 11/, shew that the word, in 
these three cases, was originally beormas.— 7 
e-i swi)>e wel gebud hira land L.— 9rf hdntan C. 

§ 14. 11 f-12 k of hicra agnum lande ge of 
>ajm laudum \>e j-mb hie ntan wairon. L. — ^12/ 
lande C— 13A-Ar forhrom hehit self L: for- 
««m hi hft Bjlf C— 15 a 5 an ge|>eode L.— 
15c-16^ swi|»ost hefor «ider to eacan Hot 
landes Bceawange for)>a}m horse hwselam for^ 
■5am hie habba« B\tiJ>e L.— 17 c-18 c hiora 
toNm ^atetS hie brohton same Veem cyninge 



ond hiora hyd L. — 17 1 cynincge C. — 18 o O 
f. 10 b.— 18 c hyd is the last word of the 7th 
leaf, or 14th page of L. The next 8 leaves, 
or 16 pages, have been torn out; L, therefore, 
begins again at page 31 of the mannscript. 

Commencement of the defect in the 
Lauderdale MS. 

At the bottom of this 14th jp of L is written — 
*'Hic desiderantnr YIII folia, qusD suppedi- 
tari poasont e Cod. Cottoniano/' At p 10 of 
the Jnnian transcript of Orosius, Dr. Marshall 
has made the following note : " Hie indpit la- 
cuna in Cod. MS. Lauderdal. qua laborat usque 
ad cap. ix : lib. L" The printed text, from 
this place, that is from page 20, 18 c to p. 31, 
42 A, is, therefore, entirely dependent on C. 

The preceding quotations from L are so precise 
and ample, as to give complete clauses, which 
often differ from C only in the accenting or 
in the spelling of the words. This precision 
seemed to be necessary in the first part of the 
collation, to shew the exact state of L. TMien 
the MS. of L. begins again, as at j> 31, 42 h, 
the references to it vnSl be more limited, and 
chiefiy confined to various readings. An ac- 
curate facsimile copy was made from C of the 
matter contained in the 8 missing leaves, and 
placed in L by me, at the request of the 
owner, John Tollemache, Esq., M.P., Helming- 
ham Rill, Suffolk, Sep. 29th, 1856. A more 
minute account of the facsimiles will be found 
in the preface, where L is described. In con- 
sequence of this defect in L, the following 
notes, to p 31, 42 A, can only refer to C. 

§ 14. 18 i^; scfp rapum. se hws^l C— 19^: 
22 g h€ C— 22 hi syxasum C; hence Bask's 
division into syx asum is not impossible, but 
he thinks asum stands for ascum. See' 
44 note 46. Gough says — " If I were to pro- 
pose a different reading, it should be that of 
]pyxa for fyxa, which might be easily mistaken 
by a copier, and then it would be somejuhes'* 
OougVe manuscript notes in his copy of OrO' 
eius, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, p 23. 
As these alterations are from conjecture, and 
do not seem to remove all the difficulties, I 
have allowed the C text, the only MS. we 
have of this part, to remain unaltered. See 
more in £iro. p 44 note 46. 

§ 15. 24 a h^ C. — 25 g wild^orum C. Some 
have supposed the word to be wild-deorum; 
but there must then be another d, and the eo 
are of little authority, being bv.rhi. Dr. In- 
gram, with more reason, takes wildrum to be 
the dat pL of wildra, the comparative of 

wild, referring to shtum in the preceding 
line. Lecture, p 62 note *.— 25 m h6 C— 38/ 
Ecip rapes C. 
§ 16, 40 a H6 C.-41 a C f . 11.— 41 d his C. 

PAGE 21. §17. 15«-e«. 

§ 18. 16 fl Oht here C— t h6 C— 18* J»onne 
C; but evidently an error: the construction 
re<]mres J»one. — 18iEr-19a sdringcs heal C. — 
19 « ge8eg-[0 f. 11 bjlian.— 22 c him C— 
22/ipa land C: 23<i ipa hindeC: the rea« 
^t)3 for inserting ifa land or Isaland and Isa* 
hmde in the text. See EvG. p 46 note 54. — 
24 d-f to scirinoges heale,/or sciringes as in 
IS I', and 25 «.— -25 o-c nor« wegtf li wi« 
so 5an. The e is joined to wcg and bi is writ- 
t4>n above, but they are both r h t, and cor- 
r\ipt the text.— 28 b 1-29 a-d, C Acw Seo si6 
li1$ msenlg bund mila up in on )>SBt land, and 
of sciringes heale. The S, in Seo, is a red 
capital letter, generally indicating a new suIk 
jci't, but the paragraph evidently begins as in 
ilie text 

§ 19. 29 « he C— 30^- s^ C— 31 h in C— Z h6 
C— 32 f-33 h on )ja;t baec bord. d^ua mearc 
C— 36/ read hL— 36^-37/ coman and hym 
wp>s S^twegen dagas C. — 38 he m to dene 
meorce C i tolv^rh i, and unnecessary. 

§ 20. 39 d : i h6 C— 42^-43 d \di land, and fill- 
st^. and 8c<5n eg C. — 13 i C f. 12. — 45 1 tis C. 

PAGE 22. 3 d ds C— 7 h U C— 11 k hit C— 
14:4 fisc»at^ C ; the n is hv. r h i, and unne- 
cessary.— 15/ un spcdigan.— 18 i Here Wulf- 
j^t^ui's voyage ends, in Hakluyfs Navigations, 
rot. L p 6, 1598. 

§ 21. 19 a-p 23, Sd This is the remainder of 
Wulfstan's voyage, printed first by Somner in 
bie Diet, Sax,-Lat. Angl. Oxon 1659, under 
Gvdrync. Somner omits the last sentence^ 
23, 8<--10e.— 20J hi C.~20^ his C— 21a 
C L 12 b.— 21/ kyningas C 

I 22. As some have had a cBfficulty in compre- 
hending the extraordinary Horse-racing de. 
scribed in this paragraph, the following illus- 
tration is given with the hope of making more 
ckv'ir this strange division of property. 

■ Very small and light boats, prolnblj somewhat of 
tbe Kune kind as are still used in Wales and Ireland. 
TbtAi? wicker-boats, coracles, carragh, eorrach, or 
cor^', are to be peen on the Wre, Teivy, and other 
rkcrs in Wales, and among the inlets of Clew Bay in 
Ircliind. The coracle resembles the section of a wal- 
ntii »lielL It is made of basket-work, or hoops covered 
witb hides or pitched canvas; "the dimensions are 
Qbout 5 feet by 4. and the weight, when dry, from 80 
to 60 lbs." The boutman can therefore readily carry 
his liny bark on his back by means of a cord or strap 
ititAtUed to the seat, and passing orer his forehead. 
*' Sometimes 100 such coracles may be seen afloat to- 
Retbor on the Tdry in the height of the salmon sea- 
son. ■' e/i/Ts hook of South WalM, \2mo 1S4S p 805 : 
FomiJp Friend 1851 Vol ITp 188. 


KOTES AXD TASIOirS BEADIN08 TO PA0S 89-86: BV. I, CH. n, { 1« 

TlUUetV IT III mcUesIMUe 12 3456 

I I I I I 

e d 

Where the 

eb a 
The 6 partt 
of the pro- 
pertT» placed 
withiB one 

The 5 or 6 parti of the property ere laid 
within one mile, a c of the town : the largest 
part c, farthest from the town, and the small- 
est part a nearest The Horse-men assemble 
6 or 6 miles fVom the property, at i2 or e^ and 
nm towards c; the man who has the swiftest 
horse, coming first to 1 or 0, takes the first 
and largest part The man who has the 
horse coming second, takes part 2 or b, and 
■0, in sacoession, till the least part, 6 or a» is 
taken. Each then takes away, as his own, 
the psrt he has gained.— 27 <£ djege.the e is 
r h f, but right, as indicated Jy |»y ilcan.— 
35 h, and in the facsimile fol 12 h, 11/ read 
forhwaga,— 37^ s^ C— * swif^oete?— 41/ 
«an/or «am.— 42 dOf. IS.— 43 h hj's C. 

PAGE 28. § 23. 8 e-10 e Omitted by Som- 
ncr, see § 21—19 a. 

§ 24. 11 a to j> 26, 17 i partly taken firom 
Obos. I, 2. — 12 h |>e bv, r h i, and the sense 
reqmres it— 14 e dp C— 20/0 f. 13 b. 

§ 25. 32 ^ innrbonense C : the second n k€U 
been changed into a, Making inarbonense, in- 
stead of insert ing an ti to make in narbo- 

§ 26. 42^: 43 a profent stie/or profents6 44 Ar. 

PAGE 84. Ic: t h5Te C. 

S 27. 9 i lis C. 

§ 28. 22^-23 a brettun- [0 f. 14 b] nia.— 24 c 
habbe C. 

§29. 291: SO^hlC. 

§ 30. 88 J is has been unnecessarily inserted be, 
r h ». — 38 c aegyptiis C— 38 A-39 c Not in C, 
but seems nece*«ary for the sense. 

§ 31. 42 k-AZf read be westan Hogathftus, 
Tribulitania sio )>eod, \>e — on the vest of the 
Troglodytes, the country TripoUtana, ithich, 
— 43 e Originally Jjiod, but the i has been con- 
verted into erh i. — 13^ hjTC C. 

PAGE 25. Ic f. 15.— 4a~5e C has the 
punctuation thus — bizantium; sio }>iod.— 5 a- 
X Eno. The country Byzadum contains the city 
Adrumctum and Zeugis — Oros, has, — ^Byza- 
dum, Zeugis et Numidia. . . . Byzacinm ergo, 
nbi Adrumetus dvitas: Zeugis ubi Carthago 
magna, Numidia nbi Hippo Regius sunt — In 
Hap, for Zeuge, read Zengis. 

§ 32. 6 e read \>i<A, as the original i has been 

altered to e r il 1.— 6 e/se heorh the hitt, ram- 
part, citadel, or city, just sodi as Adrmnetom 
was, " whose site formed an amphitheatre over- 
looking the sea, surrounded by strong walls.** 
P.S, Dr. Smia's Diet, qf Greek and Soma* 
Oeoy, Barrington has absurdly printed ae 
beorh, and Mr. Thorpe soggests se bnrh in 
direct opposition to C — 5 k admm€tus C. — 
6 c Altered to seo r A t. — ^11 e^ gar secg man- 
ritania- hyre— Orot. Saver, jp 81, 7-11, has, 
— Stifends et Csesariends Mauritania habent 
ab Oriente Numidiam, a septentrione mare 
Nostrum, ab oocasu flumen Malvam, a meridi^ 
montem Astrixim, qui dividit inter vivam ter- 
ram et arenas jacentes usque ad Ooeanum : in 
quibus et oberrant Gangines ^thiopes. Tln- 
gitana Mauriunia ultima est AfHcae.— 13^ 
Eva. read Astrix.— 14 c wsesm C,/or wsestm. 
— 14Jlt read dead-wylle. — 15 e-^ ^one gar- 
secg mauritania.C. — 16 e tingetana C. — 17 e 
Eko. Abennis.— 21> Altered to ))0od rki. 
§ 33. 25i f. 15 b.— 26i medcoe C : Obos. 
Saver, p 32, 4 qucm Issicum sinum vocant : 
quem Ismcum, contracted qm issicum, idcum, 
qm edcum, or encus, mesicus. yote 204. — 
29 f read Arfiitium C— 31 c-32 d Ores, has — 
Habet in longo millia passuum centum sep- 
tuaginta duo^ in lato quxnquaginta. Saver, p 
32, 10, 11.— 31 A Originally loud; but rki 
properly altered to long. 
§ 34. ^d-j Oros. Saver, p 32, 13 ab ocd- 
dente mari Icario, i,e. man lonio. 
§ 35. 41 e read seo C. — i2 a hit C. 

PAGE 26. 2yh In facsimile for hreo. wi"5 
read hreo; ^i'5 C— 2^-3 c hreoh; witJ italia 
^am lande. sardina. and Corsica C ; but Oros. 
properly begins the sentence vnih Sardinia. 

§ 36. Sdread >a C.-4» is C ^d f. 16. 

§ 37. 10 1 sardine C. 

§ 38. 15 A Bceortlice, e is bv. r \ t.— 16 e g^se- 
tenessum C./or gesetenum, seep 16, 25 e. 


18 a-d Inserted by editor to facilitate reference. 

§ 1. 19 a Oros. I, 4. Alfred has not translated 
Oros, j; 3 into A. S.— 19 a-/^'RD^MDE. 
ROMEBVRHGEtimbred. The first is a Urge 
green capital, accented: the other capitals, 
filling the first line of the MS. are smaller 
capitals in red ink. — 19 b c read tSem iSe C. — 
20 a The Anglo-Saxons, like other northern 
nations, reckoned their years by winters; be- 
cause, from the intense cold and great length 
of the winter, it occupied most of their atten- 
tion and their feelings. — 20 e read )»U8end C 
—22 e heigieiide,for heri^ende Cy,bv.rki 



— 23e h6 G.^23 A h£i C^2Seh6 C.~26^ 
on sdl^^; ^ notS C. — 26 d read ^ C— 
28 & ^ spedegestan C, e, i«. r A t. — 28 ij h4 
biom Cy o,h>,rk i, — 80 a alyf«den, e^hv.rhi, 
-^90 d hfim C.--80;i for-[C f. 16 b] golden 
C — 31 a ofiwig, am,hv,rk L — 81 h biom C, 
o,hv.rk ft.— 84a b^ C.-^5 ie b^ bine C. 
§ 2. 88 A InfaetimUe^far feDge read fengc C. 
—40 d beipeon, e^hv.rh u—41ff read |w C. 
— 44«ibdeiisC. 

PAGB 527. 2 y-H bid bit i^nrbteon C, r pro- 
perlj written hv.r h u — 8 k wieron ^e C, }>e, 
bv,rh i— 4/bjM, tbe • properly altered to 
<hr kL 

§ 8. 7^ Vyrstede C. — 9 a h manigfcalde for- 
Ugre» 0»y^» r A t, and ^0 in ^eligre expunged 
by a point below yff.— 10 a C t 17.— lOt 
gespedn C, e, bv.rh u—lB/hfre C— 14 d- 
15 k Oroi. u more explieii — PrsBcepit, nt in- 
ter porentea ac filioa nulla delata reverentia 
Dfttune^ de conjugiis adpetendis nt cnique libi- 
tum enet^ libemm fieret. Saver.p 89, 4-6. 

Ckaptsb IIL 

§ 1. 17 a Obos. I, 6: Geneds xiz, 24, 26.— 
17 e read 5e C. — 22 a aeo C. 

§ 2. 24 ft Imfa en m ih ,Jbr jof read pasr C. — 
25 de hha dn C— 26 a biem C, e,bv.rh t.— 
26tblC.— 28/bftC.— 29<{dielC: tbongb 
tf ia witboot an accent, I bave not besitated 
to accent it in tbe text, aa it ia accented in 
otber pkoea; and it seems espedally neces- 
sary bere to distingniRb ddti^ e»; m. A part, 
from dfld, eaj u. pL dalu. A valley, espedally 
as tbe words are in immediate connection. 

ckifxsb rv. 

§ 1. 84 a Obos. I, 7. Alfred omita cb. 6 
of Orot.— 84c rvoJ^eC— 84/ge-[0 f. 

17 b] timbred.— 84 h )msend C— 85 e read 
cSarsatbi: darsaLbfC, most absurdly divided 
and accented. Tbe absurdity is increased by 
tbe diange of bf into hf rk u — 36 e dpbdfon 
C. — 88 de bi bidra, umaeeeuarUy altered to 

PAOB sa f 1. 1 a Oboi. I, & — 1 e muf 
^ «e a— 5sttta— 5igddcundeC. — 7a 
bis a^7 e iostimis C— 7^ ginst C— 8 i 
bimn C^ o, Iv. rki. — 9 k b&e C. — 10 b dope- 
momnmi €» a, lv.rl u — 10 e bfoe C. — 11 a 
>a C.— 11 e sfU C— 12 h Of C— 12// 16 e 
U a— 16 1 1 1&— 18 ehtClycrku- 

18 A hm C; Ibr jNon.— 19 « bd C^21 h b^m 
a— 22 d bd Cr-28 d wolde 0—28 h read 

f 2. 88 s rmd Ym O— 87 / anwadde C, e, 
ho.rhL-'Mfhnm Cwo^Uf. rhir-40 e 

f. 18 b.-43 b hfn C— 43/7.' 44c; 45 t b^ 
C— 44 ff god C, o, witb a double accent.— 
45/>onne C. 

Chaptsb VI. 

PAGE Se. § 1. 1 a Obos. I, 9. — 1 c read 
iSe C. — 2 / In facnmile, for ambictno read 
ambicao. — 6 (2 worttld C, u, bv, rhi,^^ 
7 J tbcu bal^ on C, read here and 9 a Tbeu- 
bal^n.— 9/bim C— 10 b : 11 t h^ C. 

§ 2. 16 a 6idea C— 16 f bi C— 17 hOf. 19. 
—18 b bine C. 

Chaptxb VII. 

§ 1. 21 a Obob. I, 10. — 21 e read «e C — 
23 f b^ C— 24 i ealle bv.rh t. — 28 ed bd 
ge gearwon C, n altered to d, r A t. — 30 i 
"Sd C. — 31 a un & ablinnendlice C,for un- 
£blizmendlicc, with which the text must agree, 
— 36 <2 fif C, but te in properly inserted bv, 
r h i, — 38 e-y [tcBt wyrms utsi^nde bv, r h i, 
but unnecessary, for literally it is — wffiroa 
berstende, and |»a worms utsionde were buret' 
ing, and then oozing out corruption, — 39 <l 
read ^aa C.^40 a b^ C^fread mcnn« — 41 e 
f. 19 b. 

PAGE 30. 1 j wyrttroman C. — 2 ar-e Orae*, 
1, 10, Saver, p 55, 17, 18 Locustarum nubes^ 
exbaustis omnibus, ipsas qnoqoo radices seroi- 
num persequcntes. — 3 d >y»)H!me8 C. — 5 I 
frumcennede bv, r h t. — 7 h >eb bwtcSre C» 
>eb bv,rh f. — 7 J heon, eo,bv,rh 1.— 9 s 
utfffiredeZ C, I properly altered to t, r A i^-^ 
10 e ftdgen C, but an 1 is inserted after f bv, 
r hi, and tbe following 1 expunged by a point 
under it, making fiugen. — 10^' biom, o, bv, 
r h I. — 12 g heom, eo,rh t.— 14 e wijg wsegna 
C. — 15/ biom, o,bv.rh i. — 17 a heb bwa/Sre 
C, >eb ^. r A ».— 17 / meng^ C— 19 c and 
be C— 22 hot 20.—23 / read «4 C— 24 J 
nu C. — 25 a fs C. — 25 b drgyte C, ▼. orgeats^ 
orgete: Junius suggests ongyten — 26 b gon* 
gende C, o, altered toh,rh i. — 26^ monkynne 
C, o, altered ton,rh L-^ZJ d: 28 6 Wt C-— 
27y sonde C, o, altered toh,rhi, 

§ 2. 29/-30 a worolde; Kales C— 30 ill gei- 
wenctr Ac C. 

chaptib vra. 

§ 1. 88a Obos. I, 11.— 38c read «e C— 
39y dn C-^ read fSftig C— 42i. Eva. 
p 69, 40, 41 note 2, read—Hdereoot is bere 
made to tbe 50 sons of i£gyptus, and tbe 
50 daugbters of bis twin-brotber Danaas. 
Tbe daogbters of Danaus were given in mar- 
riage to tbdr coosids. — H c bd C. 

PAOB 81. I<;be5r.r;il.— 2abdC. 
§ 2. 3 c f. 20 b.— 6c f»«l bys C^ orosias 
C^65md C^— 9c k5v.rilir-lle fabtC. 



— /^ go Jura to, blote gtdo^ioge do, bv.rh i. 
12 1 hloTA C. 

§ 4. 18 a Oeos. 1, 12.— 18 e Ordsiui.— 18 h hit 
C— 1 9 i read hi C— 22 h anweald, e,bv,rh i. 
23 £ msL^e C,—€ is C— 25 e scond C, o, altered 
toa,rk 1.-26/ h^ C— 27 1 C f. 21.— 28 b 
hu C— 20 a h lifne him C— it a^reotan C, y 
is written above oorh t. — 81 e/ fbrt^n ^n C. 
— i <5n C— 32rf reorf cu«e C— SS/; 84 c; 
36y of C— 33 / mu2 i$eC.— 86d *^&o. rAu 
—37/ Eno. Thycsteg.— 87 < hedra C— 88tf 
liidra C— 89 e h£t C— • M C— 40 6 ; /.- i his 
C. — 41/ ut gcmetlica C. 

JECere ike Lauderdale MS, recommeneee, 

Ceaptsb IX« 

§1. — i4raOB08. 1, 18. Li»81. The L be^ns 

again here. See Notes to page 20» 18 c — 

44 A t siex honde L. 

PAGE 32. 1 & Ix gum L.-;f micel L. 

§ 2. 6/; 7/ lapUito C— 7 c C f • 21 b.— 9 a-e 
heton hi hie L. — ^9 » and C, be, r h f . — 10 e-/ 
hie on horse Que] feohtan !»; the last hie bo, 

Chapteb X. 

§ 1. 14a Oeos. 1, 14. — 12 ik-18 a *uii- hnnde 
wintnim L. — 15 c h4 C, — 17 c ^scende L. — 
17 h: 23 (2 him C, i, altered to heom, om 
r h ».— 18 e o«er erased L.— 19 k : 22 j : 25 y 
hfm C— 23 h h/ue C— 24 e read Hf C— 30 a 
read oS.— 30^ L p 32.— 31 «.• h read oiS^ 
C— 32 i C f. 22.-32 e read «a C 

§ 2. 34 a Obos. 1, 15.— 37 h % o)>)>e att^rM? fo 
oJ> )»iut C. — 37 I ^at to L. — 38 e genam<5n C. — 
89 d dfslegew^, C, m bv.rh i,— A hi<5ra C. — 
43 c \ffsitte L. — / wdros C. 

PAOS 33. 1 « >a?tte L.— 5^ onwalde L.— 8«/ 
beania striendon L : bctim astryndon C. — 9 c 
kendon C— / read by. — 12^ amazasanas L. 
— 13aCf.22b. 

§ 8. 15 6 read here. — 15^ tu L. — 16 c L j> 33. 
17 « curope L: eiiropam C. — 18 6 datl L. — 
19 e asiam C— 20/ hidra C— 23 a: 24 e 
hjTe C. 

§ 4. 20^-27 6 wifmonnnm. Jwtte L. — 27 c 
europo C— 29/h^ i SOff:j: 31/.- C.-31 v 
These were fiaxpk w\o7a, or rrjtt ficucpaX the 
large or war ship* of the Greeks. They were 
the Longtt naves, the long war ships of the 
Boinans, which had often more than 50 rowers. 
Wliat Oros. calls longas naves, Alfred trans- 
lates Dulmiunus 32 a. Mr. Thorpe thinks this 
is a corruption of the Norse drommndr; but 
he docs not give any explanation of the word. 
All that is said of it» in Kask's Lexicon Island* 
Icum Haldononii, is this — Dromondr, «. 
Dromon^ navU geHUit £t skib af nssedvanlig 

stOrrelse eg egen bygningsmaadft a skip of 
tMCommon eiee, and peculiar comtUrueliam, 
(See Orkney{nga Saga, K&k. 1780. 8. 298.) 
— 82y A an ioe scip C, e,hv.rhi: on an sdp 
L.— 84 A hfsoM, COM bv, rhu — 85 d gew£a.-« 
85 i Hot L.— 36 b ge sweoctor L. — 87 c fenge 
C— 87/ Of. 28. 

§5. 89 a Obos. 1, 16.— 39 a ft Hit £i a— 40ft 
hfta— From40ttop34,4ft,»C. AUthat 
there is in C, is— K swi earme wffinen. hf 
swa tintregedon. And nu "Sa >a g<5tan coman 
C— 40 »-page 84^ 4 e L [I«|» 83, 26 a to page 
84^4c].— 40»-p84, 4a, icC. What U be- 
tween the brackets, in the text» is literally 
copied from L ; except — and 41 c .* 42/.* 48 d : 
g: 44ft: 45/. where it would be better to 
read ond, as it is always so written in L, 
when oncontracted. The only stops in L are 
a point after 45 a thus, settan. and page 34 
after 1 c thus, wseron. and before andafter 1 g 
thus, *C* See the facsimile. 

PAGB 84. 1 d on. [Li» 34] wendende, 

§ 6. 8 ft-^ )>8et hi hie mid gefeohten L.— 8 ef 

mid gefeohte C. — ^9 a romwire C — 9 c >as C. 

— 9^ nn wyr sie L. — 14^ landes w L, — 

16 c : 20 a h£t C— 17/ ne ha»fdon L.— 20y .- 
21^' inniga L.— 21c hjre C- 24c £ 23 b. 
— 24 % gearder C : middangrds L. — ^25 c IlaMs 
C— 27 c g^ C— 28/ hidra C— 29 c dn a 

Chaptbb XI. 
§ 1.— 31 a OBoe. 1, 17. — 3iy wintran » L. — 
32 c XXXgnm L.— / |>stte L. — h priimises 
C— 33a "Lp 35.— 3de; 346 df C— 35c2 gewin. 
— 39^ is C. — k l^sette L.— 40 c mdncynnes 
C— 42^ h£t C— 43^ mdn C. 

PAGE 86. 2c f. 24: fosceaponge C. — 2g 

mdn C.—J sseg1$ L. 
§ 2. ZefM -X- L.— 5 a hw8B«ran L.— 6 b-^ 

hine bet lydan w L. 
§ 8. 6 a Obos. 1, 18.— 7 a dneas C— 8 k scea- 

wigean L. — ^9/hd C. 

Chapteb XII. 

§ 1. 11 a Obos. 1, 19. — 14 A hd: ISj: \7f: 

l^d:k: 196: 20a.- 21^.- C— 15 a fnrjmmlic 

luxurious, gratifying the appeiits or stomachy 

?/rom ^umle viscera, Som, — 16 d gcbiero L. — 

17 c his C— 19 c hfne : 21 1 .- C— 21 ft L j> 38. 
—21 c hfm, C.-/ hsfde C— 22 k asfrie C— 
26 c gewinne C. 

§ 2. 27 * C f. 24 b.— 28/ sd C— 29c «am so 
L.— 29/astiafC.— 30chisC.— 31f hd: 34t.- 
S9g: C— 33 e/ metSa. Ac hi C: me^ Ao 
hie L. Though Ac is both in L and C, it is 
superfluous, and therefore omitted in the text. 
— 88A ^^khofon C— 84c Eko. Harpagns. — 

F0TE8 AITD TABI0TJ8 BZADHtrGS TO PAGE 80-42 : BK. H, CH. m, § 4. IS 

87 5 ^n C.-42 d onwald C. 6, altered to d, 
rAt.— 43(ihidraC. 

§ 3. PAGE 36. 1 <• hlne C— d Ut J: 2i: 
14ft; 166.-y.- *C.— 2/r«uffyrd.— 7cCf. 
25. — 8 a hi<5ra C. — 8/^ wajron; and tp C. — 
9al,p 37.— 10 1 hi C— 18 h hfne C— 16 « 
hiom C, Ophv.rh i. — 16/ Eko. Harpagns. — 
19 d-fread ge-endod : ac Cirus C— 20^ on C. 

§4. 22a 0B08.I, 20.— 23^hg: 24A.- 26il; 
27^.- 28c.- * ; 29d: 83 k: C— 23> cilicia C. 
25^ li£in.— 27 A: 2Sd : C— 26 h drgeotere L. 
-T27/>e to L. — 28 y pfnungo L.— 30 a C f. 

25 b.— 30^ h£t C— 32/on C— 32 lUi ZSd 
C— 33 a ^)>elingc C. — 33 e: hhkC. 

§ 5. 39 bcswica'S C. — iOl: 43^ >e cc C— 
41y hi6ra: 43/ C— 41 1 L i» 38. 

Chaptbb xin. 

PAGE 87. §1. 2aOBOS.I,21.-5ithc<5raC. 
Ceaptsb XIV. 

§ 1. 10a Obos. I, 21. — 10a f.26. — 10 a 
read JSr. — 13 i hi6ra C. — 14 ft ^n ssegden 
C— 16/ liccedcmonia L. — 16 a nuese C. — 
17/ read ^.—20 d: 22 e read J>jet— 20/ 
hi<5ra C— ^ wendxnn L.— 22/ Ja L. — ^23 a 
gelendan C, but I altered to to in the original 
hand and ink. — 23 e h^ C—gh beam as- 
trynde C— 24f o1^ C: o9 L. 

§ 2. 27 Z ^Aieahehton C, ge, ft«. r h t.— 28 ft 
getweode L. — h mihte C— / hi<5ra C. — 29 d 
Ja p 39.— 30 * hiom, cm, ftc. r h i.— 31 d 
mihte C. — 31 e hedra C : w L.— 32 c f. 

26 b. 

§ 8. 86 <le soortlic jmhe C, e, fto. bat in the 
original hand and ink. — 36 h )^tte L.--38/ 
^nd C— 39 ft efihtatig C— 40 e akennes C. 

BOOK II: ChaptebI. 
PAGE 38. 1 a OboS. II, 1. — 1 Z he: 4 a; 

10 ft ; 13^; 14 1 ; C— 2 a gen<5h L.—d Jwtte 

Ii« — 3 a: 4 C| haa a doable accent in godne 

C— 3 ft read geeeiop C— 3 d ealle C— 4/; 

11* hfin C— 5i ■ylaum C — 8/ h6 C, hv. 

rA».— 9ow^:/;lle/12ft;14^;C.— 9ft; 

10^ us C— 10/C f.27.— 10 ij rihtlican Hn- 

gan C— 11 m^n C— 14 ft is C— 15 d « on- 

metlican onwealdon L. 
§ 2. 18 a L i» 40.— IS ft ptolome L.— ;i >» C. 

— ^20 « heafodlicu rfca C— 20^21 a feower 

indu C— 27 ft aona C— 30 d hit C— 30^ 

ongietan L. — 30 ft mege id L. 
§ 8. 31 a Oboa. II, 2.— 31 ft w^ C— 82 e hfne 

C— tf iloh C— 33 ft rice C— 34 eOt27 b.— 

84/hit C— 41 c remoaes L. 

PAGE 89. § 4. 4« £siHa C— 6A barg L.— 
7g L p 41.-14/ Pe w C— 16/ O t 28.— 

16/ dweste L.— ft read ealle C— 18 ef ^ 
babylonia C— 19 d rom&ia C— 22 e roma L. 
§ 6. 27 ft Obos. II, 8.-27 e tJone C— 84 a Mi 
)>e L. — 86/ and w L.— 37/^ )>8Btte alrica L. 
—88 if hjre C— 39 bjjp 42.-39 6 hwas[0 
f. 28 b]J>ere. — 39 c on wcalg L.— ft ]>am w L. 
—40a |>eh >e L.— 41 i h6 C— 42 a hfre C, 
read hyre. — 42 h read h£ C— t hire C— 44 d 
hidra C— 46 ft read hL—k synd ricsiende C. 

PAGE 40. 2 e caseram L. 

§6. 3/oDgeaten L.— 4aftl»e |>a L: H^eC. 
—7 e g<5d C— 9/hfe C— 10 ft read hajfdon.— 
11 ft gode, 0, with two accents C— 16 e hi<5ra : 
17 a ; 19 if ; C— 16/ C f. 29.— 17 ft cristtfnan, 
0, fto. r ft I.— 19 1 read pvas C— 21 d w<51 ge- 
winnan C— 22 d anmilt-[L p 43] Bunge. — 
22<fdDmilt8angeL.>.23e; 24;fvaJhIC.— 
24 e ffir^com L. 

Chapteb II. 

§ 1. 27 a Obos. II, 4. — 28 a troiiuia C. — 
29 e-ff remos and romulua C. — 30 c "San w L. 
—300; 35e hi6ra C — 32<f h^ C — 34« 
habbanne L,— ^ hi C— 36t hi C— 37/ge- 
tyglSedon L. -38 d read to C— 38 ^ f . 29 

b.— 39/ gen-in C 39/ \>e w L.— 42 d read 

wii C— 43 a >an C— ft gefoohtum L B.-/ 
wasron w C— 44 d read hi C. 

PAGE 41. 3^ hd : 4 a ; C— 4 ft cyning L.— * 

feng L.— 7 i ond L.— 8 k Msp<5n L.— 9 c Lp 

44.-9 de h€ his C— Z hine C. 
§2. 11 a h^: 12 tf; C— 15 e medlingn L.— 

18 « f. 30.— 180 geendodon L.— 22 if be- 

gietena L. 
§ 3. 24tf h^: 27 ft; 28ft ; C— 26 a lu6ra C— 

26 ft eaUra w L.— 27 ft ealla C— 28 a ligre L. 

—if hk C— 29^ ).e L.— 32 d werr C— 36/ 

nnder Utteowas C. 

Chaftsb III. 
§ 1. 39 a Obos. II, 6. — 39 c read ^ C. — 
39 ft^40 d -II* hande wmtmm ond *I1II* 
)>8ette L.— 40 a Jj p 45.— 40 ^ se 10 C — 41 e 
t dOh.— 41 c 9^ IHm here to p ^, 14ft, 
C u foritten fty another ecribe, at it evident fty 
the form of the lettere and accents. Compare 
Plate III Cottok MS. tcith Platb II. 

PAGE 42. 2hh6C. 

S 3. 6 a reoif Tarcofnoa C : tarcainios L. — 5 ft 

pi C, w L. — ^ft read asp^n C : asp6n L. — 6^ 

haten L.— 6 ih6i 7ft; C— 6X'f icS mchte L. 

— 8 e an wig L. — e >one L.— ^ yinb L. — 9 d 

torcuinioa It.—g on gean L.— 10 ofei* mod 

gran L. — t of alog L. 
§4. l2g]>e!tLi >ffirgifC; gif fgi(0ere<f tn o^ 

/ft«0iMf q/'^fiM.— 13eh^: 17e; 18/; 19e; 

C— 13/ read ge-egaode C— 14a;/liihe C. 

— Jk his C— f read hind C«— 15 a iKcmdon C. 


KOTES AXB TABI0U8 BZLDUfOB TO PAGE 4a-48 : BX. 21, CK* T, 1 8. 

—18 c read hu C— 19> wipre w L.— 21 aOt 


§ 1. 25 a Obos. II, 5. — 25 1 rom^n* C. — 
26c read ondradende C — 26A-28a hfran 
ladteow |>0DDe biera oousul ware, Inme iSe hio 
tictator beiou. Thii it cbiefly fit>m L, and 
■ccms to be tbe best text— 26 khirixk L.— 
27 a L p 46.— 27y UcUtores L.— 81 & Her L: 
Iwor gif C ; gif ir. r * i. See 12^.-81/ ne, 
before gcs^med, is expunged by points or dots 
uudemeatb. — 32 d ungetina L. — 41 i read ^ser 
C— 42 d forslajgene L.— 44/C f. 31 b.— 4*/ 

PAGE 48. 1 1 beafe L. 
§ 2. ll/be<5ra.— 12 e Lp 47.-14/ §6 C. 
§ J. 28 c^ berg.[0 f. 82] unge.— 28 g bft C. 
§ 4 28/ du-ge C— 29 a bft C— 81 d read H 

C— 32 e k gesc^p C- — 33 f syxcempan C. — 

37/ romaue C^ — 38/ gind L. 
§ 5. 40 a Obos. II, 6.-42 a h6 C— A &idie C. 

—43 dJsp 43.— 44y-i cnign ofyem borg L. 

—44 k bfne C— 45 a-g gandes boo p9» ofer 

fsTcldes longe gelette L. Gandes Qyndee 

(r^vSci Eerod. I, 189) a river of Assyria, 

muuing into tbe Tigris. 

PAGE 44. 2hU C— 2/ £ 82 b.-4^ his 
C— o d hi C— 7 h read fl^e C: fledu L.— 
9 d sixtig ed C, but witb points under as if to 
be expunged : ea w L. — 9/* read sySSan. — 
11 h bd C— 14 A 6^^ Here the ori^nal eeribe 
of C hef^ins to fcrife again. See p 41, 41 c. — 
14/ L B : secgenne C. 

§ 6. 17 a Babyloniam a Kemrod gigante ftin- 
datam . . multi prodidere. Oros. p 102, 8. — 
13 k read ge-cudado. — 21 h read swi>e. — d an 
L B. — 22 e-g finnitas et magnitudo Oroe, p 
102, 6.-24 e ymbgong L B.— 26 i die L.— 
26/ G £ 33.-27 e ungefotlicosta C— 80 c L 
p 49.— 30 h p4 C— 31/ westas C— 32 f ftestas 
C— 34d iniddanearde C— d 6ic C— 88 c 
mflDgo L. 

§ 7. 40/ babilonium C— 41 e h6 C— 41 h hf 
C : bie L. — Ekg. jp 44, 42 hfor pleasing read 
flcnwng or cutting off tbe blubber. — 44 ^r 
ofslog L. — 45 a romina C. — 45 b read bes- 
prTcJ> C. 

PAGE 45. 3 & is C. 

§8. 6a Obos. 11,7.-6/ £138b.— 6Zh£m 
C— 8rf>arC.— 9<Zb<5: *.• lOc- *; 13 A; 20 
e: 23 b : C— 10 d: 12 i bfne C— 11 1 geab- 
sade L.— 17/.- 25» bft C— 18rf ge-[Li> 50] 
-metton.- 27 a tu L.— 81 d t 84.-82 c^ 
'Esto^p ^1 gh read two bundrod thousand. — 
Zlde Both L and C have twa ^usend»— 6»< 

bund mmH h€ it uerted, Jbr Obos. Aot— Da* 
centa millia, Sttcer.p 105» 8.-85 i H C 

Chipzbb v. 
§1. 38aOB01.II,a— 40Jb^: 4lh: C — 
§2. 43eB^C.— 48AasirisBL.— 44AbfiaiC. 

PAGE 46. 1 eh^: 9/.- 12*.- 28/.- 24^ C— 
2/b£mC.— 21; man i9 L.— 2;Li» 51.--4A 
bfiieC.— 10a: 20ilhisC.— 12<{)>oiKmLB.^ 
121 far.[0 £. 84 b] bergode.— 16 h wisten C 
h9. rki: w L. — 20d ^Cltiades ei bello pra- 
fbxt Orof. Saver, p 108, 8, 4.— 21 d a6 C— 
28 e-^ Da be eft bsfde L. 

§ 8. 25 a Obos. II, 9.-25 d his: 29/x 81 e: 
84/.- a— 26/h4 : 80/; 81 1 .• 82/.- 0^26/ .▼. 
C— 27 c ond L.— 28 6 man w L. — ^28/ borh 
a— 28^: 29 ft s^ C— 81 e read f<5r C.-^2 d 
read feodum O— 84c he<^ C— 841 l,p 52. 
—87 ir f. 85.r-88 h ungemii&tHoe C<~38/ 
wsesftv. rAf C: »L.— 89cIdiC. 

§4. 41 db^: 48A.C.— 41/exerBsL.^-42e.• 

PAGE 47. 2/ w^ste C H.-^/y m»t ealle 
L.— 5c.- 14ftb£mC.-5€{«iC.— 5^: 151; 
hkC.-^ht6hbv.rhiC.^6bh€: m: 8^.- 
lie* 18/: 15c.- 16c:/: C— 8cwi6sC.— lOt 
geitfeade L.— 11/ fyxde C.^l2d ofy^' C^ 
16f Ot85b.— 17c{w^: 18a: C— 19 <2 on 
biKrhi C : to L. — 20 c-21 h Keque expec- 
tandum, toI bostem, vel diem, sed oeeaeiome 
noctie pemmpenda castra, commisoenda 
arma, oonturbanda agmina fore. Oros. p llh 
6, 7. — 20 d e pUse nibt L. — 21 d longsumasi^ 
L B.— 21 iJ4 p 53.-23 c and snme C, but 
and bv.rhi, amd ii uuneeeMmurg. 

§ 5. 24 a Obos. II, 10.-26/ b€ C— 27 d: 
28A bfm C— 28/bedra C. 

§ 6. 85i; b6 C— 41/ and w C— 42 a Lecede- 
mo-[0 1 86] nie.— 43ft and fc L. 

§7. PAGE 48. ItadnmcanO— 2Ahine:2l 
^:C.--3dh«:»:5»:10t:12/:13 2r:15c; 
1: 16 h: 21 f: 22 f: 2Zg: C. — 4c^ge)>wflBniea 
L.— 4^bf8:9^: 12c: 142: 17<2:C.— 5c.• 
7 c bf t C. — 7 a winnende C— 7 g h cynge 
Iseste C— 10/Miftn L.— 11 a Jsp 54.— 12 •• 
Bi)>eC.— 16f bfm: 17c: 20/:/: C— 20 d 84 
C— 21 2: a £ 36 b. 

§ 8. 24 a OBoe. U, 11.-27 1 U C^29 i bU«. 
ran C— 31 c b6ie C— 81 d: 41 d bfi C— 
4!0g b€: 41^: 43t: 45/: C— 41e Li> 55w^ 
42t sceolon, c, ftv. rAt' C: sculon L. — 48 a 
Eno. p 91, 851; or more literally, to hel- 
warum to the inhalntanU t^ UU. No. 437 
Lambeth MS& quoted fty the£e9.Dr. HeeH^ 
leg, Margaret iV^. ^ JHvimUg, Oxflfrd, im 

irOTES ASn) TABI0U8 SEiiDIKas TO PAGE 49-66 : BK. HI, CU. IT, S 1* 


JUff Hannonia Symbolica. — 4t% I w€ C— 45 h 
g<$de C— 45 k di C— 45 1 f. 87. 
PAGE 49. 1 ^ w^ C— 3 a bfm C— 6^ sfter- 
ran L. — 7 b-€ na'Sere an )>ance L. — 8 c gode 
C— 8 tUneHwh. 
§ 9. 9a Obos. II, 12.— 10ft w^ C. 

Ceattsb YL 
§ 1. l€/getimbrad C. — 20 sf byrnenne C. — 2Sj 
in C, ^ is canoeUed, and/or^ bv.rkL 
§ 2. 27ft f. 37 b.--30(/ Li» 56.--32t fncfsd 
C— 32 f-33 aft Evo. p 92, 17 ^rA read Volscian 
nation.— 83 jf fonlege C— 35 e he<5ra C— 35^' 
glf hnr C, gif fto. rAt.— 37 A bfm C— 38 ft 
b^ C— Jb bis C. 
§ 8. 40a Obos. 11, 13.— 42/>am fto. rhi C; 
w L. — iZff betoncan C— 43t read hi C. — 
- 441; Tie C ecrihe erroneously^ wrote on "Sa 
eor^a eor)>an; ancf tji correcting, crossed out 
eor|>an instead of eor>a. L has properly— on 
^ eor^an. 
PAGE 60. 1 (2 read ]>im C— 3 a furwiirdon C. 
§4. 6«bfmC.— 7iOt38.— lOrfuttriC- 
§ 5. 14 a Obos. II, 14.— 14 a Ie)>elioe L.— 14^ 
bsL>bbe C— 16 ft read pleoUccstan.~14 it : 21 ft 
bft C— 18* Jjp 67.— 20/si\d C— 20A un- 
getima C : nngetina L. — 21 d d C. — 21 fg 
Bwelce tacnung L. 

Ceaptbb VIL 
§ 1. 24 a Obos. II, 15. — 26 ft asponan L.— 
31 d bM C— 32 f mybto C— 33 « C f. 38 b.— 
34 ft genydon C. 
§ 2. 35a Abridged from Obos. II, la — 36(1 
•n* C. — 39 d pat L, C, hut query pten for 

Chaptbb VnL 
§ 1. 43a Obob. II, 19.— 48f bnnde L. 
PAOE6L 7dh6i lie: C— 7ebijn C.Se 

§2. 15<?0f. 39.— 23 ft H Pver C,ptLbv.rhL 
— 23 At m»d mawe L.— 23 1 miiw^ C. 
§ 8. 28cl demm L. — 31c be^ra C. — 34 1 ac- 

§4. 39ft Li»59.— 40ft f. 39 b. — 44(r 
PAGE 62. §5. 2d: 7ft; gotfan, t, hv.rhL 
— 3 hi ^das C, for ^ry dagaa. — 6 cd eac bie 
L, w C.—9j namon C— 10^* "Kasm L : pom C. 
— 18^ oSfleon w C and I^ but inserted by 
Jnnios^ and necessary for tbe sense. — IScd 
ofslagenre geahsian L. — 16 1 bcfcnisc L. 
§ 6. 19a-21 ft. Written in tbe same letter and 
ink in L as tbe rest of tbe MS ; but in C, it is 
written in a smaUer and tblnncr letter tban 
tbe otber part of tbe MS.— 20 ft C 40^-20 h 
fMMl ge-endian. 

BOOK III: Chaptbb I. 
§1. 23 a Obos. HI, 1.— Lj? 60. — 24* gaUia 
C. — 24 1 roma L. — 35 J read bim. — 39 c 
be<Jra C — 40^ abt^nc — 4iy f. 40 b.— 
44ft £xo. p 52, 44 ft-45 k read Tbe Elbing 
comes fttim tbe east, out of Estbonia, and is 
absorbed by tbe larger stream of tbe Nogat. 

PAGE 63. 1 a gebogene C. — 2 a ^isponcn C. 

§2. 10»b€: Uj: 12/; 13c/ 14*: 15/ C— 
lie bcras feobtan C, but feobtan is in tbe 
margin rhi, and unnecessary: wL.— 12cL 
p 61.— 1S> >am C, ftv. r * » : w L.— 16 h Isce- 

§3. 21o bfneC- 26rfb^C. — 25^s^C.— 
26 c gielp worde L. — 28^ ungemctliee L.-» 
31 h senig C— 32 a lat-[0 f. 41] teoifas. 

§ 4. 36^ mebte C— 37 c read sum.— 3Sft b^ 
C— 41 d : J be6ra C— 45 ft L ;> 62. 

PAGE 64. 2jh€i Sd: 14a: k: C— 4c 
t 41b.— 8 c b^om C— 14e bis C— 14t ptai 

§ 5. 22 a Obos. Ill, 2.-28 a L8ecedc-[Ii p 63] 
monia. In L, becvde is tbe last word of p 62, 
sbeet im. In beginning tbe next page, and 
sbeet, tbe scribe seems to bave forgotten to 
finisb tbe word, as be began p 63 witb ealdor 
mon. Tbe scribe of C writes tbe incomplete 
word laecede just as L, tbougb it comes in tbe 
middle of a line in C. Tbis is presumptive 
evidence, amidst many otber proofs, tliat C 
was copied from L.— 28^ C f. 42. 
Chapteb II. 

§ 1. 41 a Obos. Ill, 2.— 4iy gecgan C, altered 
to secgan rhi: gesecgan L. 

PAGE 66. 2cb5TeC.— 4/arcadiusa8C.— 5^ 
getacnad L.— 7c: jhk C— S^r bun C— A 
^<5nne C. 

§ 2. 9^ folcbi C— 10/0 f. 42 b.— 12 A rome C. 
Chapteb IIL 

§ 1. 16a Lp 64: Obos. Ill, 4.— 20ft nales L. 
— 22 ft lencten bsete L. — c ungemstre L. — 23 a 
after bslSan C : bse^an L, but evidently for 
bate, an./. *ca<.— 23 ft ie C— 25 ft for C.-fy 
|)ob pe Jj.—^ wasron and C, but and hc,rh t. 
— 26egedrebteC. 

§ 2. 31^ J* C— 32rf synton LB.— 36 C 
f. 43.— 39ii set C: L, but better ac— 40(i 
iin£rimcde L.— 43 a bine C. 

§3. 44aOBOS. ni, 5. 

PAGE 66. 3ALjp65. 


§ 1. 8 a Obos. Ill, 6. — 9ft Ixxvm C. — 
9 c read oferbergcdon. — ^/roman C. — 10 a 
*zin* C : L. Oros, has — ad quartum ab nrbe 
lapidcm. Haver, p 159, 20; hut ptw is adopted 



in the text, as it is in the table ofeontenU; 
and Lhif ha* — ad tcrtium lapidem. — 11 « 
gewocodan C. — 13 e morgeime L.— ^tidus C. 
—16/ bine C— 19 a gcfagen C. 

Chaptzb V. 

§ 1. 21 a Oww. Ill, 7.—21J fc 43 b. — 22 J 

ir C. — 24 eh-d hie nan land L. — 26 d heard 

sfclncflse L.— 27 f taugel, u orer •, rhi C — 

20 & e on somre at one time, L. 
§ 2. 81 A middan eard C— 3d/h^ : 85 h : C^— 

83^ iudana L.— 35 d •wi'SeiD L. — 86 5^ giet L. 

•^-36 kJdp 66.-38^ iQ>onem C— 39 1 digom 

§ 8. 40 a Obos. Ill, S,-ASfread msrtan C. 

PAGE 67. 2 h romane C. 

§ 4. 3/ C f. 44.-4 i ianaa C.-;; dnra L.— 7 
o-<2 »r eft octaoianns dsge L. — The following 
note is by my IViend E. Thomson, Esq.— 3/- 
7 d gif tenig man sy, &c. • . er eft Octaoianni 
dft.'gc; . • . if [there"] be any man. See. . . . ntUil 
the day of Oc^apiattuf— (Literally) he/ore the 
day of Octavianus Caear again (aftencards), 
— The hypothetical particle gif, b equivalent 
to a negative, aa in P«. 89, 35. I will not lie 
nnto David — Gyf Daoide ic lege. — L says 
** The door of Janns wak not shnt, after the 
beginning of that war, (with an exception 
scarcely worth notice,) until the time of 
Octuvian." That is. It was first shut in his 
day. This b virtually denied by C. — "If 
there be any one, who can find . • . that it 
was shut first in the time of Octananus." — 
The obvious and undeniable sense is, that no 
man can find it so; but the fact b, and L. 
vouches for it, " Xo man, who will read the 
history of Home, can miss it." C b the 
aficctcd and inadequate representative of the 
original, while L, Alfred's contemporary, b 
proved to be correct, from internal evidence, 
and the collation of other MSS. of the 9th 
or 10th centuries. E.T. — 10/andydan L. — 
12 b miS L. 

§6. 23^Li>67.— 24^ lyse C: lufe L.— 26f 
^ C. — 23 c romana C— ^rswa w L. — 28 f 
C f. 44 b.— 295r on C— 31 c his C. 

Chattee VL 
§ 1. 35 a Oeob. Ill, 9. — 40 a he to C. — 44 e-^ 
58, 1 5 taken from L. 

PAGE 68. § 2. 4 c read wban C.—Hjk i 
libbun L : alibban C. — 6/ s6na w L. — 7 ef 
beot aleag L.— 9 b manfeld C. 

§ 8. 10 a Obos. Ill, 10.— 10^ C f. 45.— 11 e^ 
marcellius and nalerianus C. — 13 & lipGS. — 
16 c hit « C— ISy hft C— 19 e ta C— 21 h 
and to L.— 23o lyhtc 19C. 

Chapteb VII. 

§ 1. 25 a Obos. HI, 11.— 80 h ofsloh C_33 i 
gear rime L. — 34 a otS C. 

§ 2. 85 a Obos. Ill, 12.— 35 * axlcne C— 37 » 
Cf. 45 b.— 88eandC.— 39/h^: 43a:(2:C. 
—40 d crecnm L : grecnm C. — 41 e 'un* wsea 
C— A fblcenset C— 42 1 Phipilpus. — 43 5 
L p 69.-43 rf he IP L. — 44 be strenuissimum 
imperatorem Oroe. p 168, 1. 

PAGE 60. 1 1 bigfde C— 2 e weard C— 2 k 
hSt 10a: e: 14c.- 15«.- C— 4th^C,2«< 
read byre.- 7y him C— Sdlondnm L.— 8/ 
<5nC.— 8*hb: 9*; 17/.,;; C— 9dhisagen 
C, but agen w L.— 12 c w^ C — 14^ gewil- 
nunge L.— 16 k folca foohtan C,Jj,but feohtan 
bt>. r hi, bkjj, Sftf p 53, 11 c, and note.— 17 b 
H C— 17 1 hha a— 18 h C f.46.— 19 a agene 
L. — d ridende C— /gongcndre L. 

§3. 22o h^: 24c.- 25<f.- 27b: 31/: 85j; 
36 f; 38 e; C— 22c arues L.— ^' malosolum 
C— 23 c olimphiade L. — d heo w L. — 24 d 
hk C— 25 e hine C— 25 h wununge C— 26 a 
«»t w C— 27 d Iff L.-;; <5n C— it thona L.— 
28 i |>8Bt w L. — 31 <{ hb tr L. — e searewan L. 
31 A L|»70.— 84^ betwenum C— 35 c o)>er 
C— / underHed L.— 38 i gewealdon L, for 
gewealdum : wealdan C. 

§ 4. 41 ^ After j-^elice, L hat fomeah.— 43 c 
of o'Srum C, but of w L. — 43 i C fl 46 b. — 

PAGE 60. Ich^: 5 c/: 7/: C — Irf hfin: 
9b: J :■ C— 1 y ondred L.— 1 j thesalu C— 
2 J nathene h.—^y firde Jj.—k hedra C. — 4 h 
mihte.— 6 c gefdr L.— 8/ >a»t to L.— 9 c irro 
L. — 10 c waire C. — 11 c oferwunn C. — t Jmm 
w L.— 13 b hb Bwice C— 13 c : 15 ft ofslog L. 
— 14 A i )>rie gcbro'Sor L. — 16^ Ttpll* — 
19 b-e ge medren acwsron ge ficderen L. 

§5. 21d ricL.— 22Ah^: 27c: 30 A: 34 rf.- 
40 d : C— 25/ ofslog L.— 26 bOf. 47.-26/ 
bffim L.— 28 c dusa C— A behicen L.— 31 e-e 
hie hie oferwunnen.— 31 d hj- C— 33 e buta 
w C— 34y gewealdon L.— 34 / : 38 c hw C— 
36 d J>iDt w L.— 36/ hit C— 37 a ttg«er C— 
b wda L.— 38 k ricestan L.— 41 i-l ofermonig 
ol>ru anwald L. 

§ 6. 44 a Obos, III, 13.— 44/h^ C. 

PAGE 61. Ich6: 8ft: 13^: 21c: 25c: 375.- 
44/: 45 ft: C— 2 k L|>72.— 3 a ceas C— 
8* read hatcn C: hatenn L.— 4 A-5 a J>jcr 
mehten betst ttif^ binnan habban L. — 5 1 on 
w C— 6 ft C t 47 b.— 7/ir anwann L.— 18 a 
hfrn-C- 15 ft flmd sum, ftiri and ip L.— 18/ 
ge^jhU L.— 18 » hb driana L.— 23/ mon 
menie L.— 23y Over maaiigo is weredcs rhi. 

KOTES ATO TABI0U8 BEADIKOS TO PAGE 62-68 : BK. m, CH. IX, § 17. 17 

—26 1 fcobton C— 30 a wspned monna L.— 
80 d O f. 48.— 81 f bewuna L.— 83 a Li> 73. 
— 34 d ftJr C— 40 c cyningiu C. — iO d fjlk 
w L.— 48 e standon C— ^ hie to C 

PAGE 62. ly ht C, bv. rki.-^d his w C— 
7ah€ C— 9 i £ 48 b.— lOy na • C. 

§7. 12a Obo«.III,14 — 12« fird L. — 18/ 
tmttade L.— 14 a read hf.^b mid « C.— 
« f<5rd<5ii L.— 16 » b^ : 21 rf.- C— 18^L|>74. 
18 A-19 6 be bis dobtor bim aeHan woldo L.— 

22 e bis « C. 

§ a 27cmffiia« C— e bft C— 29Jtrea4 Jwt 
C t kta Jj,for >et— 30 h owre C— 31 h bedra 
C, aff^fi0ai beora.— 83 d be<5ra C— 33y C f. 49. 
85 y en>eode a— A forsende C, L.— 86 ^ ealneg 
C, altendr^-eBine dflcg^-^,rAi.— 89c: licC, 

/d»d a— • gesogian L. 

Chaptzs vin. 

§1.,15.— 43a6olld•Trondzx• 
g1lm L.— 48 d forculas L. 

PAGE 63. 1 » w^ C— 2 oltp 75.-2 e somnita 
L.— 6 1 besierede L, petf. qf besj-rian to en- 
9nare : bismere C— 8y niirewett C, n(x altered 
to nf rki: nirewett L. — 10 d aUetan L. — h 
abind C— 11 j* bedra C— 12 y asdan L.— 
18 rf C f. 49 b.— 13 I hi: 16 rf : C— 14 h 
gerenian L.— 18(2 bfm C— 20 a-ff on beora 
agnum brndnm C. 

S 2. 22 d cw»« L.-/iowra C, L, for eowra.— 

23 ^r w^ C— 25 y to d^ C— 26 e alugen L.— 
27 a sealdon L. — 80 a gelffistanne I . 

§3. 83yLp76, — 88eOf.60. — 40a beldd 
L--;; by C— 41 h hi : 42y C. 

Chapteb IX. 
§ 1.,16. 
PAGE 64. 2/ atresia C— 3 a gecydde C— c 

bd C— y his I 17 b C— 4 a gemendde C, altered 

to graydde bv, rk ».— /bine C— * dpabo- 

§2. 5AsceoldonC.— 6tb^: Sd: 16 j : 16A: 

20 tf.- C— 11 1 bfm C— 18 i est C, for test, 

erest^j^w— 14y an nilirice C : annili rice L. 

19y oroaosios C— 19 hOtSO b.— 20 rf |>ajt «? 

C.-/y swa mid L,— 21 b 1, p 77.-22 a 

§ 8. 23 e erestan L.— 28 e fe)>a C— 31 1 bfm 

C.-82 0.* 84 A b^ C— 83y beorg L.— 84 a 


S 4. 36^ dngemettlice L : migcmetlicne C. 
§ 5. 41 « >nsenda w L,— 48 I h€ C— 44 d 

O f. 51. 

PAGE 66. 8/micel id C— 5 I dobtor L.— 7 a 
ab L.— 9a Li>78.— 9rf b^: 11/.. 13y; C. 
9 e him C— 12 a gefliemde L.— 13<{ ea)> mod 
neisam L. — 15 a sun Im 

§ 6. 16 f h6:29e : C— 17 H «»nn tobracL.— 
20fn-21/ond J>aBt bet >a burg atimbranL.— 

28 d amones L : imones C— t Jiob^ses C. 

24 i f. 51 b.— 29 a gegaderede L.—fhim 
C— A bfs C— * )»am id L.— 81 i godas C— 
32 e hit C-k gebl<5«e C— 34 i )>ara L. 

§ 7. 85 a Obos. Ill, 17.— 38© longsumon C— 
89anefoC.— 89yb^: 40d: 4Zd: C— 39» 
I«jp79.— 40e bine C— 44* persibulis L. 

PAGE 66. 1 b-h ZiteraUy^thBt bis own re« 
lations bad (baefde/or btefden) bound Darius : 
In Latin — quod Darium tenerent vinctum sui 
propinqui. ly agene « L.— 2 b racentan C, 
altered rhito racentegan: racentan L. — 8 o 
C f. 52.— t tosticad L.-— 4i b^ : 5 d .• 6 i ; 8 o ; 
C— 4 e him C— 5 e bine C 6 k: 7 IhigQ, 

§ 8. 16 * £i C— 19 a cecilia C. 

§ 9. 22 a Obos. IU, 18.— y twegea L.— 23 h 
agidis L.— 25/ L p 80.— 26 b eam w L.— Jt 
C f. 52 b.— 28 i-29 d cyninges in scihHe mid 
firJe gef<5r L.— 28^-29 a in sdhMe w C— 
28^-29 a Enfa.p 114, 35 A read army into 
Scytbia.— 29/-» b^ bfs and folc C, and, bv, rhi, 
evidently put, in haste, after hfs, instead of 
before «.— 29 I |>ter to L.— 31 ff oJ>re C— y h6 
C— 32 d hino C— /minotbo L.— 33 A beo L. 

§ 10. 36 6 h6ij: 37 e: C— 36/ofslog L.— 
37 k euergetas C. — 38 e aspanias L. — 39 a 

§ 11. 41 e bfs C— 42 a h6 C.-43 c J^ C,for 
ssrest first, 

PAGE 67. 1 » s^ C— 5 1 byldo L.— 6 bCf. 53. 
—6.6 marc L.-- 6^:7* h^ C— 7 a-k dhleop 
ond biene for )>8Bpe ssegene ofslog be alexauder 
to ecan L. 

§ 12. 11 6 Ljp 81.— A bcalisten L.— 12 b h4 C. 
— <f bfs C— 13 d aristolose C. 

§ 13. 16 a Obos. Ill, 19.— 16^ he ir C— 16 A : 
26*h{lsC.— 17Ah^:23c.•24tf.v•.•25f:26A.• 
27 h C— 20 e hire C— 21 d fndie C— 27/ 
mid to C. 

§ 14. 32 tf C f. 53 b.-/on C— 346 |>8Br gif C. 
—34c bin: 38/; C— 34(£hfs: 36c.- C— 
34 A: b^ : 37 ^ ; 88 d C— 85/ bfne C— 36 a 
dydeC: gedyde L. 

§ 15. 40 tf rastan C — 41 c pcrsidas a — / 
geangeridas C. — 43 6 b^ C— 43 e 1$ pS2. 
— h monna w C. 

PAGE 68. 1^ read wic-stowa C— 2 e h6i 

8«; C. 
§ 16. 4c b^: 7d: C— 7 c and » L.— 7 « .• Od 

him C— 10 h bng C— 12 6 C f . 54. 
§ 17. 16 A b^: 28 A.- 29 A : 80 c C— 17A bis 

C— 18 e hia C— 21 d J>onne L.— 25 ^ bim C. 

—27 e fnBt o«er C— 28 i L j> 88.— 81 1 read 


K0TE8 Ain> TABIOTTS BCADIK09 TO PAGE 70-78 : BK. HI, CH. ZI, { 6L 

nntweogcndlicc C: iln twco^end L. — 34 d 
he6nL C— Ir L£ne C— 35 c cneo^-n C. 

§ 18. 36/ C f. 54 b.--87/rwwf AmWra.— 37 1 
read fdrwcariS C— 38 / aetredam C. — 40 a 
o«^ed.— 40 dh4C. 

§ 19. 4daOB08.III,20.— ^h^C— 44dinbide. 
45/iUrrica C. 

PAGE 69. Ih h6i 9e: C— 2A him: 8^; 
lOA; C.-Sh gict L.— 9 h MfbictL C. 

§ 20. 13 a Eale C— 15 e Is p 84.— 16 A bft : 
16 e : C— 16 m C f . 65.— 17 » hd C, L.— 18/ 

walde C t hCm C— it twa w L.— 19 d |>nt 

he C— 21 a ungc^-iss L.— 26 d firS C, for 
fri^,'-jk oet bam » C. — 26 c hie werian L. — 

Chaptzb X. 

§ 1. 29(1 Obos. Ill, 21.--30yilr haten wet 
L. — 31 c (f cSren aman L. — 32 ef otSre 
noman. — 32 t ; 41 e h^ra C. — 82^' read 
[feor>an] consulato, feor[>an w C. — 33 e stren- 
get^an C, est, hv, rh t.— 33 k : bSj : 40 5 him 
C. — 36> mebtcn L.— 39 « hDt C : e-A >a hie 
>fet gcascedon L.— 40/> £90. /> 69, 40 j> read 
^gjptus. — En 6. p 69, 41 ^ .* it read Danaus. 
— 12eCf. 55 b.— 13»faiusC: fauiai L. 

PAGE 70. 2cL|)85. 

§ 2. 4e hierde L.— 6 a hit C. 

§ 8. 8 & ftmms C, L.— 10j7 U C— A g€{6tk C— 

13 J-€ for)>y JKBT WBM L. 

§ 4. 15 a Obos. Ill, 22. — i romanam C. — 17/ 
aweDbn after |>a»m L. — 18 6 htoraC. — 19 f 
ealle 10 L. — 20 e-h bim to consule papirius L. 
—22^ f. 66. — i bude C. — * he C. — 25/ 
biicepum L.— 28 c s6 C— 29/ doofolet traef- 
tum, ee, hv. r h i, 

§ 6. 34 <l read >flD8 |>e. — 34^ Tap 86.— 35<2 
Eko. p 120, 6 e read Gurges.— 36 d e wolde 
in scnatus L.— 36/b£ne : 45 e : C— 37 a^ h6 : 
39/; 41 i ; 42 d ; 43 6 .• Uj C— 37 e flflime C, 
tf, bv, rAt.— 37» hd: 44a: C—dSde >a se- 
n&tvL C, the stroke over a, denoting an m« is 
altered into s, bv. rhi, making senitns: ^a 
senatum L. — 39 d biddan C. — I otSrum L. — 
40^'bfm: 44*: C. — 44 i bcfagen C. — 45 y 
geanmette, gcan-mette, ?/rom gcan-m^tan, — 
To meet, find orgaina^ain. — 2. To encourage, 
please. See also III, 11 § 10 ; jp 76, 25 d. 

PAGE 71. 2j C f. 66 b.— 2^* geu-inn C— 3^ 

heora C. 
§ 6. 7 a read be J>on C.'—l g ond w C. — 8 a 

mihtan C, 

Chafteb XI. 
§1. 13ci ymbe C. — 16Ah^C: id L. — 18a 

•wa w C.—h romona neA C, but h,bv,rh u 

—19^ Ljp 87.— 21 d g^J>encan C. 
§2. 23 a Obos. Ill, 23.-23 d gem^dgan C. 

—26 e-g hd h^ h^ b( C : hu hie hie L.— 26/ 
h6 C— 27 a read his tc C— 28 cm L.— 30 a 
cdrope C— * C f. 67.— rf dale C— • hft Cw— 
Jk n£D^ C : nanss L. 
§ 3, 4. These paragraphs in L are — 
§ 3. Alexander *zn* gear Hsn^ middan geard 
mider him H7>mde *) egtade. 1 his efterfol- 
geras feotrerUeue ge£r hit B»an totngon ^ 
totasroQ >em gelioost ^nne seo leo bringS hia 
hongregmn hwelpom hwet to etanne hie 
t$onne gecySatS on tSsnn ete hwelc heora 
mint mseg gehrifhian. 

§ 4. swa ^onne dyde ptholomens alexandres 
>egna an >a he to gsedere ge sweop ealle 
egyptmn *) arabia -j landamenda his o|>er >egn 
se be feng ealle asirie 'j thelenos dlidom ^ 
filotos hiliricam -j ecrapatas >a maran me^Sian 
"} stro men >a Isessan metTian 1 perdice H 
lessan asiam "} sosana >amaran frigan ^ anta- 
gonos lidam -j paropbiliam 'j nearchns cariam 
^ leomontns )>ala;isan frigan "} lisunachna 
t hr a c i am "j enraen capadotiam "j paflagoniam 
*] se lencns haifde ealle ^aa>iSeIestan mea 
alexandres heres ^ on Icng^e mid him he 
begeat ealle >a east bnd -j cassander )>aoempan 
mid chaldenm "j on pactrium "} on indenm 
wxeron IStL ealdor men ^e alexander ge sette 
-] iSmt lond betox ^lem twam ean indnse 1 
i'Sasfene hacfde itaxiles "j ithona hicfde calonie 
)>a ^eode on indemn :) parapemenas -} htcfde 
uxiarches a?t ^les beorges ende cancasos -j 
aracha sihedros bocfde siburtus -} stontoa hsfd 
)>raoceas -} areas >a)>eoda "j omintos hsefde 
atrianns ^ sicbeos b&*fde satianoe >et fblc *] 
itacanor bsfde parthoe 1 pbilippns ircanus *] 
fratauemis hscfde armenie -} tUeleo mom mos 
bajfde me)>as -j feuccstas hsfde babylonias *) 
po laus OS luefde archos "] archolaus mesop- 
otamiam. L p 87, 16-88, 10. 
§ 3. 36 A gdir L.— 37 de Jnem gclicost L.— t 
bring* his L, du/ his 6r. rA 1 C— 39/geh- 
wyrftnian C. 

§4. 40th^ C— 41d gesceopC.<-42e8^C 

43 a cilidum L : ciciliam C. — 44 A pcrdioe L. 

PAGE 73. 2 d pamphilian C : pamphiliam L. 
—/read Nearchns L: narchas C. — 7 e chal- 
denm L.— 8 ajjp 88.-11 i and ara, and C. 
—13 a Of. 67 b. 

§6. 20d hi: 21 j: 2Sj: 33c: 0.-20 A 
wreccan C— 21 c lete C— 25 e witS w L.— 33 d 
read waes C— 37 1 ongann C— 38 h ariarata L. 
—39 a C f. 68.— 40c Li> 89. 

PAGE 73. §6. lAb^:6c:A:20c:^:3O2.« 
33A: C— 8c )>egn tc L.— A micle L.— 9« 
hfoe: 17({C.— 9(2beswfcendancfc,io»a<Af«» 
doU C— 14 a ^nmen L« — 18 c hwile w Cw— 

K0TE8 ASB TAniOrs BEABIXGS TO PAGB 74-81 : BE. IT, CH. IT, § 3. 


20ft f. 58 b. — 20 it from L. — 21fl ham- 
farrclte L B.— 23 <l eaU C, L.— 27 hJjp 90.— 
2Shhf w L.— 30e>A be him on him L.— / 
JUT w L.— » gereafode L.— 81> him C. — 83 e 
read hf C— 36 (7 p6 C. 

§ 7. 27 h ^scm i$e L. — c eixre<tica L.-— 41 c h^ C. 
— 14 01impi-[C f. 69] al^mn. 

PAGB 74. 1 d read gewfldnm^ — h olimpade 
L.-— Srf hire I A: C— 7e h^ Cw— Si tricwde 
C. — 9 e U C. — k hio lo C. — 10 a geuom L. — 
11/Li) 91.— 16/o«re C. 

§ 8% 19 d >a we L, we ftr. — 20/ dmen C : 
emnen L. — 21 a polipfercnon C. — c olim])iadas 
L. — 22ci^: 30eC. — 24Ah<$: 25e; 26A; 
89^ .• 41/.- C. — 25 d C f. 59 b. — 82 h-h 
Antiganuf in eo bello cam fillo Demetrio, 
vindtmr. Oros, Haver, p 206, 8, 9.-32^ hi«: 
43i: ^h: C — SSthine: 40^.- C — 36Xr 
hts C. — 36 e ajfter w C. — 40 a waM tn L. — iX h 
o>re w C— 42 e l^p 92. — 42/-A wit$ winnan 
C— 43 h cansander C. 

PAaE7S. \d h6: Zd: 4j: C. — 1/ an- 
wcaldes C— 3ft and after C, and w L.— 3^' 
C f. 60.— 6 ^r h^« C. 

§ 9. 18» hire C— 20a h6 : 20tf .* C— 20ft h£m 
C— 21 e htne C. 

§ 10. 23 a gflimachos C— 5 read ne C— 24 c 
him : 28 e C— 25 c dearie ir C.—d gcaii-mett, 
See III, 10 §5; i?70, 45^. — 2Gc h^: ft; 
28d.- 86 ^r; 42i; C. — 26^ L p 93. — 28^ 
O £ 60 b.— 29^ rice L, w C— 31 ft lisimachus 
C, L.— 84d b^e C— 84 c h£s C— 36^ read 
nftJC — 37ft>4fcL.— 88aicC.— 39c hund 
C ftp. r ft ».— 43 d h5'8 C— 48/ read tofaren 
C— 43y pKT ohioh L, >8er «: C. 

PAGB 76. § 11. 1 c hicfdon L, w C. 

§ 12. 7 dc £n anum L.— 8 ft hft : 11 i: C— 

8 c is C— d ds C— 8/0 f. 61.— 9<l w^ C— 

10/bw»t C— 10 i gerefa« C— 11 ft bwtlc C. 

— 18/gefryn C. — 18^' gebrotJor L. — 14/- 

15c L. 

BOOK IV: Chapteb I. 
S 1. 17 a Obos. IV, 1 : L 1? 94, 5.— 17 ft-18 d 

feower bonde wintrum ond feovrer ond sicx- 

tegum |»ajtte tarentine L.— 20 ft torn L.— 23 a 

S 2. 82 c be a-ftan L.— 88 d beora C— 88 e 

t 61 b.— 87 a metton L. 
S 3.-88 d cgwar C : »gwem L. — 39^* L p 95. 

^-40^ node here L. — 11 a-c L, id C— 41 d 


^AGE 77. 2ahlg: 4d.- 9c: ft; lOftV 89y; C. 
— 3rfH: 6c; C— 4iErthesaliumL.— 5^h^: 
6*.- Ik: 10a: e: Hy; 18t; 20/; 21dt 

84(2; 86(f: 40c; C— 9(2 bfne: 20^; 39t; 
C— 10ft begonde L.— lOi godas ic L.— lie 
on'Srum C. — 12 <2 and "Sa Lb and w C. — 12^ 
him C— 14 c hit C— 17» f. 62.-19* mi- 
nuntins C. — 20 a gcnedde L. — d elpent L.— 
25 d wa?re C— ^jr J>e C— 29 ft L |> 96.-85 * 
se w C— 87/ J>ffir ic L.— 40 ft read bwy C. — 
41 1 C f. 62 b.— 42 ft eft gefare L.— 42/^t C. 
— 45y ISawh. 

PAGB 78. 1 ff read ]>a C. 

§ 4. 4 c read wund C— ^ J>am otSran C, Jjam o^ 
ftc. rfti; ^am to L. — 9/J>onne waeran L: 
wacran to C. — 11 a aelcdn C. — 12 c/swa swi'So 
w L. — 14 a cnlffan L. — ft gutSfonon C. — c L 
1> 97. — 16ft sirrac<»sa C, — d |>a L. — 17^ 

§5. 19 a Obos. IV, 2. — i oretreowe C: or- 
triewe L.— 23 ft h£m C— 28 c 1 68.— 25 c 
h<!^ora C— 26 1 arosiuss C— 27 f >an L.— 80 a 
slealde C— 81^' hund w L.— 88 k to C— 84^ 
h6: Sob : C— 36 c ane L. 

§ 6. 37 a Obos. IV, 8. — 38 c ^frice L.— 40/ 
anfnndan L. — ^ff cartaginenses L.— 41 ft hie L. 
— 48ftLi>98. 

PAGB 7a 1 a mchte L.— ft }>^ C— 2 ft f. 
63 b.— 8^ b6 : 6ft; C— 7 c ceorf mxsum L. 

Chapter II. 
§ 1. 9 a Obos. IV, 4.— 14 c hjnc C. 
§ 2. 24 i* and'^ende C— 25/ ofergdn C— 

25 ft L |} 99.-27^-28 ft hajfde. J>a feawan C. 

—28 ft ]>e ic C— 28 dCt. 64.— 295r htre C. 

Chipteb in. 

§ 1. 82 a Obos. IV, 6.— 83^ monegnm w L.— 
84 /-36/ See note p 11, 28a-29 c. — 40 o 
nan« L. 

PAGB 80. 5^-6^ tc L. 

Chapteb IV. 

§ 1. lOft-llc 'cccc* wintru. and 'Ixxx* C. — 
12 d at C— A hwd't C— 14/C f. 64 b.— 16 c 
hft C— ;^ Lp 100.— 19a by C, ftc. rki, 

§ 2. 21 (2 b^TO 0.-28^ hiere L.— 25 c h^ra C. 
— /ahgenum C— 27 d w6 C. 

§ 8. 80 a Obos. IV, 6. — 80 a-« tc L. — 82^ 
-Ixxxii* C. — 35 c idstinianus. — c beora w C. — 
40 c gel»r.[Cf.65]don C.-^iOkl onhalede 
C— 43 c dleofla C— it hft C. 

PAGB 81. 2^ Li> 101.-8 ft bwK'Ser, b, hv. 
rhi C.—d he<$ra C— Oft hie to C— 10c se, 
rhi at end of line C— lOt his C— 11 ft be: 
12ft; 18a; C— 12a bine C— 12^ and he 
oferfdn C : ond hiene ofer fdn L. — 14 ft for^n 

)»oL.— ehfta— nyiete. 



Chaptxb V. 

§ 1. 21 a Okos. IV, 6.-23/ Wt: SSh: C— 
24^bef9C.— 24;(rCf.65b.— 24i(rb{s: 82t: 
86a.- S7h: 39f : C— 255 )>onan L, w C.-— 
25 it to lafe L, « C. — 29 1 un tweogcnd lice L. 
—81 i geomor-[L J) 102] lic'-SS <{ ly^erlican 
C— 33the: 35 A.* 38^; 39^: m: C— 84a 
tylftc L. — b wepcnde w C— 36 d nppweardnes 
C n expunged by a dot or point under it.— 
87 » agenne C— 39€i wyrrwt L.— 40/ bine: 
/; C. 

§ 2. 43 ^-4 la un^ mete gbnende >n8 cyne 
domes L. — Ufh6 C. 

PAGE 82. 1 d read t<5 C^h read to C— 1 1 
he: 2h: 8*; 4*; 5*.- 6/; *.• 8^; 9»; C. 
— 2/geh€t C — 8«bft: 7/; 15 d; C.—Z/ 
wears L.— 7rf f. 66.-7^ bfm: Sh: C— 
8 i gelende L, C ; altered to gewende in C. — 
ll/gefungon C— 15/^ on uferan dagom C, 
(mbv.rki: nferan dogore on a» qfUr day L. 
16e L|) 103. — 16 ci swelc anginnan L. — h 
pbilippns C. 

§ 3. 19 c trium C— 20 h L puU tbe Rnnic let- 
ter d^l, instead of writing tbe word.— 20/-* 
by eac to him cumon woldon C— 22 d wftan 
C.-22^b^: 26 5; C— 22A hft: 23 »; C— • 
24e mid C, hv. r A». — 25t bine C — 26d 
swilcdomes C, bat tbe I rightly expunged by 
a point mider it. 

§4. 81 ib^: 36^'; C — 32^ f. 66b. — 83A 
j>o C. — 36 h cartainense L.— 37^ b(s C— 40 e 
Bit C— 41 b lime C— 45 6 L/> 104. 

PAGE 83. §5. 2ihe: lOt: 12e; 13d: 14 
/; 17 5 .• 19 A ; C.-5/bJ' w L.— 9 e cyng L. 
— 10 c agotbocles C— 10^ hfne: 11a; C. — 
13/0 f. 67.— 14a begietan L.— 17y bis C. 


§ 1. 22 a Ouos. IV, 7.-28 b -Ixxiii- L.— 24^ 
mebte L : feohte bv, rhi C, — 26 c-e mid 
beora folcum w L. — 29 e hh C— 31 b talen- 
tana C. 

§ 2. 32rf Lp 105.— 33 A b^ C — 37At ond 
bund eahtatig L. — 39 A C 67 b.^40 b diinlius 
C : diulius L.— 41 e |»aDt C,—fread daga cu it 
is so in C and L. — i2 h acorfcn L. — i3 A se to 
L.— 44icsdg^f<5rC, 

PAGE 84. 1 ^ b€ : 2/: C— 1 A b£no C.-4 c 

read and C. 

§ 3. 7j U C— 8 b sardianiam L.— 9/bJ' w L. 
§ 4. 11a Obos. IV, 8.-12^ him C— 13 d h4 

C— ierf-17rfwL. 
§5. 205 b^: k: 21c; C— 22 a h^e C— 22 c 

f. 68. 
§ a 23 c L j> 106.— 24> read -in- or J>rim, 

thovsfh C Au* mi. Olid i feower,/or Oros. has 

-—com trecentii triginta navibos» — and, in ike 
table of contents, L ^iresf— mid ^rim buuda 
sdpa ond mid zxx, — and C — mid )>rim bond 
■c^-pa and Wtigan. Hence ike Eso. Aa#— 
three hundred and thurty ships.— 25/ h^ w L. 
—28 e ilpeam C : alpcam lu-^be<5ra C. 
§7. 80(<s^C.— 31cb6: 82a.* C. 
85 o-^ «c L.— 36 e fairclte L B.— 38 c bit C— 
38^ read H C.-38» b^ C— 39 A b£ bv.rki 
C— 40 c hfre : 41 a ; C— 43^ be<5ra C— 44 h 
cleopeudra C. 

PAGE 85. 1/brigan C— 2/twclf-[Oi:68b] 

§ 8. 6/ m C and I^ 5ife Orot.— caen sunt 
Cartbaginicnsiam sepiemdeeitn milUa p 237, 
20.— 6y In C it is XT, but L has properly vx, 
that is T tram X=:Y, and Oros, has also-^ 
quinque miUia p 237, 21.— 7 dxih^butCkas 
IX, and Orof.— decern et octo,p 287, 21. 

§9. 9aOBOS.IV,9.— lU*b€: 20c; C— lOZ 
Jjp 107.— 12 A niede L.— 12> fomome L. — 
16 d )K)htan L. — 2 1 j regules C. — 23 c gefageu 
C— 23 h-^' yisa gewear J> L.— 26 b for^onne C. 
— 26c bis C— 26^ let C. 

§ 10. 28 c enilius L, C— 29 c C £. 69.— 31 /-SS b 
luora twentig gefan L.— 81 1: scipa w L. — 32 k 
adrucen C. — 38 ^r A gedmf twa .CC. C : gedeaf 
•n* c c. L. 

§ 11. 41c£micorC: amilcor L.— 4d5If j>108. 
—48 d hf bv, r h L — 44 a n C, 5ir/ Oros, has 
— teitio anno p 240, 1. — 45 1 africe C. 

PAGE 86. § 12. 5 a forhcrgade C— 6 c at C. 

§ 13. 7 <2 iliuses L.— 9 i C 69 b.— 10 e belpenda 
C— 11^' bclpendas C. 

§ 14. 15a Obos. IV, 10. — 17c hie L. — 17» 
ramanum C— 1 9 » be : 24 A ; 25 5 ; 29 * ; 33/; 
35 a ; k : C— 20 c noman L.— 21 d bfne C— 
22chft: 24f; C — 28^ be<5ra: 33^; C — 
30rf his C— 31 blap 109.— 32 b b6 C— 32/ 
read folce C : L.— 32 1-33 a tc C— 32 k of L.— 
34 c hfm C— 34 * egan C— 35^ C f. 70. 

§ 15. 36/mallius L 38 1 bine C. 

PAGE 87. § 16. 1/se L.— 2 i read ungemet- 

lice L : ungometlic C. 
§ 17. 4 c lutalJa C— 6 c/ >urb o«er L: )>urh 

|>ajt o«er C— 6 h read pxs C— 6 i om L.— 8 c 

§ la 12a Obo8.IV, 11.— 13 5bftC 18it 

siliciam C. 

Chaptib vn. 

§ 1. 17 » f. 70 b.— 18 Map 110.-19 d bit 
C— 19 1 hie ic C— 22 c bedra C— 24 a hi bv. 
rhi Ci «L. 

§ 2. 25 a Obob. IV, 12. — 25 c J« hv. rki 
C — 26<2 b»tt C — 30a wsran C — SOs 



hedra: Sic: C— 32c read hf : h6 C— 82(7 

§ 3. 36 « winnon C— 88/ hscfdon C— 89^ 
Lit: 41c; 43 <2: C— 40c iii C— 40it ylde- 
Stan a— 41/abid.[0 f. 71] dan.— 43 c hi C. 

§ 4. 4A§fw6 lindon C— 44/iend(m L. 

PAGE 88. 2 c ealneg L : sfire rh%,hv, ealnig 
C : 31 d.— 3 1 monega C— 4/[>€ C. 

§ 5. SJ read witS C.—9d "Lp Ul.-^9j read 
ndC: niiicL.— 12clift: 13t: C— 13tfh6: 
ISh: I: C— 14c ontyndre C, altered rhi 
to ontendre. 

§ e; 17 a Oeos. IV, 13.— 17* cymg L.— 18 6 
he: ISilr.* 22c: C— 20c/ the A.S. has the 
two names as <me consul, bot Oroe. gives two 
consols — FuItIo Posthumioqne consnlibus. 
Maver. i> 248. 6, 7.— 21 b f<5r C. 

§ 7. 24 if f. 71 b.— 24^ fol L.— 82/ guidon 
a— 84c he<5ra: 86A: C— 35A him w C.—- 
86^ b^ C.--38C read swylc C : L.-~38 h nobt 
C, o changed to a r A t. — 38^' £t C. 

§8. 40ALjpll2.— 42c(i'ni-ML:-m-hund 


§ 9. 43y wundor L.— 44 cf c In Ficeno flumen 
sanguine effluxit, Oro$» p 250,13.— 44c wic^no 
C— 45/gcseah L. - 

PAGE 89. I J dffig C. — 2<>-j Tunc magno 
terre motu Caria et Hhodus insuUe concussse 
sunt. Oroc.j) 250, 16, 17.— 3 c brums C. 

§ 10. 6»hd: 6/: 9/: C— 5> Of. 72. — 6^ 
hit C— 7 ij L : Oros. decern et septem nillia 
jp 251, 3 : XT C— 13/bJ>rie, L, C. 

Chapteb VIIL 

§ 1. 16a Obos. IV, U. — 16*-17c L; Ti- 
bund wintrom and •xxm* C. — 18 df»eto L. — 
]8f-19a romane slbbe healdan C. — 19 » h^: 
22c: t: 242:: 25/: 266: C— 20yh^raC. 
— 21 h e him to L. — 21^ bsedon hv. rhi C : 
finnetton L. — 23 ^' otSmm to C. — 26 a L 

§ 2. 28/con8n1a8 to L. — 30 <2 spaneum L. — 
30yh^: Sldi Z^k: 34A: C. — 33^* L: 
munti for C— 34 * f. 72 b.— 34 1 bine C— 
86/ H(s C— 36 h^&Bw L.— 36 i-k ia w C, 
L, hut a appears to have been omitted, for 
Oroi. hae — centum millium peditum j> 252, 17. 

§8. 88ib^: 41^: 42c: C— 39 a ticenan L. 
—41 * hjrne C— 43 c tet w C— ^ »t C. 

PAGE 90. Icb^: 8*: 9/: 10c: lib: J: 155: 
19 d: C— Ic 4ror L.— 2t nfter C— 5y hit 
w L. — k wseren L, but query wes or were. — 
12^ l>«t C: >fctte L.— 13 c l^p 114.— 13* 
Mn C— 15^ f. 78.-16/ read geond C : 
gind L: See 18 5.— 18* giud L: See 16/.— 
28 c gefengcm L. 

§ 4. 27 a Obos. rV', 15.— 30 a fuhto L.— 33^ 
))8Bt C— » h€ora C— * rfpan C— 34^ eall C. 


§ 1. 37i^Obos.IV,16.— 40dhg: 41a: 42*: 

C. — 41 bo &i beora C— 41 c gemetinggo L. 

— 12 d co'SoQ L. — 44 *-;; read )>a2ra [(^c Her]. 

PAGE 91. 1 5 f. 73 b.— 1 h bfm C— 1 * L 
p 1 15.— 3 i on C— 4 * h^ : Ij : 8^ : 13/: C. 
—6 1 at C— 7 » dffig C— 9 * carina C— 12 c 
bftC. • 

§ 2. 14 c romana C— 17 c furhum L.— 19 b jnet 
L.— 19cb^: 20d: h: 21/: 23rf; 26rf: C. 
— 19<f life: 22c: C — 20d bmo C — 21a 
oe]>el L. — ^22 b swa w L, — 25 a h&ra : /: C. 
—28* hf CH.— 28 c f. 74.— 29> b^ C— 
31^-32 b o^ bine an gode. ]>sst by mihton C. 
— 3iy li p 116.— 38 b bwiB'Sre C. 

§ 3. 43 (2 longbeardan L.— 44 d bfm C. 

PAGE 92. 2 c b^ C — 3 d bsefde C. — 5 * 


§ 4. 10 * 74 b.— 10^ cyning L. 
§ 5. 12 c h^: 18 c: C— 14rf craccus C, L.— 

16 c gestagen L. 
§ 6. 18 * L/) 117.— 19/undcrfongon C— 19^ 

•I- C— 21 a at: 25 cC. 

Chapteb X. 
§ 1. 28 a Obos. IV, 17.— 31 b >e C— 31 1 h6 
C— 32/8umeC. 

§ 2. 33 * b^ C— 35 a ©t C— 36/bit C— 37 d 
originally ha, altered rhi to b^ C. — 10 * 
f. 76. 

PAGE 93. \j gewealden C—lg x^n L.— 2 * 
I-|)118.— 4^h(j C. 

§ 3. 7^ bwonne L.— 9a rot: 115: C— 9c 
r6n L.— /abbiddan C— llj Hft C— 12* 
Crist w C— 13 * t<5 C— 14^ * read to |»on a 
— 14 * )>onne C. 

§ 4. 19rf waeronL. — 21c ieldestan L. — 21 ^ 
campaina L.— 22 * C f. 75 b.— 23»^ C— 
25 a hcfden L. 

§ 5. 27 5 waeron L.— 30 i b^ : 81/: 32 d:ZZd s 
C— 31 * fflerelde C— 82^ be L : « C— 33 c 
lift C.— 33 gJspl 19.— 33 * >a lo C,S7j on 
>aem 'L,'-3$/read befde C— 39 5 T C. 
§ 6. 41 a Obos. IV, 18.-42/b^ : 43 c : 45 * : 
C.— 44/ his ID C. 

PAGE 94. 3 a witena L.— c |>8era C— 4 5 
f. 76,^4 ijh6 hit C. 

§ 7. 6/ 6^ C— 7^ read agrigentum C— 8/y 
read .Si««an. — 10» <5n C— ll*-12a mid 
macerellis C. 

I 8.-19/ Jjp 120.— 20c b^: 24c: I: 26/: 
C— 20y bfne C— 26 <l ac be L.— 28 c read 



§ 9. 29 tf mapcolia C, L.— 31 e hannflc C— 82^ 
f. 76 b.— 32* biin C— 33 a h6 C— 33i 
•wa » C— 34y gwiJ>ost L.— 36 A t )«cr wot L. 
— 37/ his w C. — 39 a dweorpan C : L. 

PAGE 95. 2 ft rome C— 2 tf W : 3 e ; C— 4 i 

L j> 121.— 4 #/ of slajen wearS L.— 6 ft ge- 

feaht L. 
§ 10. 7cc/ pene forau L. — 8 c wicstowe C. — 

13 d read j>scr C— 13 ih€: IS ft : C.~15 i h& 

C— 16 a on-[C f. 77] bccrndon.— 16/W C— 

17 J hft C— 19> fwstcnna C— 22 ft da-g C— 
/hie L : to C— ^' re<Kf >cme C— 26^ Kko. p 

160, 33 ft read Crete.— 28^ h^ora C— 29 ft 

n»>an L t w C. 
§ II. 30a Oros. it, 19.— 32A h^: d5ft: C. 

— 33/^ |>ffire bene w L. — 34 ft he » L.-^' \>o» 

§ 12. 37ft h£:^: 88^: 39/; f.* 43it: 41A; 

C— 37 dJ^p 122.— 44 ijwvtoh: w C— 45 ft 

Of. 77b. 

PAOE 96. 4 ft ^rftfohtum C, ffe e hv, r h i, — 
4tf and to C, and w L. — 7 a-d 'D* ond 'Lxxx* 
L.— 9/|>»t to C— A ioclcst L.— 10/ wilnaden 
L — 12/Mjnatu5es C. — 14/gesoaldcn L. — 16 c 
him C— c aliefdcn L.— 20/fcW3lc C. 

Chapter XI. 

§ 1. 23 a Orgs. IV, 20: Li> 123.— 24cf-* ge 
endad pmiica J?a5t ajfterre ge win L. — 27 c 
he<5ra C. — 27 d-^ ocrest >a)t ge winn under 
fenge L.— 2Sft C f 78.— 30^ A hft bfm C— 
34 c NauiSa to C— 37/he 0. 

§ 2. ZSd read Subrcs [ond Eudi] L.— 38<f-/ 
Insubrcs, Boii atque Ca?nomam. Oros. p 270, 
6, 7.-39 ft hy w L.— 3I» h bretJer C— 40 ft h€ : 
43 ft ; C. — 40 A: foran C, ftr. r A i. — 43c 
hiene L. 

PAGE 97. 6 (7 c wcarS gcflymed w L. 

§ 3. 9 (i asiria C— 9 i C f. 78 b.— 11 ft lap 124. 

— 11^ gefcnge to L and a blank left. — 12 A 

hlerde L.— 15 k leng ne L. — ^23 k gewealde L. 

— 24 ij su men L. — 25 A ct L. 
§ 4. 29 I read ne C. 
§ 5. 34 de romana fcla L.— 36 » C f. 79.— 39> 

fleam L. — 42 y Itp 125. 

PAGE 98. 4 k nngerisno L. — 5 d senates L. 
— ^* his C— 7 ft ftilcani C. 

§7. 10c-/C, L; hut Oros. Ao*— Lepido et 
Mucio consulibiis, p 275, 1— the A. S. there- 
fore, Rbould be — Lcpidus and Mucins wa?ron 
consulas, — hence Eno. The present text, how- 
erer, is retained as it is both in C and L. — 
12 c hungarie L.— /cumou C, forcuman: tc 
L. — 13 A swa 10 L. — 16 ft c nucst ealle to L. 

§8. 17^ C f. 79 b. — I8<lmiDstumL. — 20 c 
argeatas L. — 21 c comenis L. — ^25 c gcfliemcde 

L.— 28A Jjp 126.— 29c on w C— ^ is C— 
Zsecganne C. 

Chafteb XII. 
§ 1. 87a Obos. IV, 21.— 42 c h^: 44ft .- A : C. 

PAGE 99- 1 ft c ond on mislecnm Im — 2 a read 
Senris C— 2 c f. 80. 

§ 2. 6 c ahead C, ftc. r A t for is written, mak- 
ing forbead: onboad L.— 6/hft: 18^.- C. — 

7 c h^ C— 8y his C— lO/gesonmad L.— 18 d 
bigonga'S L.— 1 8 gh sc>e cristen C : se to L. — 
13 A{ swa swi'Se w L. 

§ 8. 17 a genamon C— 18 A L p 127.— 19 d 
J>fi C.-^under^eow L. 

Chapteb XIII. 
§ 1. 21 a Oros. n% 22.-24 c senatof L.— 25^ 

Cartaina w L.— 26^' h^ra C— 81 k him w C 

— 82aCf.80b. 
§ 2. 87 ft (c C— ^ Seei> 104, 36 A and note.— 

88 a h^ C. — 88 ft-c ymbeganges *xxz* brad 

C. — 39 ft begaugcn C— 40 c ealna C— ^' binan 

C. — 41 f twege L.— 42^ >am C 

PAGE 100. § 8. I a Oros. IV, 28.-2 k b€ : 
8/; C— 3 A to L : IT 0.-5^ hie tc C.—Q A % 
airest utgdn L: icC.— 7aft L: xxmir C 

§ 4. 16 A f. 81. — 16c gem<5t L. — 18/1? 
standon forletan C. — 19^ onwoce L. — A for|>on 

§ 5.— 22^' U C— 27 c eac xc L.— 27 c h« : 80 d .• 
C— 28^ £mirre L.— 29A.« E50. p T36, 38/ 
Mahnstone is placed by geologists at the bot- 
tom of the chalk formation, which b divided 
into — 

1 Upper, soft, white chalk, containing flints. 

2 Lotoer, hard, grey chalk, without ^ints. 

8 Chalk marl, also called Malm. — I^aneact. qf 
Oeol. Soc. Lond. 2nd Series VoL TT, part 2, 
p 256 : and Dixon*s Geology. 

Professor Phillips sa^s in a letter to the editor 
— " ^lalm b still used to denote a rock in the 
South-Saxon region about Petersham. As a 
member of the cretaceous system, it is often 
difficult to separate firom the chalk, the lower 
part of which, generally called chalk marl, 
rests upon green sand, and often passes so 
gradually into it, that the two are scarcely 
separable. Thus it appears in Buckingham- 
shire and Bedfordshire, where at Tattinghoe 
it has been quarried from the earliest times. 
This rock at Tattinghoe, though perishable, 
has been extensively used in building, and it 
rather full of fine grit, so as to be fit for 
smoothing or polishing wood. That it was 
actually used by joiners for tins purpose, I 
cannot declare, from a remembrance of what 



was said by my uncle, W. Smith, but it seems 
to me to be so. He told me, in walking along 
the passages in Wobnm Abbey, that the stone 
was gritty, and capable of polishing wood, in 
proof of which, he drew the wood of his cedar 
pencil along the walL I think this was accom- 
panied by the statement, that it was actually 
used in polishing. The word * Malm' b also em- 
ployed in the vicinity of Aylesbury to deng- 
nate a soft chalky stratum above the Portland 
rocks."— 30 A hwestan C— SI de ia mi C— 
311 ihwettaune L.— 32 c hit C—d naw|>er L. 
After 32^,— m O f. 81, line 19— to the end of 
f.'Sl b,— there is a table of contents to Book V. 
as it differs from the table at the beginning, 
(p 12, 42 a-p IS, 39 e) it is printed entire in 
the notes following |» 13, 38/. 

BOOKV: ChaptebI. 

§ 1. 34a Oxos. V, 1.— 34 a C f . 82.-35 i ma- 

nega C. — 87 h godcundan C. — 39 c folce C. — 

40 6-/wa5ron h£ C— 40rf Li> 129.— 41 * J>e 

to C— 43 e<2 m weran C. 

PAGE lOL § 2. 3 c on fo C. 
§ 8. 4 jf asden L. — 6 i locode C, o altered to i, 
l^.rh i: licade L. — 7/raccntum L.— 8/ro- 
mane C— 9 c olS "Se C : t$e » L.— 10 W iviee 
. ^en in C— 11 h h^ra C. — c read earman C. 
— ^hft C— 12e/8int on L, — ISdmidioL. 
—14 A Of. 82 b. 

Chaftsb IL 

§ 1. 17 a Obos. V, 3. — 17 d e rome burg L. — 
20 e The first sentence of the original Latin 
is very dear — ^Anno ab urbe condita sexcen- 
tesimosexto, — ^hoc est, eodem anno, quo et 
Carthago deleta est» Cn. Comelio Lentulo, L. 
Mummio Coss. — ^ruinam Carthaginis eversio 
Corinthi subsecnta est Haver, p 289, 23-25. 
22 e gyldenne C. 

§ 2. 26 a OBoe. V, 4.-26 h read ^AH C— 

26 a-<i BX ^AH TBDB TABIATO W L.— 27 d 
ueriatns L.— 28tf h^: 29a: SOiKr: 86/: 37tf.' 
C— 29i him C— 29t L|» 130.— 83t his C. 
— 35 a Fdlucius « L. — 37 b gewrecan L. — 
/hit C— 37/-38/ge{ecte 8wi|»or ond unea>e 
self cdm aweg L. 
§ 8. 41 & f. 83.-^* gcfliemde L. — 42 h wur- 
dontoL.— A feriatus C— 43A his C— 44 a 
L : aftceat C,ofabv,rh u—y bine C. 

PAGE 102. 1 d h^ C— 3 h Icng v> C. 

§4. 6*h^: Id: 9 d .• C— 7 1 him : 8c; C. 

§ 5. 10 Or-e BB ^AH ]CA!7ir-CWBA£lCB w L. — 

13 jf >»t ilce L. — 17 a godas to L. — 17 d hit : 
186C.— 18eLi>181. 
S 6. 2\h dyde altered to dsde C: d^dL.— 
ZLd Ui 221: C— 21e aspdn L.— 21/Cf: 

88b.— 22c bun: t : C— 24 & f<5r id C— 25 1 
winnan w C— 28 d >eah w L.— 80/d«de L. 

§ 7. 82 a >am w L.— 33 y cymcg C— 34^ e^ 
C— 35 b^ induse ond i)>asfe L.— 86 o h€ : 
38 1 ; C— 37 a demetrias L.— 87 e tuwa L. 

§8. 41^he: 42/; C— 41 A genomL.— 44« 
hine: fit; 45s: C— 450 Of. 84. 

PAGE 108. l/h€ C— 2 efh6 his C. 

§ 9. 8 a Obos. V, 5.— 4 k h6 C— 5/L p 182. 

— 7 ci his C— 9 e hft C— « nu w C— 10 b 

he<5ra C— jfA feawa gearon C. 
§ 10. 18 a Obob. V, a— 16 e eagon C— 16/7 

on Sidlium w L. 

Chapteb III. 

§ 1. 19 a Obos. V, 7.— 21 h hit C.—d sylf C. 
—24 d syndon C— 25 c sylf C— t aweardedon 
C, icith a point under a, expunging it and 
making awerdedon. 

§2. 27cCf.84b.— 28X:fome>deC.— 29Aie 
w L.— 80^ h6 C— I hk C— * feohton C— 
31 2-32 a wsron )>a 10 C— 83 h sylf C— 35 « 
ongunnon C.—36/ read numentia C. — 87 a 
ond w C— 87 5 L p 188.— 37 s for bcerdon 
L. — 88 it{ eald gestreonnm L. 

§ 8. 40a Obos. V, 8. — lOa-c ]fz sdpia L.— 
40d bine: 42a;C.— 4i;ir se lo L: s^ C— 
44 b hearde 10 L. 

PAGE 104. 3 b )>am w L.— 8 e andwearde, ea 
altered to y, in t?te original band and ink^- — 
3 s-4 b ealle romana weotan L. — 4 eS d and- 
wyrde mid wordum swi^e ge egsade L. — 5/ 

§ 4. 7a Obos. V, 9.— 71: h^ C: he » L. 

§ 5. 9/0 1 85.— lOy* -vi- m- L.— 12^ hun- 
dred C. 


§ 1. 14a Obos. V, 10.-15^ h^ C: he lo L.— 
16 c h^: 24^; 25 i; 29 5; 80 c; C— 18 a 
attalis L.— 186 his: 26s; C— 20 i-23 a cu- 
men. an wies nioomedia. twegen of bithinla. 
tnry of panta IIII of armcnia. V. of argeata. 
VL of capadoda. VIL of filunine. VIIL of 
paflag<5nia. C— 24 d gefliemed L.— 25 kj^p 
184.— 26/unwsBrne C— 27 6 call a? L.— 28 a 
hine: 29 e : C— 28 ealle to L.— 29 5 he «p L. 
—30 a besoeufon C 

§ 2. 81 e asiaL.— 81 s hii Z2g: 85 A; C— 
33 g bine C— 84/ ofiloh C— 85 « ne to L. — 
355rOf.85b.— 36AL: hwyloe C; Seep99, 
86j.— 87&h^raC. 

§ 3. 88/-89 d betsta romana >ogn nuende L. 
— iOg for w L.— » hie L : so C— ;; h£ne C* — 
41eh&C.— 42ih£: 44/; C— 43 hiera L: 
so C— 44 -sil^um so L. 

PAGE 106. iyh^:8e;6e;C^llrh£aiC.— 



2 e ispaniffi C— 2 1 and pn on C— 3 c/-;/ w L. 

— 4 e-5 c IP L.— 5/ hme C— 6 rf his C. 
5 4. 9 rf ujrest C : orc*t€8te« L.— 11 d liwara 

C— ;; niht C— 13 h Y^vsm L.--« forburnan L ; 

forburnen C— 11 e )»eah C— 15 a fiscos L. 
§ 5. 16 a Obos. V, IL— 16^ L p 135.-17 d 

nht C— € forscurfon L.— ;^ f. 86.— 18 rf- 

19 « IT C. — 19^ adnmcenne C : ddruncna L. 

— 21 i wildeor C. 

Chaptkb V, 
§ 1. 24 a Obos. V, 12.— rferome burg L.— 

25 c -xxiiir C— 26/ |>am w L.-— 27 ic ge- 

timbran cartainam L.— 29 c-30 b |>ft tugon 

inilfaa J>a stacou up. pn, for h£ )>ffit C— 30 1\; 

jmb >fl»t tp C. 
§ 2. 83 a Obos. V, 13.— 35 h pe w L.— « cac 


Chapteb VI. 

§ 1. 87a Obos. V, 14. --88c -xiTir C, L, 
but Oro*. xxvuL 


§ 1. 41 a Obos. V, 15.-42^ nusica C— > ftir- 

nius L. 
PAQE 106. 1 rf on romc L.— * numedia L B. 

— 3il geo^c C— 4 d tyhtan L B.— 5 h h^: 

7 c.- f; 8«^lli.- 14 i.e.— 6 6 geweor|>au 

L.— 6 c C f. 86 b.— 6^ |>riddan C— 7^ §unu 

C— 8 i Jj p 136.—13 h wceron ir L.— 14 c 

bfne C. — 16 due to C. 

§ 2. 19 a mostiSmus C : mostumius L. — 20 e 

colimft L.— 24 c h^ : 25 «; 29^; 30 rf; 32 a; 

j : C— 27 ff ^y L. — 29 c-e a swa oredende C. 
—80 1'Ct 87.-32 y h to^nim C— 34 i ealle 
C— 86^ him ir C— 37 a cynicge C. — 40/ 
gehor-[Ii p 137] sedra.- 1^ Kiesna L : w C. — 
41 c nces »r C, najs he, r h i.— 41 ^ read heard 
C. — 43 h mitinc C. — 45 d econ C. 

PAQE 107. 1 d read and C— 6 a 6 ut d fuhten 
I,._-9»- ylpcndan C— 9/-* w L.— 9ymlhta 
C— 10 d gettiemde L : geflymcd C— 10/ Of. 
87 b.— 11 ef spynge deS L.— 12 h-f "xl- m. 
and T hund C. — 12^ manna ir L. 
Chapteb VIII. 

§ 1. 17 a Obos. V, 16.— 17 d romane C— 17 f- 
18 a hunde whitra L.— 18/palliu8 C— 19 h- 
20 h Taken as the title to Ch. VIII p 13. See 
note to Ch, VJIL— 21 e mon L.— 22 c romane 
L.— c? hund w L.— 24/faB3tenne L.— 24 h hit 
C— 25 b h6 C— 25 de wolde faran L.— 26 a 
wolden L.— ^ L p 138.— 29> w^ C— 30 k his 
C— 32 a hi C— 32 e-^ gefeahte to cumon C. 
—33 a romana C— 34/ hund w L. 

§ 1. 36 a Obos. V, 17.— 88 d romana C— 39y 
Of. 88. 

f JL 48 c saturios C 

P AGS 108. IJ pti L: gira C— 2 a o)?)jyn- 
ocnde L. — 8^ adnlefdon C— 5 6 saturnius C. 
— S e hft C— 8 c d hie hit L. 

Cbaftbb X. 
§ 1. 11 a Obos. V, 18.— 12 k care L.— 13 A 

Italia w L. — 14 1 pompcniuae C. — 17 a Jj p 

189.-18^ tareutaH L.— 19^ wrat lw20j k 

w C— 24a bring L.-^ C f. 88 b. 
§ 2. 28 a 6 weligni C— d mairueme C. — 29 c 

betweonon C. — 80 c canis C. — 31 d onsended 

L.— ^' nietenu L. — 32 ^ an C. 
§ 3. 88 A eal 10 C— 84 h cesar L. — 35 ^r And w 

L. — 87 i h^ C. — ZSJ bloce, o altered to a 

rhi: blace L. — 40 e ongean ic C. — 40 ij read 

toge heton, >iBt 
§4. 43A|>temL. 

PAGE 109. 1 h romana C— 2 A b^: Bff: C. 
—8 1 L J? 140. — 5 b gesettan C— 6 a ofculom 
C. — cnsenom L. 

Chapteb XL 

§ 1. 10 a Obos. V, 19.— 10 a C f. 89.— 11 d 
>ajtte L.— 12 d cynincge C— 18 1-14 b nolde 
him be taH»ui L. — 15^ >e hit L: |>e tr C. — 
18 ch^ C— 19» burg L.— 21 A agifon C. — 
22 a fealh L.— 22 d read nibte C. — m read 
dffig C— 28» africam C— 23A-24c w L. — 
24^' r<5meweiird C H. 

§ 2. 27 a Obob. V, 20.— j to it L.— 28 efvi afln- 
gon L. — 30 c siUun C. — 31 ^ gefeaht L. — 
83 a marius C— S3 1 C 89 b.— 35/ L |) 141 . 

§ 3. 87 a Obos. VI, 4.-38^ >am C H. — 40 a 
hine C. — d armenie L. — 41/ arhalau* L. — h 
latteow L. — 42 a h^ C— / is 6c. r A i. — ^ nu 
w L.— 43 c hwffit C. 

PAGE 110. 1 a pedde C : |>eoda L. 

§ 4. 2 a Obos. VI, 6.-2 ^-8 a ha lande C— 
8 d alyfon C— 5 A onlajg C— 6 A a|»rytton L. 
— 7 k began C— 9 A aristobolus L. 

Chapteb XII. 

§ 1. 12 a Obos. VI, 7. — 12 iJ hunde wintra L. 
— 13^ iulius C— 14 a Icgan L. — d hi C. 

§ 2. 15 a Obos. VI, 9.— Ar bryttoniaB C : bret- 
anie L.— 16 d C f, 90.— 18 c eft tc L.— ^ Li : 
ceutland C. — k gcfliemede L. — 19^ pfcra C. 
— 20 6-A This is. one of Alfred's important 
additions to Orodus. This battle b men- 
tioned by Ciesar, about* 54 years B.C. Then 
by Orodus about a.d. 416. They both speak 
in detail of stakes being driven into the 
Thames, but do not mention the place. 
Though Alfred gives a very short abridgment 
of Orosius, in his A. S. translation about ▲.D. 
893, he is the on!y one who points out the 
locality, as being "near the ford called JTaU 
lin3ford**—20 eJjp 142.— A welenga ford L. 
— 21 J J>a ID C— 22 d cirenceastre L. 



§ 3. 2i a Obos. VI, 15.-25/ onlmdon L.— 
25y h6 : 31/: C— 26 this: 91 k: C— 30 fr- 
31/ >a legian wsron pompciuse on Ailtnme 
geseald. ]>e on romane ouweblde wieron. Jnet 
h^ C : >a legcan wseron pompemse tofiiltame 
ge sealde )>e on romana anwalde wseron. fftet 
ho L.— 33^ man w C- — 33^ A bim mon L. — 
35 c-f him si^iSan £spon to L. — 36 a read 

§ 4. Zlj hierdon L.— 39 a and on C.—ifc ahraec 
L.— 40 h ma^m hus L.— /^ L : to C. — 41 e 
gcsecganne L. — 42 c f . 90 b.— -e b^ C— ^ h 
£o samariam C : on marUiam L. — 44 Je ispa- 
uiiB C. 

PAGE Ul. 1 h pompcius C— ^ twarn L. — 2 a 
h^ C— ^ And 8!fter L. — 3^*-4 a 'xxx* cynin- 
gan C— 4/ L /> 143.— 8 c lulius to L.— 9/ 
on te C. — k bealfe «p L.— 10 d healfe to L. — 

§ 6. 13 d/w C. — e-h octoginta ct octo 0n>9, p 
420, 4. — 14 a coortana L.: c<5oratdna C. — 
15 a 5 of bond C. — 16 c L i lo C— 19 d mid- 
mcstam C : L.~21 e romana L.— 21 k w C. — 
23 o-^ gefencdenne and c^-ydroKlenne to hmge 
ne oferbrasc C— 23 i C f. 91.— 24 A sumcre 
C— 25 A ne w L.— 26 c d laJ?ost is L.— / wa» 
w L.— 28 e let C. 

§ 6. 32 & bis C— 32tf nt: 39 A: 42 A; C— 
33 n oficeorfon C— 34 5 L j> 144.-34^ on- 
sendon C. 

§ 7. 43 a Orgs. VI, 16.— 45^ hynxj C. 

PAGE 112. Itb^: 2g: 3/; 6ii: Ij: C— 
2 e caton L. — I i C f. 91 b.— 5 c man u> L.— 
6j m»g C— / £t C— 7 rf b£ne C— 7 i worde 
C. — 10 a msenende C^hv.rhL 

§ a 12^ ne£ui L.— 13/*bc to L.— 16/he w C. 
— 17f h^C— 18rfh£ne: 20 o. ^: C. 

§ 9. 21 a Oaos. VI, 17.— 21 a'Lp 145. - 25/ 
hioe C. — 26 b inne L : ir C. — e ge mot sme 
L. — % 'xxm- L, and Oro9. bas — viginti tribns 
Tuhieribos, p 426, 1 : 'XXTn' C. 


§ 1. 28 a Obos. VI, 18.— 29 c -x- L: Oro*. 
Aa*— xj>428, 20: -Ixx-C- 30f hfnc: 32^'; 
C— 81 dot 92.— 31 f b^ : 32 i : 37 c .• C— 
82 a bim.— 33 h nu C. — 33 A-^5 a T* ge- 
feoht ungeferlioe ^rbteab. swa iolius dyde 
nr. L. — 35 e in wa* L. — 36 a o>er \j,—dr-f 
w C-— ^ |>ridde L. — 37 A wurde L.— 38/ond 
i>8et L. — 39 a iolinse L. 

§ 2.— 41 a Obos. VI, 19.-41/ gewealdon L. 
42 c h^ C— 43 d opene C— 43 i read h^t— 
44 e deopatron L. 

PAGE 113. 1 e/calle egypU L.— 3/ ut tr L. 
— 6ihand » L.— 7eh^: 17 <i .- C— 9 A nae- 

ran C— 9^ L p 146.-11 e octauiannses C, L. 
— 11/C f. 92 b.— 13'^ read hi C— 14 e deo- 
patron L. — ^15 a wBiS to L. — e liL C. 
§ 3. 18 6 dopatran C : deopatro L. — 20 e |>jder 
weard L ; |>yder ward C, ward hv, r A t. — 
21 c read hi C— 21 A tune to C— 21 i lytlum 
C— 22/htre: 24^ hire: 31/: C— 24 a lip 
nalis C— 25 a-A L: to C— 27 i >iBt to C— 
2Sa)nctC, — 30/8e]fiieL: m margin r A i C. 
— ;;' lilne C. — 81 At sommcre alede C, eu, bv, 

r At.- 32/ b^ C 34 a & read gif bL— / 

brincfS C— y gefaren L.— 36^ swa to C. — 
37 k cepion C. 

chapteb xrv. 

§ 1. 40 a Obos. VI, 20.— 40 a f. 93.— 40 d 
romane C. — 42 e consulato L.— 42 dZtp 147. 

PAGE 114. 1 A bine C— 2 a dyde L.— A gc- 

wcartS 10 C, L.— * swyk C. — 3 b bring L: 

ring C— 4 a ealn C. — ij bis C— 5/se lo C. 

§ 2. 9 e b^ C— 10 k man to L.— 11 d-g bwar 

hi sibbe bicfdon C— 12 e his C— c se to C— 

18 d gek|>a)> L. 
§ 3, 14 A is I^— c7 b^ C.-15 e in C— 16 a-d 

seculon. eenne gelcafon babbon C. 
§ 4. 18^ carde L.— 19 k U C— 20^ f. 93 

b. — 23 a beofenmn rice C. 

Chapteb XV. 
§ 1. 26 a Obos. VI, 21.-26^ wics it I — .27e- 

^r See note to p 13, 38 c/. — 27 i wi>>er wearde 

L.— 28 A: ^ fird ge hcdde L.— 29 b read hi C. 

—30 A atre L.— 31 a~c to C. 
§ 2. 32(1 heoda L.— 32A L p 148.-33/ ser- 

mende L. — 35/ hie L : to C. 
§3. 39c b^: 40^ C. 
§ 4. 43a Obos. VI, 22.— 43e-« eall ]>eos wo- 

rold L : J>eot womld eall C. 

PAGE lU. 1 d hyldon C— t bis C— 2 c fcr- 
J>an L.— A agennm C— i f. 94.-3 e read 
wisan C— 4 d fa»tc L. — 6 i rice C. — 7 a .£>a 
C— 8 d helend C. 

§ 5. 11/^ to C— 14d warden to C— 15o-* 
Her eii|>a)> (for enda^) sio sixte hoc -j en- 
gin's seo siofo^e L. As the Vth book of 
Alfred's A. S. translation contains book V and 
VI of the original Latin of Ororius, L says, in 
relation to the original,— Here the eixtk book 
ends, and the eeventh begins,— that is, of ike 
Latin originaL 

After 15 A,— in C folio 94, line 15 to futio 95, 
line 2 indnrive, — there is a table of contents 
to Book VI. As it varies from the table 
printed ji 13, 40a^ 14, 42/, it is given en- 
tire in the notes foQowiiJgp 14^ 42/. 




§ 1. 17a Obo«. VII, 2.— 17 a f. 95.— 17 a Nu 
to L, a w>acc being left for oniainental letten. 
read \>'tne C— » Bcofehan L.— 18 d hit : j : C. 
— 19 e emnlice L. 

§ 2. 22 A L J) 149.— 24 d tiir)«Doplom C. — 
23 a-f'ltv bund wintra and an *m' C, L; ivi 
Oros, iUu— post mille quadringentot . . . an- 
noii»465. 12. 

§ 8. 2Sef hicpe onwenlde L. — 28 d macedo- 
niam C : niuK»}donium L. — h leng L: to C— 
30 on C. 

§ 4. 82 tf ymb L : binne C, r hi at the end of 
the line.— 32 j yinb L.— 33 h \>da C— d hie 
L : he<$ C. 

§ 5. 35 A read weficmest C : westmest L. — 
86 A-37 e micel fjrbryne on rome burg L. — 
— 87 » ibrbarn C— 38 e read nyste C— 39 * 
C 95 b. — 40 a groht C— c aUstod L.— 41 a 
forhyncnd C : forhiened L. — d read nsfire C 
—A i read or hf Q.—j k eft agnstus L. 

PAQE 116. 1^ read aifre C, L. 

§ 6. 7 A feowerteo>an L.— 8 e Obos. VII, 8.— 
9 h roma L. 

§7. \\f ►e C— 15^ h€: 20f.- 21^: C — 
I6111 L/> 150.-17/ gebsde L.— 18A of L: 
w C— 19 e him C— 20 At ^e h^ C— 21/ 
agusto C— 22 J f. 96.-26^ gefcoht C. 

Chapter II. 
S 1. 29 a Obos. VII, 4.-31/ and w C— 32 a 
onwald L. — 33^ martyninga L. — 34 A h^: 
S9t: \0e: 41»: 43 e C— 34 1 hft : 36i.* t: 
C— 35 h swySe tc? L.— 36/hdom Cyhv.rh i, 
— 37 h oytJon C. — 40 b c ond ie|>e to C. — 41 a 
cuctmo C. — 4iy him. — i2 e hi tc C, L. 

PAGE 117. 2fg folcnm of L : folcmn on C. 

§2. 4dCf.96b.— /Ljpl51.— 5crf nra<«h£ 
©t C— 7 A )»a ]>e C : )»e to L.— 8 h htryruan 
C, altered to hnrtrsian, r and to in the origi- 
nal hand and ink. — 9 h bcgdn 10 L. 

§ 3. 10 e hu C—J ahangen L. — 14 h romana 
C— 15tfh^C. 


§ 1. 17 a Okob. \l\, 5.— 18.» he : 20 J .- 21 h : 

22 k : 23 i : 25 m : C— 20 e romana C— 21 e 
hft : t ; C. — 22 a swa to L. — 23 ^r sweoran L. — 

23 J hine C. 

§ 2. 28 i read wwron )»a C— 29 dCt 97.— 
29 A findon C— 30d hie L: to C— t forbu- 
gon C. 

§ 8. 31 ff read e»c C— 32 a hf C— 35 bli p 
152. — 35 A h^: 36/; 41 d: i: 42 t; C — 
36(2 gci6nidian C— 36y hie L: to C— 39 a 

read ifylde C H.— 89 e &t C— ^ end >8et L. 
—40^* agen to L.— 41^' hroe C. 
§ 4. 43/Blspende C. 

PAGE 118. 1 e read ma|>m hiue C. — 8 c rioe- 
•teraC— « namon C— 8^ h^: 6 A.* Iff: C. 
--4 a-/ 10 L.— 5 5 and fo C, L : J deadra C— 
6 <{ ge L : w C— Ar coBt%an L. — 7 e miltsonge 

Chaftxb IV. 

§ 1. 10a OBoa. VII, 6. — 10 ^11 A dccxcf 
Oro*. p 466. 25.-11 h -xcr L.— 12/0 f. 97 
b.— 15 i J>sbre C— ir wiere C— 18* osr L: lo 
C— 19d J>a C— 19y-20a he him d<$n |>6hte 

§ 2. 24 e L jp 153.— 25 1 ga«fonan L.— 26 e 
he<5ra C— ^ hie L : to C. — A onwaldaa L. — 
2Se o-Ssace L.— 29A se se L.— 80 a gestUed 
C. — e godes C. — 1 u;ni C, 

§3. 34ch^C.— 35A8iriaC.— 86<2a!tmbena 
L.— 37 d »t C— A niwilice C. 

§4. 40dOf.98.-/vL: seofon C— 41 5 long 
L. — e feor'San C, lut Oroe. eays — anno scp- 
timo, p 469, 12.— y his C— 43 b wvaon L.— 

i«tc. , 

PAGE U9. 1 d gare C— 2 b gains L.— « b^t a 
— e adrifon C— 8 d romana C. — ifh6 : / .• C. 
— 6* triginta quinque, Oro». p 470, 3. — 6^ 
romana C. 

Chapteb V. 

§ 1. 9 a Olios. Vn,7.— 10yh£ne: 20 1: C— 
10 k hfl^ftle L : an erasure in C, and ha?fde 
r A t.— 1 1 e and to L.— 1 Id h4: IS a: d: 
I9b: 20A; C— 11^ |>e ma L. — 11^ his: 
14 c ; C— 12 a hajfde C— 13 c wxbs C— / et 
C. — i onbffirnan C— 18> I^p 154.-13 k by- 
rig C— 20 A-21 <£. This clause wonld make 
the sentence more clear, if it were placed 
after niisd&^da (20 a), as bj Junius, El^tob 
and Ballard, and in £xG., but it is not sanc- 
tioned by the MSS., for both L and C have 
the arrangement given in the text.— 21 « fc 
9Sb.— 23aoffcallenL. 

Chapteb VI. 

§ 1. 25 a Obos. VII, 8.— 26« galua L.— -27 e 
lifoe C. 

§ 2. 30 a hit L: to C— 34 d read hf C— € 
winnon C. 

Chapteb VII. 

§ 1. 36 a Obos. VII, 9.-38 i behead L.— 39 e 
hd C— 40A ford(5n C— 40i.; L.— 40f-41 a 
cristonddm mierde leng L : cristendome lencg 
myrdon C. — II e mon L.— 42 e-g iudena "xr 
hund 'ra- Jj.— 42/ read bund C. 

PAGE VS0.2dJ4p 155.— 3 jT >a mioel L.— 




4tf )« « L.— ;; Kt C. — 5 d Hf C— ;; wespania- 
not L.— 6^ uig^^am L. 

Chapteb VIIT. 
§ 1. 9 a f. 99.— 10 e titus C—ll/g'odcs C : 
gddet L.-4 h^ C— 12 e/ h^ naht C— i gSde 


§ 1. 16 a Okos. VII, 10.— 17 e domitiontu L. 
— 18^* lietcnd L.-r-19y mide on C : on w L. 
— 19> h6 : 24 * ; 26y ; 0.-19^-21 a w L.— 
20^ onbugon C. — 22 a thomore C. — 23 e he 
Lj wC—Zie-m crist gcborcn nscrc >a giet. 
)»9Bt he nasi>)>an L.— 25 A^ L: of C— 26t 
him a^lf C» him ^. r A t. 

Ckapteb X. 

§ 1. 29 a 0B08. VII, 11.— 31 a be to L.— 32 e 
hi C— • towendon C— 34 e h6 C. — 35 a-€ 
iobanncs st bis mynstre gebrengan L. — 35 b 
li p 156.— c Kt C— 35 » C f. 99 b.— 36 a 
wonild 10 L. 

§ 2. 37 a Obos. VII, 12.-37/ hiefde L : hss- 
don C, altered to hvfde ho, r h t.— 37 i 'X* L, 
but Ores, has — decem et novem, p 486, 5. — 
38 e h^ : 42 e C— 39 c nfwlice C— ^ be w C. 
-Hll a bioHL C— 42 (2 h£t C. 

§ 3. 43 tf iud.m L. 

PAGB 12L 1 e lande C, the e expunged htf a 
dot, prick or point underneath the e. — h read 

Chapteb XI. 

§ 1. 5 « Obos. VII, 13.— 6 h -XLvn- L : Oros. 
DCCCLXVii, p 488.— 7/ wint C— 11 c %€ C— 
* L : 10 C— ^* L : to C. 

§ 2. 18 Jt hf : 15 a C— 14 e ne C—d read U^ 
ton C— 16^ h^: 17* C— 16j iudena L.— 
17fl-/J»L, <Aw c^Mtf comef <!/?«• ludeis- 
oean men (16 5).— 18 c o)>erre L. — 19 a f. 
lOa— 19 c bate C— 19/ helium L, 

Chapteb XII. 

§ 1. 21 a Obos. VII, 14.— 22 h lxx'thi, • Iv, 

r hi C. — ^22 d ronpeius C : ponptius L. — 24^ 

Jjp 157.— 24 A h€ C— 25y-> swa leof and 

w L. 

Chapteb XIII. 

§ 1. 28 a Obos. VII, 15.— 29 d antonins C, L. 
—31/ read hf C : lo L.— 32 a and SB J hi, 
read hi C— 32/ cristene C. — 33^ partbe L. 

§ 2. 38 c<{ hi becoman C— 39 1 feobton C : ge 
feobtan L. — 40 e on L.— / read barte C. — il y 
read hi C. — 12 c an L. — i2j hit, C. 

PAQE 123. 1 h wricu C— « read hi C—ftet 
C^2a hit C—d rfnde.— / read hi C.Se 
wss L: to C— 81r £ 100 b.— 4<l >8em L: 

§ 3. 5 <l0 romana calle C— 11 i h^ C.—j agie- 
fan L. 

Chapteb XIV. 
§ 1. 13 « Obos. VII, 16.-13 1 wintra id L.— 
15 a L p 158.— isy h€ C— 17/ >iim w L.— 
1 t<5 Bl<5b C— 18 hehz u> C— 19 d biUKo- 
theoco L.— 19 e r&ad wearS C.-/forbcnrnend 
C— A |»am w L.— 20 e ealdon C— y forbuman 
a— 21 b i L.— € L: demn C. 

Chaptbb XV. 

§ 1. 25« Obos. VII, 17.— 25/y w©s getim. 
bred L.— 27 e piscemnns L.—j h hi him C— 
28 c edde C— €/ he hfne C— 29 • be w L.— 
30 5 C f. 101.— 80/forJ»»5n C— A b^ C. 

§ 2. 32 5 li^: 33/.- C— 33y |»a L: lo C— ir 
read hi C— 35 k eofer wfc C 

Chapteb XVI. 
§ I. 37 ff Obos. VII, 18.— 37 a iEter L.— 88* 
ba!<ide C, dlt.rh u — 40/ on L.— » b^ C— 
41 cd |>am ftcledc C, expunging \ bg a point 
under it, and trriting r and 1 Jr., fielode if 
altered to fscrelde r hi, 

Chapteb XVII. 
§ 1. 43 a iEter L. 

Chapteb XVIII. 

FAGB 123. § I. a a L ;» 159.— 6 d aureUns- 

nus C. — 7 cdCfh, bat Oroe, trcdecim annif, 

p 607, 4. — 8 c orlcnse C. — 10 c hire.— 11 • 

persan C— 12 e f<5rlet C. — i mageutsan L. 

Chapteb XIX. 

§ 1. 14 a Obos. VII, 19.— 15 ft L: Lxxxvn 

Oros. p 509 : Lxxrri C— 16 A f. 101 b.— 

17 i bine C— 18 c orieuis C. — 18 (f be to L. — 

18 ^19 e Ond maximos ofslog bis ogen ealdor- 
mon L. — 19 b ofsMb C— rf ogeno C. 

Chapteb XX. 
§ 1. 23 Z and be C— 24 d gebroSro C«— 25 a 


Chapteb XXI. 
§ 1. 27 a Obos. VII, 20.-29 h hi C— 30 d 

l^riddan L.-33c hf : S4id: C— 33^ set 34 1.* 

38 a : C— 35 b-i deofla ponces )>aet wtes )»et 

enlle romane woldon L : >8et wies deofla |>oncet. 
^ ^mi ealle romana woldan C. — 36 d bringon C. 

37 a godra L. — 37 o-e to heora geblote w L. 

— 38 a et g»dere C, L.— 38 1 L p Ib'O.— 89yj^ 

read sil^^on to C : si^on w L. 

Chapteb XXII. 
§ 1. 41 a Obos. VII, 21.— 41 5 ham w L. 

PAGE 124. 2^ C f. 102.— 3 c ^tsm H L-— 




Chapteb XXIIL 

§ 1. 10 f read langc C : longe L.— 1 1 a ehtinge 
C, ch iff 171 /^f original hand, and tinge o» an 
eroMure r k t.— 11 i wici L : w C— 13 & bung 
C : byrige L. 

§ 2. 15a read anwenld C. 

Chafteb XXIV. 

§ 1. 17 fl Obos. VII, 22.— 18 c romaoa C— 
1 8/-20 d These claueee are tranepoeed in L : 
ike elavse 19^20<? etande fret in L, and 
then 18/-19/ The Eno. foUotct L.— 22 i 
c^m L —23 i cvuing L.— 25 j* b^ C— 25 h- 
26 a 8wa oft gccoldc L. — 27/hliepnii L. 

§ 2. 28 J c hffm fhrum L.— /monog L. — 28 i 
winende C— 29 h inwcarSncsso C— 30 c f. 
102 b.— 30 e gcruiaaiaj.— .31 h forliergedon C. 
82^33 a ealle grccou C— 34 a Ljy 161. 

§1. 40« Obob. VII. 23. 

PAGE 125. 1 a romana C. — 2 h an L. — e gyl- 
deuuc C— ;/*hcngon C. — h b£ w L. 

Chapteb XXVI. 
§ 1. 8 c aurelios L. — 12 h e read l»yj>c C. — d hi 
C.--13A wcurj» L. 

Chapteb XXVII. 
§ 1. 15 a Obos. VII, 24.— IG^ C f. 103.— 17y 
|>a*m lande L. — 18^ ofsiagen \>vcs C. 

Chapteb XXVI II. 
§ 1. 22 ? brolius C, L.— 23 a ger L.--rf inona^ 
L B.— A miiias L B.— 24/ ham L : ic C. — 
25/ bortrum L. — 2G i read on syrmie C. 

Chapteb XXIX. 
§ 1. 29 a L 1) 162.— 31rf tuirwa L.— 34/^ 
sweortor C. 

Chapteb XXX. 
§ 1. 86 flp Obos. VII, 25.-37 c dioclicianns C. 
— e romano L. — 39^ [>a L : to C— 40 a ge- 
winn C— /Im L : to C. 

PAQ-E 126. 1 c diocrcie L. — g winende C. — 
2 c nnd acliileus \j.—d of L. — e eypta C—Zf 
causcrus C. — in ina.\imu8 C. — h conFtnntinus 
Hdde C.--5e affricam L.— 5/ C f. 103 b.— 
6^ b^: 6 A; If: C— 6 5 constantfnus C— 
8 d Jioclitianiu. — 10 e be it C.--/8i|>|>an L. — 
12^" marserins C— 14 5 QTfbtncsse C— 14i 
onfcng L.— 15 d bme C. — i anum L.— ;/ pupu- 
ran C.--18 c inarscus L : C— 19 he diodicius 
ualcriuse C— d weorSUce L. 

$2. 20 a ^ftf r >a>m dioclitianns L. — 20 e 
cbtnys-[L jp 163] sc— 21 c castane L.— /wes- 
tane L.— 22 « gewurdon L.— ;^ martyra L.— 
j wintrum C. 

§ 8. 26 h read bj C— 27 g bui ig C— 27 *-28/ 

w L.— 28 a nuudmuuiDs C. — d mediolaiie C. 
—29 hew C. — 29/coiistantuniae C. — 80 a C 
f. 104.— /L: w C— 82r constantintit C- — 
82/iUliaD C— 83 a ispaniie C— c gulU» C.^ 
86 h gmlim C. — 87 1 nmximiniifl C. 
§ 4. 89 d-f com oonrtantiniis mildeorteiU C, 
for mildbeortesU.— 41 A ciefete L: wife C, 
written upon an erasure. The original word 
in C w€u defcic, ctfese or cjfese, as is evident 
from the Utters fese heing still legible. There 
am be Uttle doabt tbat AlfVed, misled bj the 
word concabina improperly vied by Oronni^ 
tranflated it dcfes The word defese remains 
in L, the older MS: and. in C, it has appa- 
rently been altered to wife by a subsequent 
band. The probable reason for this alteration 
wiU soon appear.— It has been prored that 
Helena was the lawful wife of Constantins, 
and tbat their ton, Constantine the Great, 
was bom in wedlodc. (Tillemwnt^ Sistoire dea 
Smpereurs, vol U", Kote 1. Conslantin. ) 
The facts are briefly these. When Conatan- 
tius was raised to the dignity of Csaar, or the 
seeond rank in the empire, be was obVged to 
divorce his wife Helena, that he might marry 
Theodora, the stepdaughter of his friend and 
patron, the craperi^ Maximian. This divorce 
is of itself a proof that Htrlena was the lawful 
wife of Constantius. Yet the friends and 
flatterers- of Coustaiitius and TbeOt!ora inti- 
mated tbat Helena was never married. The 
Greek hist<«rian Zosiiuus, a pagan, prqudiced 
against Christians, as is shewn in his account 
of the convernon of Constantine the Great, 
gave currency to the report that the Chris- 
tian Helena was not the lawful wife of Con- 
stantius. 1 he history of Zodmus spread and 
g-.ive permanency to this false report. It was 
so prevalent as to mislead Orosios, who says — 
(Constantius) Constantinum filium ex concu* 
hina Helena . . . reliqmt. VII, 25, Saver, p 
529, 10, 11. Orosius was implicitly followed 
by Bede, who uses the same words — Hie (Con- 
stantius) Constantinum filium ex concubina 
Helena reliqmt. I, 8, Smith p 4tl, 27, 23. 
Alfred, in translating Orosius into A. S. states, 
in our text, that Constantius ^are the empire 
to Conttanliney his sou, — and then, closely 
follo^-ing Orosius, be says — (nme he bsefJe be 
Elenan his defese — u:hom he had hy Selena 
his concubine. In subsequently translating 
Bide, Alfred softens down the Latin concu- 
bina by unng wif, instead of defes thus — 
(Constantinus) wros of Elena l>am w0e aoenned 
— Constantine was horn of the woman Selena., 
7, 8, Smia p 479, 31. To make the A. & 
manuscript of Ores, to agree with the A. 8. of 



Bede» or pti*l>Aps with the intention of proving 
tliat Helena was the wife of Constantini, the 
ciefete of the original scrihe of C ho* been 
altered by a later hand to wife. If the latter 
was intended, the object of the interpolator 
has not been fully aocomplislied, for his alter* 
alion of ciefese to wife only moderates or 
softens the meaning. The word w£f in A. S. 
is sometimes nsed, in a restricted sense, to 
denote a married woman, in the sense of onr 
present word fotfe: ^^t the general meaning 
of wff is woman; muHer, foemina. In this 
sense it is pnt in opposition to roan. The A.S. 
term for a lawftil wife is *w, e; fa female 
hound iy law, a wifbg cox\jax legitima, uxor 
justa. An example or two will be snffident 
proof. — Se man, >e his riht Awe forloet and 
o)>er wff nimt$, he hiiS iBW-br€ca — the man, 
(vir) whoforeakee hi* latcful wife (stiam legi- 
timam oxoreni) and iakee another woman 
(aliam muUerem) he ie an adulterer, Ec^, 
JPoen, II, 8; Thorpe p 184. Gif hw^lc man 
wi* oJ>res riht awe hsemiS, o»e wff wiS o>res 
gemeccon, fasste Tn gear— {T any man (vlr) 
commit adultery with the lawfkU wife (cam 
legitima nxore) qf another, or a woman (mn- 
licr) with the husband of another, let him (or 
her) fast seven years. Ecg, Poen» U, 10: 
Thorpe p 186.-— There can be no doubt then, 
that Orosius was misled by the false rumour, 
and the statement of Zodinus, that Helena 
was not married to Constantius^ and that 
Bede, copying Orosius, fell mto the same 
error, both using the word coucubina. In 
translating Orosius into A. S. Alfred literally 
follows the Lttdn text, and states that Helena 
was the concubine, defes of Constantius. 
Though Alf^«d, in his subsequent vernon of 
Bedtf, styles her wff, the woman, he does not 
call her ew, the lawful wifb of Constantius. 
Oefes is, therefiore, given in the A. S. printed 
text> on the authority of the best MS., and be* 
cause it was the word used by Alfred to repre- 
sent the concubina of the Latin Orosius. In 
translating, the word is necessarily retiuned, 
both in the A. & and Eng^ but this note is 
intended to correct the historical error, as 
Helena was &w, the lawful wife, and not the 
eoucubine of Ckmstantius. 
§ 6. 42 a 0x06. VII, 2a — d maximianus C— 
44 c^se him seanweald C, 

PAGB 1S7* la refanne L.— 2« h^: I: ha: 
e: 7i: Sf: C— 8^ h^ C— 4y hft C— 4> 
anfunde L. — 6 a beswicon C : L. — e L : hah- 
bon C. — ^7/ constantius L.— ^ asseda L. — 8 a 

§ 6. 9 1{ L p 164.— 9 d lucinuse L.— 9 h Ct. 
104 b.— 10/>^ C — lOA betst L.— ^' ge- 
bringon.— lid h^: 14d.- 15 es C. — 13 de 
monig^e lece L. — 13 a on to L. — h nane L.—- 
e gode. — 14 1 men w L. — 16 e lucius L. 

§ 7. 19 a flet C'-d byrig C, L— « >e L: l^sr 
C— 21 b tharra C—h ludnus L.— 24i of- 
tnedlica L. — e gefeaht C. 

%S, 27 d The Canons of iElfric thus speak of 
the condemnation of Arius— Da gegadcrode 
he (Constantinus) sinotS, on l^sre ceastre Nio^ 
i^reo bund blsceopa and eahtatyne bisceopas^ 
of eallum leodscipimi, for ^cs geleafan trym- 
minge. . . . Hy amansumodon )>flbr )K>ne msesse- 
preost Arrium, forj^an ^ he nulde gelyfan )>set 
)>ss lifigcndan Codes sunu were ealswa mibtig 
swa se msera fsder is. Da fordemdon hy ealle 
)>one deofles mann; ae he nolde geswfcan 
»r)>am pe him s&h se innolS eall ^ndemes dt, 
l>n ^a he to gauge eode — Se {Constantine) 
then (uLD. 825) gathered together a synod, in 
the city yice, (apud Niceam, urbem Bithy- 
ni». Oros,) of three hundred and eiyhteen 
bishops, from all nations, for confirmation of 
the faith. . . • They there excommunicated the 
mass-priest, Arius, because he would not he*^ 
Usee that the Son of the living Ood was so 
mighty as the great Father is. Then they all 
condemned the deciVs man; but he would not 
leave off, till, in the end, his inward parts aU 
fell out, when he went to ease nature. HI: 
Thorpe, vol II, p 243, 344.-28 e geleafon C. . 
— 28 ik Eko. About this mischief or crime: 
timon L. — 29^ hine C. — 30 d amansnmian L. 

§ 9. 33 5 w^ C— 34 bCf. 105.-34^ romane 
C. — 35^ crecum L.— ^' read hf C. — 86 a hatan 
L: baton C— c h^: 38>: C— 1{ read h^: 
behead L.— 37* hus w L.— 38 c ymbe C— 

Chaftkb XXXI. 

§ 1. 41 a Obos. VII, 29.— 42c: 43/ constan- 
tinusC — * hfs C — 43c W C — 44a L: 
viginti quatuor, Oros. p 641, 10 : xxm C— • 
44c hfC. 

PAGE 128. 2 c constantinus Oros. p 542, 9: 
constans C, L.— 3^ >sBt L: |ja C— 6> read 

^hfC— 7cb^: SJ: 9f: Ue: 18cC. — 7y/ 
12c.* 17 <i constantius Oros: constantinus' 
C, L^—9d read scole C— > |>am w L.— 10 c 
hfhe: 11/; C— II a lucthina C— 12 c con- 
stantinus C— 13 d sarcasm L.— 14/C 1 105 
b.— 14AiW W C: yn )« L.— 15/ daeda L. 
—led anwealde C: onwald L.— 17 (i read 
constantius C. — 19 a 5 he gef«5r L. 

§ 2. 20 a OsoB. YII, 80.— 21 d monatS L.r- 


ff h^i k Cw— 22 4 ODwendon C — 28 d read 
niue C— A lomode C— 23^ Aperto pneccpit 
cdieto, ne qnis Chriitianiu dooen-Jorum liber- 
•Umn lindiomm profeMor essei. Orot, Saver, 
p 646, 6-8. ^ 24 • his C. — j tnndcrrolgef^a 
L.— 265 hf : J C.^26ed w6 hit 0.^260 eft 
w L.— ^ hierdon L.— 27/L j> 106. 
§8. 29c h^: 8O0: Slil.* 36&.- it; 86y.* 87 12; 
88a; 89t; 40/; i. — 80il eitftane L.— 81e 
£t C.--82/^ rea<{ hf dedr.-^ Mie L.— 84 c 
arleua C. — 36 e actesifonte C» L. — 86 e read 
•Kdo C— Ahfnei 88 5; C— 87 ik dngearnwe 
C— 89c read Bin : e u^tte C— 89y f. 106. 
—A hwiLr : I f<5nn C— 40 a hweirfiende C— 
42 &c etc for bnngre C— 48 a oftloh C« 

Chaftxb XXXII. 

PAQX 189. § 1. 2 a Obos. VII, 81.-6/ Hm 
C.^-^ N L.— A read hi C— t moiteB L. 

§2. 8ceahto )>aii L.— ^b^: 2; 9y; 10c; C. 
•~0 Z ni cenltan L. — 10 h read bdso C. — d read 
b^t C. — k for>dn C. — 12 c ramnixu C, L.— ^ 
Ofsmorod C. 

Chapteb XXXIIL 
§ 1. 14 a Obos. YII, 82.— 14A-16<i Hcxrm 

Oroe. p 648, 4 : "m* iK-intra and xcnn C, L. 

— 16d endlefan L.-/b^: 17/; ISj : 20 m. 

—17 blip 167.-19^ gcfylsted L.— 20 h read 

bisC— 20tluraQL. 
§2. 22A f. 106 b.— 28 ft b^; 25/; 26cf;^; 

27i;c ^- 28d; A;29c.-23crca<ib^tC. 

— c percopiosns C— />^ >a C. — 24 1 arrianisco 

C— 25 b eudoxioa L.— ;^ bft : 26 h: C.~26 c 

for)><5n : 28 c ; C— it ^Tecon C— 27 h gelea- 

fan L.— 28/^ read bd foMtm<5d C. 
§8. 836 read hi 35t; C. — d winnoxL — ef 

witJ romana C— 34/ bis C. — 35^ f>am po C. 

—86 d gcb^t C— A euleftan L.— 38/ SubiU 

cffusione fsingninis, qaod Gncc^ apoplcxis 

Tocatur, Oros, p 560, 9, 10. 

Chapteb XXXIV. 
§ 1. 40 a Obos. VII, 88.— 41 c ualerlanufos C. — 
48^- h^ C. 

PAGE 130. 1/b^: 2c; C— 3 a sceoldan C. 
^fread hi C— 4 h f. 107.— 4 b fubte L.— 
e djde L.— 5 d read h6t C— 7 c fordrifon C. 

§2. 96 wears L. — 10 a tbeodosius L.— 10<f- 
11 a IT L.— 11 i L p 168—12/ sleane C— 
tbd: 13^ r^; 15d ; C.—IS a b£ne: 14/; C. 
13 tf gefulwade L. — h gefulwad L. — 14^ ge- 
fulwad L. — 14^-15 a fuUum gclcafun L. — 17^ 
martyre L. 

§ 3. 19 c btra C— 20 b his C— 20 e U: 24 6 ; (f ; 
C— 20A wdh C— 21 de bfne gdtan C— 22> 
inlnedon L.— 28tf; 25 a; 27/ read hi C. — - 

I 28 A t read mid fri}»e C— 2 oferbode L.— 24 a 
bdgode C. — 25/ gerefon C. 

' § 4. 28^ f. 107 b.-28^ her C— 29 5 b^: 
82a;/; 86A; C— 29t read bd Q,-^ read 
bf : 88 5 ; 5 ; C— 80 c geleafon C. — 82 e bwact 
C. — 88 c geddn L.— S3/-84 5 enigne wiate 
libbeDdne L.— 88 k libbendeoe C. — 84/ to late 
L. — 86 a g^lrian C. — • gefeabt L.— 87 b read 
buae C— ^ rybt L. 

Chapteb XXXV. 
§ 1. 41 a Obos. VII, 84.-44 i wi^Ser winnan 
L : ^cwinnan Ct$erhi on the UJt mar^iM, — 
j wcrenL. 

PAGBISI. lereadhi C — 8t bfma — 45 
liP 169.-6^ read bd C— 6^ >a Li w C 

§ 2. 8/Maximns Otm. /> 666, 14 : mnximianas 
C, L.— 9y read anwealda C : onwaldt« L. — 
105 hia: j: C— 10c Ctl08. — 10^ h^: 
11^; 13/; C— 11 5 wanii C, • 5v. r A t. — 
liy beioL.— Zon L. 

Chapteb XXXVI. 

§ 1. 15 a Obos. VII, 35.— 18y; 31 c read bd 
C— 18Ab6: 25^; C— 20/italie L.— 21 5 
hid L. — I caldor-men C— 23 5 read bf : 28 e 
C— 24 a >obte C— 27 c det C— y men L.— • 
28 c aweg w L. — / 4>ewde L. — 31 Ji read 
mycle C— 32 d^L. 

§ 2. 34^ bfa C — 35d f. 108 b.- 85c b^: 
87/; 40a; J ; C— 36y gallium C— 35^ of- 
smdrodc C— 37/-38 a be bicne self awierged 
L.— 87^ bfne C— 38/hac8 C— A noraan L, — 
SOdJap 170.— 39 k for)?on ]>e L.— 40 i for|>^ 
C. — 10 1; wa^s L. — H b gotene L.— ^ bf C. 

PAaBI38. icreadhii 4c; 5(f; •; 8t; C. 
— 6/-3a L: w C— 8> selfe L: sylf C— 9^ 
bis C— 10 c masstno C— 135 h€ C— c maege« 
Ian L : megelange C. — 14 5 betabte L. — ^ 
onwald L. 

Chapteb XXXVn. 

§ 1. 16 a Obos. VII. 86.-16/ f. 109.-17 » 
^am C. — IS/onorins L, 

§ 2.— 20 a Obos. VII, 87. 88. — 20d bf : * ; 
22 h ; 23/; 24/; 29 d : C— 21 a II C— 22 1 
gecytSdcm C— 23 ed ^ses bw^ce C— 23 c blaf- 
ord-byldo L : blaford-bylda C. — i cyJ>onne C— 
24^ bft C— 25 c babban C— 26y hit C— 
276 b^: 29i; 30c; 81c; C— 286 alruam 
C— <in6dgolanC.— 29cLj>171.— 80(lc |>ajt 
be, in margin r At.— 82 a alrfca C— criedgota 
C— 34^J>aC. 
; § 8. 36 (f read bcanlic C— > for C— 37 6 read 
^ C— ^ gebldte C— A l>e C— t g^ : 89y C. 
—39 A eower L.— 41 hi bd bfean C— 4iy b5: 
42 i C— 42 c C £ 109 b.— 42 it gelifde L.— 43 c 
bfne : g ; C— 48 <f c gcbnndene lucfdan C 



Chaptbb XXXVIII. 

PAOB 138. § 1. 1/ his C— Z gi C— 4 a Obob. 
VII. 89.--5A b{8 C — 6rf W: 7i.- C— 7c 
cristena L. — 8 e idpe C. — 9 a h neime mon L. 
— 9<l read tl<5ge C— 11 (2 rf(Mf hf C— 11 « 

aforan L.— ib agnum L. — 12 a willum L.— ^ 
read hib C. 

§2. 13 a Obos. Vn, 40.— 13 h gcnom L.— « 
bdttolf-;/' onorius L.— ^ twostor L.— 14» 
read hf C. — 16 & nam L. — (2 teton L.— 16t 
foron L. — 17 d gesacton L. 


j9 xii ZiW 4 r9a<{ 1654. 

„xxxi M 37y M 1698. 

M xxxii M 4«^* „ also of tbis college. 

M XXXV „ 87^Adele ayear. 

Plate IIL 0, 4 ifor geewoelS read gecws'9. 


For Sarmondisc read Sermendisc 

The eouthem boundary ofCwin-tdi (White Sea), and the Sermendisc Garsecg (Gnlf of Ilidand), 
and the eatt qf Ost-MC (the Baltic Sea), and the Lake Ladoga and Onega ought to have been 
in very faint outline^ or in dote, and not eolouredt a» theee jHurti were not definitely known in 
the time of Alfred. 

Ibr Astrix read Aitriz M. 
„ Zeuge M Zengit. 

PL L 16/ for et>e\ read ^|»eL 


n non|> „ 



n. „r* » 


Of. 12h. 11/ 

„ forhwega „ 


C f. 16. 12 a 

» -^ M 


Of. 16b. 9d 

M fenge »» 


Of: 17. 16& 

M j^r » 


Of. 18b. 9b 

„ ambicno -^ 


The fignatnree mn»t follow thus— 1, Z^^hete. and the paging 7, 8^ 17, 18 etc. ai ng. 2 and 

^ 9—16 were omitted by the oompomtor. 
ji 4^ 19 e-tf read Obadiah Walker, Master of UniTernty College. 
p 25, ISy M proceeded. 
p 25, 84 5 N Wamefeld. 









Book L 
Here begimieth the book, whicli men call Orosius, 

Chapter I. 
How our elders divided aU the globe into three parts, § 1, 5. 

^ [The boundary of Asia, § 2, 6. — of Europe, § 3. — of Africa, 
§ 4. — of India and Parlhia, § 7. — of Babylonia, Mesopotaiaia, 
ralestine, Armenia, Syria, Phoenicia, etc. § 8. — of Egypt, § 9. — 
of the south of Asia, § 10. 

Extent of Alfred^s Germania, § 11. — of the East Franks, Bava- 
rians, Bohemians, Frisians, Danes, Angles, Old-Saxons, etc. § 12. 

The first voyage of Ohthere 8 13. — Of the Biarmians § 14. — 
Ohthere a rich man, § 15. — Of the country of the Northmen, 
§ 16.— Of Sweden, § 17. 

Ohthere's second voyage, § 18. He sails into the Baltic, § 19. 

Wulfetan's voyage, § 20. — Customs of the Esthonians, con- 
ceminff the dead, § 2l. — Horse races, § 22. Of keeping the 
dead, § 23. ' 

1 What 18 placed between the brackets is not in Anglo-Saxon : it is inserted to complete 
the Table of Contents. 


Of Greece, § 24.— Of Italy, § 25. — Of GaUia Belgica, § 26. 
Of Spain, § 27. — Of Britain, § 28. 

Extent of Africa, § 29, 30, 31.— Of Byzaeium, Carthage, Nu- 
midia, § 32. 

Islands in the Mediterranean, Cyprus, Crete, § 33. — The Cy- 
clades or Dodekanista, § 34.— Of Sicily, § 35.— Of Sardinia, § 36. 
—Of Corsica, § 37.— The Balearic Islands, § 38.] 

Chapter IL 

How Ninns, king of Assyria, first began to reign over the men 
of this world, § 1. — ^And how, after him, Semiramis, his queen, 
with great severity, and profligacy, seized the government, § 2, 3. 

Chapter m. 

How the fire fix)m heaven burnt up the land, on which the two 
cities, Sodom and Gomorrah, were built, § 1, 2. 

Chapter TV. 

How the inhabitants of Candia and Scarpanto fought with each 
other, § 1. 

Chapter V. 

How the righteous man, Joseph, saved the people of Egypt 
from the seven years' great famine by his wisdom ; and how they 
afterwards, according to his appointment, gave every year the fifth 
part of all their frmta to their king as tribute, § 1, 2. 

Chapter VI. 

How in Achaia, there was a great flood in the days of king 
Amphictyon, § 1, 2. 

Chapter VH. 

How Moses led the people of Israel firom Egypt over the Red 
sea, § 1, 2. 

Chapter VHI. 

How, in one night, there were fifty men slain in Egypt by 
their own sons, § 1. — ^And how Busiris, the king, commanded to 

CONTENTS. Book I; Ch. IX— XIV: Book II; Ch. I, II. 19 

sacrifice all the strangers, who visited him, § 2 ; and about the 
contention of many other people, § 3, 4. 

Chapter IX. 

How the Cretans and Athenians, people of Greece, fought with 
each other, §1,2. 

Chapter X. 

How Vesoges, king of Egypt, would subdue both the south 
part which is Asia, and the north part, which is Scythia, § 1. — 
And how t>vo noblemen were banished from Scythia, and about 
the women, who are called Amazons § 2. — 5. — And about the 
Goths whom Pyrrhus, the cruel king of Greece, and Alexander 
the Great, as well as Juhus, the emperor, dreaded, § 6. 

Chapter XL 

How Helen, the king's wife, was taken in the city of Lacedae- 
mon § 1, 2. — And how king .^neas went \\ith an anuy into Italy, § 3. 

Chapter XII. 

How Sardanapalus was the last king of Assyria, and how 
Arbaces, his chief officer, deceived him, § 1, 2. — And how the 
women upbraided their husbands, when they wished to flee, § 3. — 
And how the brass-founder formed an image of a bull for the 
prince, § 4, 5. 

Chapter XIII. 
How the Peloponnesians and Athenians fought with each other, 

§ 1. 

Chapter. XIV. 

How the Lacedaemonians and Messenians fought with each 
other, on account of the offerings of then: maidens, § 1 — 3 : § 4. 

Book II : Chapter I. 

How Orosius said, that our Lord created the first man very 
upright and very good, § 1.— And about the foiur empires of the 
world, § 2 — 6. 

Chapter IL 

How the brothers, Remus and Romvdus, built the city of Rome 
in Italy, § 1—3. 


Chapter III. 
With what wickedness, Romulus and Brutus dedicated Rome, 
§ 1—4. 

Chapter IV. 

How the Romans and Sabines fought with each other, § 1 — 4. 
And how Cyrus was slain in Scythia, § 5 — 8. 

Chapter V, 

How king Cambyses despised the Egyptian idols, § 1. — And 
concerning the wars of Darius, § 2. — ^And of Xerxes and Leonidas, 

Chapter VI. 

And how a wonder was shewn to the Romans, as if the heavens 
were burning, § 1 — 5. 

Chapter VII. 
How the people of Sicily were fighting with each other, § 1 — 2. 

Chapter VIII. 

How the Romans beset the city Veii, ten years, § 1 — ^And how 
the Senonian Gauls (Galli Senones) stormed the city Rome, § 

Book III : Chapter I. 

How a disgraceful and crafty peace was made between the 
Lacedaemonians and Persians, § 1 — 6. 

Chapter 1 1. 
How there was an earthquake in Achaia § 1 : § 2. 

Chapter III. 

How the great pestilence was in Rome, at the time of the two 
Consuls, § 1, 2 — And how Marcus Curtius plunged into the 
yawning earth, § 3. 

Chapter IV. 

How the Gauls ravaged the Roman territories to within three 
miles of the city, § I. 

Chapter V. 

How the Carthaginian ambassadors came to Rome, and 
offered peace, § 1 ; § 2 — 5. 

CONTENTS. Book III ; Ch. VI-XI ; Book IV ; Ch. I—III. 21 

Chapter VI. 

How the Romans and Latins fought with each other, § 1. And 
liow a nun (vestal virgin) was buried alive, 2 — 3. 

Chapter VIL 

How king Alexander, uncle of the great Alexander, fought with 
the Romans, § 1. And how Philip, father of the great Alexander, 
took the sovereignty of Macedonia, 2 — 5. And chose Byzantium 
for his Capital, 6 — 7, 8. 

Chapter VIII. 

How the place, Furculae Caudinae, became well kno>ni for the 
disgiace of the Romans, §1,2:3. 

Chapter IX. 

How the great Alexander took the sovereignty of Macedonia, 
§ 1 — 5. — And how he told a certain priest to say, according to 
his wish, who was his father, 6. — And how he overcame king 
Darius, 7 — 9: 10 — 18. — And how he himself was killed with 
poison, 19, 20. 

Chapter X. 

How, under two consuls, four of the strongest nations wished 
to overcome the Romans, § 1 — 2. — And how the great pestilence 
was at Rome, 3.— And how they told them to fetch iEsculapius, 
the magician, with the magical snake, 4 : 5, 6. 

Chapter XL 

How, under two consuls, theSamnites, and the Senonian Gauls 
became enemies of the city Rome, § 1. — And how, after Alexan- 
der's death, his generals ended their lives in strife, 2 — 12. 

Book IV : Chapter I. 

How the Tarentines saw ships of the Romans sail on the sea, 
when they were playing in their theatre, § 1 — 6. 

Chapter II. 
How the -many evil wonders happened in Rome, § 1, 2. 

Chapter III. 

How milk was seen to rain from heaven, and blood to spring 
from the earth, § 1 ; 2, 3. 



Chapter IV, 

IIo^Yagl•eat plague came upon the Romans, § 1. — And how 
Caperone, the nun (vestal virgin) was hanged, 2. — And how the 
townspeople of Carthage sacrificed men to their gods, 3. 

Chapter V. 

How Himilco, king of the Cartliaginians, went with an army 
into Sicily, § 1. — And how a certain man, Hanno, was yearning 
for power, 2. — And how the Carthaginians heard, that t!:e 
gieat Alexander had stonned the city Tyre, 3 : 4, 5, 

Chapter VL 

How the people of Sicily and Carthage fought with each other, 
§ 1. — And how the Romans beset Hannibal, king of the Carthagi- 
nians, 2, 3. — And how Collatinus, the consul, went with an ar|Kj^ 
to Camarina a town of Sicily, 4 — And how the CarthaginiSs^ 
fixed again that the aged Hannibal should fight against the Romans 
with ships, 5. — And how the Romans went into Africa with three 
hundred and thuty ships, 6. — And how Regulus, the consul, killed 
an immense serpent, 7. — And how Regulus fought with three Car- 
thaginian kin^s, in one battle, 8, 9. — And how Emilius, the consul, 
went into Africa \nth three hundred ships, 10, 11. — And how 
Cotta, the consul, ravaged Sicily, 12. — How two consuls went 
into Africa with three hundred ships, and how in the time of three 
consuls Asdmbal, the new king, came to Lilybaeum in the island 
[of Sicily,] 13 : 14. — And how Claudius, the consul, went against 
the Carthaginians again, 15. — And how Caius, the consul, went 
into Africa and was cast away in the sea, 16. — And how Lutatius, 
the consul, went into Africa with three hundred ships, 17. 

Chapter VII. 

How the immense fire happened at Rome, § 1. — And how the 
Gauls withstood the Romans, 2. — And how the Sardinians made 

war on the Romans, as the Carthaginians advised them, 3. And 

how Orosius said, that he was come to the good times, of which 
the Romans aftenvards boasted much, 4. — And how the Gauls 
waiTed against the Romans, and the Carthaginians did so, on the 
other side, 5. — And how two consuls fought with the Gauls, 6, 7, 
8. — And how many wonders were seen, 9. — And how Claud'lus 
tl.e consul, slew thirty thousand Gauls, 10. 

Chapter VIIL 
How Hannibal, king of the Carthaginians, beset Seguntimi, a 

CONTENTS. Book IV; Ch. IX— XIII: Book V; Ch. I, II. 23 

city of Spain, § 1. — ^And how Hannibal, king of the Carthaginians, 
broke over the Pjrrenean mountains, 2. — ^And how Scipio, the con- 
sul, fought with the Spaniards, 3. — ^And how, many wonders hap- 
pened at that time, 4. 

Chapter IX. 

How Hannibal deceived two consuls in their battle, § 1. — ^And 
how the Romans appointed a dictator, and Scipio as consul, 2. — 
And how the Romans sent Lucius, the consul, into Gaul, with 
three legions, 3, 4 : 5, 6. 

Chapter X. 

How Marcellus, the consvd, went with a fleet against Sicily, § 1 : 
2 — 6. — And how Hannibal fought against Marcellus the consul, 
^three days, 7. — ^Andhow Hannibal stole upon Marcellus, the con- 
and slew him, 8. — ^And how Asdrubal, Hannibal's brother, 
went from Spain into Italy, 9: 10, 11. — ^And how peace was 
granted to the Carthaginians by Scipio, the consul, 12. 

Chapter XL 

How the second war of the Romans was ended, § 1. — ^And how 
Sempronius, the consul, was slain in Spain, 2 : 3 — 5. — And how 
Philip, king of Macedon, killed an ambassador of the Romans, 
6 : 7. — And how the Macedonian war arose, 8. — And how Emi- 
lius, the consul, overcame Perseus, the king, 9. 

Chapter XIL 

How the greatest fear came upon the Romans, from the Celti- 
berians, a people of Spain, § 1 : 2, 3. 

Chapter XIII. 

How the third war of the Romans, with the king of the Car- 
thaginians, was ended, § 1 — 5. 

Book V : Chapter I. 

How Orosius spoke about the boast of the Romans, how they 
overcame many people ; and how they drove many kings before 
their triumphs towards Rome § I : 2, 3. 

Chapter II. 

How, in one year, the two cities, Carthage and Corinth, 
were destroyed, § 1. — And how Veriatus, the shepherd, began to 
reign in Spain, 2, 3. — And how Claudius, the consul, routed the 


Gauls, 4 : 5 — 7. — ^And how Mancinus, tbe consul, concluded a 
peace with Spain, 8. — ^And how Brutus, the consul, slew sixty 
thousand Spaniards, 9. — ^And how a child was bom in Home, 10. 

Chapter III. 

How the Romans sent Scipio into Spain, with their militaiy 
force, § 1 — 3. — ^And how Gracchus, the consul, contended with 
the other consuls till they slew him, 4. — And how the slaves con- 
tended with thdr masters, 5. 

Chapter IV. 

How Lucinius, the consul, who was also chief priest of the 
Romans, went with an army against Aristonicus the king, § 1. — 
And how Antiochus, king of Asia, wished for the severeignty of 
the Parthians, 2. — And how Scipio, the best officer of the Romans, 
complained of his hardships to the Roman senators, 3. — ^And how 
the ure of Etna ascended, 4 : 5. 

Chapter V. 

How the Romans afterwards ordered Carthage to be rebuilt, 
§ 1. — ^And how the consul Metellus subdued the pirates, 2. 

Chapter VI. 

How Fabius, the consul, overcame Bituitus, king of the 
Gauls, § 1. 

Chapter VII. 

How the Romans contended with Jugurtha, king of the Numi- 
dians, § 1, 2. 

Chapter VIII. 

How the Romans fought with the Cimbri, and with the Teu- 
tones, and wth the Ambrones, § 1. 

Chapter IX. 

How the Romans began to raise contention (civil war) among 
thomsolvos, in the fifth year, that Marius was consul, § 1, 2. 

Chapter X. 

How there was deliberate war, over all Italy, in the sixth year 
tluit Julius Cttjsar was consul, § 1 : 2 — 4. 

CONTENTS. Book V; Ca. XI— XV: Book VI; Ch- I— VI. 25 

Chapter XI. 

How the Romans sent Sylla^ the consul^ against Mithridates, 
king of the Parthians, § 1 : 2—4. 

Chapter XII. 

How the Romans gave seven legions to Julius^ the consul, 
§ 1 — 3. — ^And how Julius beset Torquatus Pompe)r'8 general, 
in a fortress, 4, 5, — ^And how Julius fought with Ptolemy three 
times, 6 — ^9. 

Chapter XIII. 

How Octavianus seized upon the empire of the Romans, 
against their wish, § 1 : 2, 3. 

Chapter XIV. 
How Octavianus Caesar shut the door of Janus, § 1 — 4. 

Chapter XV. 

How some Spaniards were adversaries to Augustus, § 1 : 
2, 3 : 4, 5. 

Book VI: Chapter I. 

How Orosius spoke about the powers of the foxu* chief empires 
of this world, § 1 — 7. 

Chapter II. 

How Tiberius Caesar succeeded to the empire of the Romans, 
after Augustus, § 1 — 3. 

Chapter III. 

How Caius was emperor four years, § 1 — 4. 

Chapter IV. 

How Tiberius Claudius succeeded to the empire of the Ro- 
mans, § 1 — 4. 

Chapter V. 

How Nero succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter VI. 

How Galba the emperor succeeded to the government of the 
Romans, § 1, 2. 


Chapter VII. 
How Vespasian succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter VIIL 
How Titus succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter IX. 

How Domitian, brother of Titus, succeeded to the empire of 
the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter X. 

How Nerva succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1 — 3. 

Chapter XL 
How Adrian succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1, 2. 

Chapter XII. 
How Antoninus Pius succeeded to the empire of the Romans, 


Chapter XIII. 

How Marcus Antoninus succeeded to the empire of the Ro- 
mans, with his brother Aurelius, § 1 — 3. 

Chapter XIV. 
How Lucius succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § L 

Chapter XV. 
How Severus succeeded to the empire of the Romans, §1,2. 

Chapter XVL 
How his son Antoninus succeeded to the government, § 1. 

Chapter XVIL 
How Marcus succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XVIII. 
How Aurelius succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XIX. 
How Maximinus succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XX. 

How Gordianus succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § I. 


Chapter XXL 
How Philip succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans^ § 1. 

Chapter XXIL 
How Decius succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans^ § 1. 

Chapter XXHL 
How Gallus succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, § 1, 2. 

Chapter XXIV. 
How the Romans appointed two emperors, § 1, 2. 

Chapter XXV. 
How Claudius succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XXVI. 
How Aurelius succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XXVIL 
How Tacitus succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XXVIII. 
How Probus succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XXIX. 
How Cams succeeded ro the sovereignty of the Romans, § 1. 

Chapter XXX. 

How Diocletian succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, 

Chapter XXXI. 

How Constantine succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, 
with his two brothers, § 1 — 3. 

Chapter XXXII. 
How Jovinianus succeeded to the empire of the Romans. §1,2. 

Chapter XXXIII. 

How Valentinianus succeeded to the sovereignty of the Ro- 
mans, § 1 — 3. 

Chapter XXXIV. 

How Valens succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, 
§ 1—4. 


Chapter XXXV. 

How Gratianus succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans, 
§ !• — ^•^nd how the Britons took Maximianus for their emperor 
against his will, § 2. 

Chapter XXXVI. 

How Theodosins succeeded to the empire of the Romans, § 1. 
— ^And how Valentinian afterwards succeeded to the sovereignty, 2. 

Chapter XXXVII. 

How Arcadius succeeded to the sovereignty of the Romans 
[in the East,] and Honorius to the sovereignty of the West, § 1—3. 

Chapter XXXVIII. 
How God exercised his mercy on the Romans, §1,2. 




Book I, Chapter L* 

1. Our elders, said Orosius, divided into three parts, all the 
globe of tliis mid-earth, as it is surrounded by the ocean, which 
we call Garsecg * ; and they named the three parts by three 
names, — ^Asia, and Europe, and Africa : though some said there 
were but two parts, one Asia and the other Europe. 

2. Asia is encompassed by the ocean — the gai-secg — on the 
south, north and east ; and so, on the east part, contains one half 
of this mid-earth. Then on the north part of Asia, on the right 
hand ', in the river Don, there the boundaries of Asia and Europe 

1 Alfred omits the dedication of Orosius to S. Augustine, and the first chapter, on. the 
origin of history and of misery from Adam [initiuni miseriae hominum. Haver, p. 6—10.] 
Tlie royal translator commences with, 1. I, c. 2, of Orosius ;^-Majores nostri orbem todua 
terree, oceani limbo circumseptum, triquadrum statuere. Havercamp's edition, Leyden 
4to 1767; p. 10: v. Introduction, p. 10, note 1. 

2 Grimm, Kemble, etc. write g&r-secg, literally a spear-man, the ocean ; homo jaculo 
armatus, oceanus. — Mr Kemble adds, '* it is a name for the ocean, which is probably deriv- 
ed from Eome ancient myth, and is now quite unintelligible." — Ettmiiller gives the word, 
thus : — G&rsecg, es ; m. Carex jaculorum ; vel, vir hastatus, i. e. oceanus. 

Mr Hampson suggests, that the myth of an armed man, — a spear-man, — ^being employed 
by the Anglo-Saxons, as a term to denote the Ocean, has some analogy to the personiHcation 
of Neptune holding his trident He then adds : " Spears were placed in the hands of the 
images of heathen gods, as mentioned by Justin. — Per ea adhuc tempora reges hastas pro 
diademate habebant, quas Graeci aceptra dixere. Nam et ah origine rerum, pro diis immor- 
talibus veteres hastas coluere; ob cujus religionis memoriam adhuc deorum simulacris 
bastae adduntur. 1. xliii : c. in. 

3 In tracing the frontier of Asia from north to south, the Don is on the right hand. 


30 OROSIUS; Book I : Cbap. I, § 3. 

lie together ; and, from the same river Don, south along the 
Mediterranean Sea, towards the west of the city Alexandria, Asia 
and Africa lie together. 

3. Europe begins, as I said before, at the river Don,* which 
runs from the north part of the Rhipsean * mountains, which are 
near the ocean, called Sarmatian. • The river Don runs thence 
right south, on the west side of Alexander's altars to the nation of 
the Roxolani. • It forms the fen which is called Maeotis, [Sea of 
Azov] ; and then runs forth, with a great flood, near the city 
called Theodosia [Kaffa], flowing eastward into the Black Sea ; 
and then, in a long strait, south easterly, where the Greek city 
Constantinople lies, and thence out into the Mediterranean Sea, — 
The south-west boundary of Europe is the ocean, on the west of 
Spain, and chiefly at the island Cadiz, where the Mediterranean 
Sea shoots up from the ocean ; where also, the pillars of Hercules 
stand. On the west end of the same Mediterranean Sea is Scotland 
[Ireland]. ' 

4 Oros. 1. 1 : c. 1, p. 11. — ^The river Tanais or Don, which Alfred calls Danai, was 
supposed by ancient geographers, as stated by Orosius, and repeated by Alfred, to have its 
source in the northern parts of the Rhipsan mountains, [ra Piircua Sprj, and PhraL] 
It is difficult to ascertain the precise locality of these mountains, as ancient writers give 
a diversity of opinions : Arrowsmith places them in Lat. 52 degrees 45 minutes, E. Long. 
37 d.grees. It is now known, that the Don has its source in the small lake Ivanofskoe, in 
the government of Toula, Russia, about 54 degrees N. Lat. and 37 degrees £. Long. 

5 Sarmatico oceano, in Orosius ; Alfred calls it, Sarmondisc garsecg. — Forster says 
— " It is pretty clear, that the Sarmondi must be the Sauromatse or Sarniatse." They 
dwelt in the northern part of Europe, and were supposed to extend to the northern ocean. 
Alfred follows Orosius, who gives the vulgar and erroneous opinion of his time. Tlie 
Seniiende are mentioned in Book I, ch. I, § 12, note 25. 

Roxolani, a people of European Sarmatia. They dwelt north of the sea of Azov, in 
a part of the country now inhabited by the Don Cossacks. 

7 This last sentence is an addition by Alfred. In early time^, Ireland was called 
Scotland. In paragraph 28, Alfred says, " Ireland, we call Scotland." — Ireland was 
exclusively called Scotia or Scotland, from the fifth to the tenth or eleventh centurj*. The 
first we hear of the Scoti or Scots, is as a people inhabiting Ireland. In the fifth century, 
they contended with the Hibemi, the earlier inhabitants, and soon gained supreme power, 
and gave their name to the coimtry. About A. D. 503, a colony of these Scoti, having 
given their name to Ireland, emigrated to North Britain, gained influence there, and also 
imposed their name on that country. Skene's Highlands of Scotland, 2 vol. 8vo, 1837. 
But Ireland is north of Spain. Ancient geographers placed Ireland much more to the 
soulh, and Alfred, being guided by them, speaks of it, as being on the west of Spain. 
Orosius erroneously says — Hibernia insula, inter Britanuiam et Hispaniam sita. Haver, p. 
28. — Correct information was not supplied, till after the time of Alfred. Though, in most 
cases, he was in advance of his age, yet in regard to the position of Ireland, he appears to 
have fallen into the error of the time. 


4. The division between Africa and Asia begins at Alexandria, 
a city of Egypt ; and the boundary lies thence south, by the river 
Nile, and so over the desert of Ethiopia to the southern ocean. 
The north west limit of Africa is the Mediterranean Sea, which 
shoots from the ocean, where the pillars of Hercules stand ; and 
its end, right west, is the mountain, which is named Atlas, and the 
island called Canary. • 

5. I have already spoken shortly about the three parts of this 
mid-earth ; but I will now, as I promised before, tell the bounda- 
ries of these three regions, how they are separated by water. 

6. Over against the middle of Asia, at the east end, there the 
mouth of the river, called Ganges, opens into the ocean, which 
they call the Indian ocean. South from the river^s mouth, by the 
ocean, is the port they call Calymere." To the south-east of the 
port is the island of Ceylon ; and then to the north of the mouth 
of the Ganges, where mount Caucasus ends, near the ocean, there 
is the port Samera." To the north of the port is the mouth of 
the river, named Ottorogorre." They call the ocean Chinese. 

7. These are the boundaries of India, where mount Caucasus 
is on the north, and the river Indus on the west, and the Red 
Sea" on the south, and the ocean on the east. In the district 

8 C t>8ius says, Insulae quas Fortunatas vocant ; Haver, p. 12. But Alfred only names 
one island. 

9 Orosius has Caligardamna ; and Alfred Caligardamana, [about N. Lat 10 degrees, 
15 minutes, E. Long. 79 degrees, 50 minutes]. Asia ad mediam frontem orientis habet in 
oceano Eoo ostia fluminis Gangis, a sinistra promontorium Caligardamna, cui subjacet ad 
Eurum insula Taprobane : e qua oceanus Indicus vocari incipit, a dextra habet Imai mon- 
ies, ubi Caucasus deficit, promontorium Samaram [See § 10, note 17] : cui ad aquilonem 
subjacent ostia fluminis Octorooorrje : ex quo oceanus Sericus [pro Sericus vulgari 
errore Syricus quidam cdidit. Haver, p. 13, note 33] appellatur. L. I: c. ii. Haver, p. 
12, 13: 21. 

10 The modem names of places are given in the translation, except where the old name 
is almost as familiar as the modem designation. When the position, or present name can- 
not be discovered, there is no alternative, but to retain the word used in the Anglo-Saxon 
text, and to add the various readings in the notes. Thus Alfred has Samera, and Orosius, 
Samara, Somora, Samarae and Samarata. See § 6 note 9; also § 10 note •! 7. — Sometimes, 
however, the modem names are put in brackets immediately after the ancient name, as in 
§ 3, Msotis [Sea of Azov]. 

11 The Ottorocorrae were in the N. E. of Tibet, about N. Lat 34 degrees 20 minutes — 
£. Long. 99 degrees ; and, according to Arrowsmith and Guverius, the river Ottorocorre 
was in the same locality. See § 6 note 9 , also, § 10, note 17. 

12 The Red Sea, in ancient geography, comprehended not only the present Red Sea, but 
what we now call the Persian gulph, and the Arabian Sea: thus, the Tigris, as well as the 
Indus, are said to mn into the Red Sea, and the whole country between the Indus and tba 
Tigris, is described as having the Red Sea for its southern boundary. 

32 OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. I, § 7, 8. 

of India are forty four nations ; and, besides many other 
inhabited islands, the island of Ceylon, which has in it 
ten towns. The river Indus lies to the west of the district : 
between the river Indus, and that which lies to the west of it, 
called Tigris, both of which flow south into the Red Sea, — ^between 
these two rivers, — ^are these countries, Arachosia, [Candahor,] 
and Parthia and Assyria, and Persia, and Media ; " though writers 
often name all these countries Media or Assyria ; and they are very 
mountainous, and there are very sharp and stony ways. The 
northern boundaries of these countries are the Caucasian moun- 
tains ; and on the south side, the Red Sea. In these countries 
are two gireat rivers, Hydaspes [Jhylum], and Arabis [Pooralee]. 
In this dictrict are thirty two nations : now it is all called Parthia. 

8. Then west from the river Tigris to the river Euphrates, — 
between the rivers, — are these countries. Babylonia and Chaldea, 
and Mesopotamia. Within these countries are twenty eight 
nations. Their northern boundaries are the mountains Tavuiis, 
and Caucasus, and their southern boundaries he to the Red Sea. 
Along the Red Sea, — ^the part that shoots to the north, — ^hes 
the country of Arabia and Saba [Saade], and Eudomane.** From 
the river Euphrates, west to the Mediterranean and north almost 
to the mountains, which are called Taurus, to the country which 
they call Armenia, and &gain south to Egypt, — there are many 
nations in these districts ; that is, Comagena, and Phoenicia, and 
Damascus, and Coelle, and Moab, and Ammon, and Idumea, and 
Judea, and Palestine, and Saracene ; though it is all called Syria, 
Then to the north of Syria are the mountains, called Taurus ; and 
to the north of the mountains, are the countries of Cappadocia, 
and Armenia. Armenia is to the east of Cappadocia. To the 
west of Cappadocia is the country called Asia the Less. To the 
north of Cappadocia, is the plain of Themiscyra." Then, between 
Cappadocia and Asia the Less, is the country of Cilicia and Isauria. 

13 This involved sentence is very much shorter and clearer in Orosius. — ''A flumine 
Indo, quod est ab oriente, usque ad flumen Tigrim, quod est ad occasum, regiones sunt 
istse. — Aracosia, Parthia, Assyria, Persis, et Media. Haver, p. 14. — Arachosia is, S. £ of 
Cabul, about N. Lat 30 degrees 45 minutes, E. Long. 65 degrees 30 minutes. Arrowsmith. — 
Arachosise, nunc Candahor, populi Margyets qui ante Arimaspi, postea Euergetas dicti, 
Sydri, Roplutae, Eorts. Urbes Arachotus, Alexandria, quae ad Arachotum ponitur fluvium. 
Cluverii Introduct. Geog. Amstel. 4to 1729. 1. V : c. XIII : § IV, p. 550. 

14 Orosius has " Arabia Eudaemon.*' Haver, p. 14. 

15 Themiscyra, in the north west of Pontus [Roum] in Asia Minor : about N. Lat. 41 
degrees : E. Long. 36 degrees 56 minutes. Arrowsmith. 


This Asia is, on every side, surrounded with salt water, except on 
the east On the north side is the Black Sea ; and, on the west, 
the Sea of Marmora, and the Dardanelles ; and the Mediterra- 
nean Sea, on the south. In the same Asia, the highest mountain 
is Oljnmpus. 

9. To the north of the nearer Egypt is the country of Palestine, 
and to the east of it, the district of the Saracens, and to the west 
the country of Libya, and to the south the mountain called Cli- 
max. — ^The spring of the river Nile is near the cliff of the Red 
Sea ; though some say that its spring is in the west end of Africa, 
near the mountain Atlas ; and then soon running on sand to the 
east, it sinks into the sand. Nigh there, it flows up again, from 
the sand, and there forms a great sea. Where it first springs up, 
the men of the country call it Nuchul, and some Dara. Then, 
from the sea, where it shoots up from the sand, it runs easterly 
through the desert of Ethiopia, and there it is called Ion, as 
far as the east part; and there it becomes a great sea. It 
then sinks again into the earth ; and, north of that, afterwards 
springs up, near the cliff by the Red Sea, which I formerly men- 
tioned. Then, from this source, the water is called the river Nile. 
Running thence onward to the west it separates into two, about 
an island which is called Meroe ; and thence bending northward, 
flows out into the Mediterranean Sea. In the winter time, the 
river at the mouth is so driven back by the northern winds, that 
it flows over all the land of Egypt ; and by this flooding very 
thick crops are produced in the land of Egypt. — The farther 
Egypt lies east along the Red Sea, on the south side. On the east 
and south parts of the country, lies the ocean ; and, on its west 
side, is the nearer Egypt. In the two Egypts are twenty four 

10. We have already written about the south part of Asia : 
now we will take the north part of it ; that is fi-om the mountains 
called Caucasus, of which we have before spoken, and which are to 
the north of India. They begin fii-st on the east from the ocean, 
and then lie right west to the mountains of Armenia, which the 
people of the country call Parachoathras*'. There, from the south 
of these mountains, springs the river Euphrates ; and, from the 

16 Parachoatbras, Arrowsmitb. Alfred writes it Parcoadras. Orosius describes it as, 
" mons ArmenisB bter Taurum et Caucasum." Haver, p. 19. 

34 , OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. I, § 10, 11. 

mountains called Parachoathras, extend the mountains of Taurus 
right west, to the country of the Cilicians. Then " to the north 
of the mountains, along the ocean to the north-east of this mid- 
earth, there the river Bore shoots out into the ocean ; and thence 
westerly along the ocean to the Caspian Sea, which there shoots 
up to the mountains of Caucasus. That district they call -Old 
Scythia, and Hyrcania. In this district are forty three nations 
widely settled, because of the barrenness of the country. Then, 
from the west of the Caspian Sea unto the river Don, and to the 
fen called Maeotis, [Sea of Azov] ; and then south to the Medi- 
terranean Sea, and to Moxmt Taurus ; and north to the ocean is 
all the country of Scjthia witliin; though it is separated into 
thirty two nations. But the countries, that are near, on the east 
side of the Don, are named Albani in Latin ; and we now call 
them Liobene. — We have thus spoken shortly about the boun- 
daries of Asia. 

11. Now we \\all speak, as much as we know, about the boun- 
daries of Europe. — From the river Don, westward to the river 
Rhine, (which springs from the Alps, and then runs right north 
into the arm of the ocean, that lies around the country called 
Britain ;) — ajid again south to the river Danube, (whose spring is 
near the river Rhine, and which afterwards runs east, by the 
country north of Greece, into the Mediterranean ' Sea ;) — and 

1 7 This is a description of the north and east of Asia , or rather, as Orosius states, " ab 
oricnte ad septentrionem." Alfred has so much abridged this description, and included so 
large a space, in few words, that it is not easy, from the A. S. text alone, to ascertain the 
locality of the places, which he mentions. The original Latin of Orosius [from p. 19 to 22 
of Haver.] is more full and satisfactory : from the text and the following extract, it will be 
seen, that the river Bore was supposed to be near the promontory of the same name, on the 
north or north-east coast of Asia. Its name alone would indicate this position, it being in 
Latin Doreus, and in Greek /36p€io^ northern. A short extract from Orosius will make 
all plain. — A fonte fluminis Gangis usque ad fontes fluntinis Ottorogorr£ [see § 6, note 
11] qui sunt a Septentrione, ubi sunt montani Paropamisadse, mons Taurus: a fontibus 
Ottorogorrx usque ad civitatem OrTORoooRRAy, inter Hunnos et Scythas et G&ndaridas, 
mons Caucasus. Ultimus autem inter Eoas et Pasiadras, mons Imaus, ubi flumen Chrtsor- 
RHOAs, et promontorium Samara oriental! excipiuntur oceano. Igitur a monte Imao, hoc 
CFt, ab imo Caucaso, et dextra orientis parte, qua oceanus Sericus tenditur, usque ad pro- 
montorium Boreum, et flumen Boreum, inde tenua Scythico mari, quod est a septentrione, 
usque ad mare Caspium, quod est ab occasu, et usque ad extentum Caucasi jugum, quod est 
ad meridiem, Hyrcanorum et Scythurum gentes sunt quadraginta dus, propter terrarum 
infoDcundam diffusionem late oberrantes. 1. I ; c. IL Haver, p. 21, 22. 

I Into what is now called the Black Sea, which Alfred considered a part of the 
Mediterranean. Snorre calls it a gulf of the Mediterranean, in the first chapter of his 
Heimskringla. In other places, Alfred mentions the Black Sea, under the name Eiudnua. 
Hask's Afhandlinger, Kobenhavn, iS34. vol. I. p. 332, note c 


north * to the oceafi, zahich is called the White Sea * : within these 
are many nations ; but they call it all, Germania. * 

12. Then to the north, from the spring of the Danube, and to 
the east of the Rhine are the East Franks * ; and to the south of 
them are the Suabians, on the other side of the river Danube. To 
the south and to the east are the Bavarians, * that part which is 
called Ratisbon. ' Right to the east of them are the Bohemians ; 
and north-east are the Thuringians. To the north of them are the 
Old Saxons, ■ and to the north-west of them are the Friesians. To 
the west of the Old Saxons is the mouth of the river Elbe and 
Friesland. From thence, north-west is the countiy called Anglen,* 
and Zealand '• and some part of Denmark. To the north are the 

2 From this place to the end of § 23, Alfred leaves Orosius, and gives the hest inform- 
ation that he could collect. It is the king's own account of Europe in his time. It is not 
only interesting, as the composition of Alfred, hut invaluahle, as an historical document, 
heiug the only autlientic record of the Germanic nations, written hy a contemporar}', so 
early as the ninth century. 

3 Tlie Cwen-sa?' of Alfred. Tlie plain detail, which Ohthere gave to king Alfred, [§ 13] 
can scarcely he read hy any unprejudiced person, without coming to the conclusion, that 
Ohthere sailed from Halgoland, on the coast of Norway, into the White Sea. See § 13, and 
note 39. The Germania of Alfred, therefore, extended from the Don ,on the east, to the 
Rhine and the German ocean on the west ; and from the Danuhe on the south, to the W- liite 
Sea on the north. 

4 Alfred's Germania embraced nearly the whole of Europe north of the Rhine and the 
Danuhe. Its great extent will he seen by the countries mentioned, in the notes from 5 to 
39, and in the text. See also the end of note 3, and Cluveuii Introductionis in universam 
Geographmm, Libri VI, Amstelaedami 4to 1729. Lib. Ill, Cap. 1. De veteri Ger::ania, 
p. 183 — 180, and the map of Europe, p. 72. — Also the verj' learned work — Cluverii 
Germania antiqua. Lugd. Batavorum. Elzevir. Fol. lG16:Lib. I: cap. XI. De magni- 
TUDiNE Gcrmanix ANTIQU.C, p. 94 — 98, and the map, p. 3. — Also Cellarii Geographia 
Antiqua. Cantab. 4to 1703.p. 309— 313.-— Warnefried's Hist. Longob. I. I : c. I. 

5 The locality of the East-Franks is not given with great precision : it probably varied 
8t different periods. Alfred speaks here indefinitely of their dwelling east of the Rhine, 
and north of the source of the Danube. They were called East-Franks to distinguish them 
from the Franks in the west, inhabiting Gaul. 

6 A. S. Ba;g*5ware the Bavarians. 

7 Regnesburh the district as well as the city of Ratisbon, on the Danube — Beme the 

8 A. S. Eald-Se&xe, and Eald-Seaxan The Old Saxons, inhabiting the country between 
the Eyderand the Weaer, the parent stock of the Anglo or English-Saxons, and therefore 
of great importance in the mind of Alfred ; for he speaks of other countries, as they are 
located in regard to the Old Saxons. They were a very warlike and powerful people, 
who once occupied the whole north-west comer of Germany. 

9 Anglen, the country between Flensburg and the Schley, whence the Angles came to 
Britain. Thorpe's An, 

10 In A. S. Sillende Zealand, or Seeland, in Danish Sjal^and, the largest island in the 
Danish monarchy, on the eastern shores of which Copenhagen is built. 

S6 OROSIUS ; Book I : Chap. I, § 12. 

Afdrede, " and north-east the Wylte, " who are called Haefeldan. 
To the east of them is the country of the Wends ", who are called 
Sysyfe ; " and south-east, at some distance, the Moravians." These 
Moramns have, to the west of them, the Thuringians, and Bohem- 
ians, and part of the Bavarians. To the south of them, on the other 
side of the river Danube, is the country, Carinthia, '• [lying] south 
to the mountains, called the Alps. To the same mountains 
extend the boundaries of the Bavarians, and of the Suabians; 
and then, to the east of the country Carinthia, beyond the desert, 
is the country of the Bulgarians ; " and, to the east of them, the 

11 The Laud MS. always has Afdrede [p. 12, 1. 23 1 : 13, lie, 14g] Cotton has Afdrede 
in fol. Oa, 1. 21g : Afdrsdc, fol. 9a, 25d; and Apdrede, in fol. 8b. 24g. Alfred's Afdrede, 
were the Obotriti or Obotritie, a Slavonic tribe, who, in the 9th centur}*, dwelt north of the 
Old-Saxons, and occupied the western, and the greater part of what is now the Duchy of 
Mecklenburg. Hampson, Notes and Qrs. No. 17, p. 257. Thorpe's An. Glos. 

12 Tae Wylte, or Wilte, were a Slavonic race, that occupied the eastern part of 
Mecklenburg, and the Mark of Brandenburg. Eiginhard says, *' They are Slavonians who, 
in our manner, are called Wilsi, but in their own language, Welatibi." [Vit. Kail Magm. 
and Aknal. Frakcok. ann. 822.] The name, as Eiginhard has noticed, is Slavonic, and 
is an adoption of welot or weolot a giant, to denote the strength and fierceness which made 
them formidable neighbours. Hampson. — Why the Wilti were sometimes called Heveldi 
[Alfred's Hrcfeldan, Laud. p. 12, 1. 24g : ae'feldan C. C. fol. Sb, 25c] will appear from their 
location, as pointed out by Ubbo Emmius : '* Wilsos, Henetoruro gentem, ad Havelam trans 
Albiui Fcdes habentem." [Rer. Fris. Hist. I. IV, p. 67] Schaffarik remarks ; " Die 
Sloderaner und Havolaner waren ein und deselbe, nur durch zwei namen imterscheidener 
icweig des Weleten stammes." Albinus says: " Es sein aber die richtcn Wilzek Wender 
soiidcrlich an der Havel ^onhaft.'* They were frequently designated by name of 
LuTirif as appears from Adam of Bremen, Helmold, and others. The Slavonic word liuti 
signified wild, fiehce. etc. Being a wild and contentious people, they fig\ire in some of 
the old Russian sagos, much as the Jutes do in those of Scandina\da. It is remarkable 
that the names of both should have signified giants or monsters. Notker, in his Teutonic 
paraphrase of Mai-tianus Capella, speaking uf other Anthropophagi, relates that the Wilti 
were not ashamed to say, that they had more right to eat their parents than the worms. 
S. W. Singer. Notes and Qrs. No 20, p. 313. 

13 In. A. S. Wineda land, Weonod-land, W^inod-land, c. Wintda lond, l. The 
country of the Venedi or Wends, wliich at one time comprehended the whole of the south 
coast of the Baltic, from the mouth of the Vistula to the Schley. — The Greeks called the 
Slavonians Ep€TOL ; the Romans, Venetae, Veneti, Vineti, Venedi : and the Germans, 
AVendcn, Winden. R. T. Hampson. 

14 Sysyle, v. note 23. 

15 A. S. Maroaro, the Slavi Maharenses or Moravians, from the river Mams or 
M.iharus, which runs through their country, and into the Danube a little below Vienna. 

16 A. S. J^aet land Carendre. The present Duchy of Cakintuia, perhaps formerly 
inhabited by Slavi Carenthani, or Carentani. Forster. 

17 In A. S. Pulgara land, the coimtry of the Bulgarians, comprehended the present 
Moldana, and Bulgaria, on both sides the Danube. Bulgaria was south of Dacia. Eigin- 
hard says an embassy came in A. D. 824 to Charlemagne from the Abotritse, " qui vulgo 
Prr3deneccnti vocantur, et contermini Bulgaris Daciam Danubio adjacentem incolunt. 
InDk III, ch. 7, § 2, Alfred adds Iliricos, ]>% we Pulgare hata^^, Illyrians whom ve call 

7ii:ttmdtt oT/wt of'StA^ Alfiedi Mflf.Jiuem' uffs/im, ^^OrasiilS, .fitAMv/nm. Ifu 
ZaudtrdaleJiftaueser^.. e/Upnftrty ,rrJ,</m,Ji-UenutJu /ijf ^^fP ^^ffdminffkam^M/ll, 
Siufia,, aiuLlWfuvtcn, CuHs, (AesAirt, - iyuuunf %» J2. line S, \fUM^« (^afA>f 

'/:'.■■.'■• efEuA>pe. Aft- Jg. 

(v.y y^ dbyinnya-iiCir^yi)^ cfy<^'hCcfjvc^Jfm<m tilfxj 
ttcc; -1 iTirtdJ'cm TIP- mmy ivrVcs- on y<Sf c«Hvrf^r^ v^-^vm 
^yceaioTip vwrn r^\^ y^OTtlfj^n^ccui'iiXf'licebxir i^pcr- 
«}• p^ionuct ftt,-ea {"Ave- <^i?lme-t"jfn€^ -pmSj" o^ji^-yi^ 

'C^^ape j^b<sl,'[?€hrw»n pSs*"^ ^«T^ i'^^: -t pr litre- be iJaf^rr 

irft -] pUCn^e' -j yum ne^cdbene"] t>&io7v]>nn Iji-miy cf^ jvx^ 
e- 1 fafb T»oTi]> i^iW-'tftnoTt liof trftldcvn l»tect: -] 1,^ mjWn fir 

^V mtqao ati'rti 1 hie md-Tio oijia. httl>t<w 'b^^fcan1r^^m ]?/• - 
4Ti^i^j* *| bif-li0m*v|'ibfc7fi}xe-Keal|ie- itCrufttT) liim cmol*^ 

^<£puo['^f^£lxi'y<rnri» tepafjwi Ca|v6n&T^n lonb^Ve- 



'j^aWiV -|1>frur]i[>an mce^l'A.lo'nV- y-eyj-TTiftiie- p{»f«v'bft>Tvyty' 

Ki-m l^pTJ^- ilctwi rf^ ^ev[vm j»07)pt> "hcetr ore rw- n l;?- edfecm 
him irmtJoTi (rpcj ]»iilft>^?- •la.'p-p^be- V^w.)'fl''n ptt] WV1?<^ 
h^oyi^qx) hi-mjone-ilca-n -rc^ eci:ivm *t Y^ve-'buy •] Wivrfti 
Mn '^hty^i}<vnh^'myvn^oT^ hofjcelbon • t^wp^^on VittbW 

l?fi)rM|?art Him lyon^]^ ert|i'Tn pjtj n Veeajbon "him Y^irnfii' 

I'an ktmp-nbon -ix.p^eprrm^-j'be'T'tycaT) vov^m^n * 
ohrliepe- |*(?be-Ii7|- Iila-jioti^be- 0Elji|ie^f-ermT7re-|Ttftj1ie' ealji 

ony^m tanbe -noiij) peaixOiT -yij^J^a -p^ rcQr • hfyc^e- 
y^a'eiyac lanb pe- fjn]?etanc ncnij' ]?<?Tian • dcHit: i-p fat 
-pt)rce- tuco-n on |:ea^ ^-pnm p(xx,e mcelu' -piciaSf pri 
nai* orthurrcd^e- cmpiTrcrui -lOTrptJTnOrwt o-n t^iYCof * 

y:tMiDiciT> Tnjta-n2.e"[^cetr IttTj'b -no pi? -py-lTcetc&e- o>b«- 



."h<£c\\t^&{^xx^ "^^jTcttn yiTi^q^ "jHi^cn noplrt^ri Tmwi 
•^cftn f>ca?linb "bea^ prefix vy^ Ttr^rce- • o'\\vy2D rS-1n on 

^atcfi^l^cgri/ cui mtci ©a up In o-n'j'etfcrUi-n'^ • Vnaiibonln?- 

«iv ti^W'O -pOTVUTi f^^ ; ico^iSm ^cSd Vdx^ ycSf ccxtl 
Te47U'n o.noyxierhiid/f^ydd(i:e-eax' ' riftnfidcg-be-oefu-ri^ 

curntvn • d.c^a<|vq/xftvp."r>T)atar)"b y^eaifVfzerhu 

-pela-JfjeHa "him yt^on Vtt/b^tvrvnm]" ^fijVQi ^etj-pTii^iX' 
tVZ."T7UTn Itinbe' xccrp|?<fiT)UiribM 'jf^ermlj'hie- uT^njddsicv 

con Tiecih ttn Zj&]'6»>be • fln,]7oy-cr h^fcri^^ibB^ xp eixca 


country of the Greeks.'' To the east of the country Moravia, is 
the country of the** Wisle, and to the east of them are the Dacians, 
who were formerly Goths. To the north-east of the Moravians 
are the Dalamensan," and to the east of the Dalamensan are the 
Horithi," and to the east of the Dalamensan are the Surpe," and to 
the west of them are the Sysele." To the north of the Horiti is 
Maegtha-land," and north of Maegtha-land are the Sermende" even 
to the Rhipaean mountains. — To" the west of the South-Danes 

IS.Creca land, the Byzantine empire and not ancient Greece, whicli is mentioned in a 
subsequent paragraph. 

19 Wisle is the river Vistula. Wisleland is the country about the source of the Vistula, 
a part of Poland called Little Poland. 

20 Dalamensan, Dalamensas, a Slavonic race, ivho dwelt in Misnia, on both sides of 
the Elbe. 

21 Horithi, Horiti, C. — Horigti, L. A Slavonic race, placed by Alfred to the east of the 
Slavi Dalamenti, who occupied the district north-east of Moravia with the Surpe, Serbi, or 
Servi, on their north, and the Sysele, Siculi, another Slavonic race, on the west See note 
23. R. T. Hampson, Notes and Qrs, No 17, p. 258.— S. W. Singer says,— The Horiti of 
Alfred are undoubtedly the Croati, or Crowati of Pomerania, who still pronounce their name 
Horuati, the h supplying the place of ch. Nor does it seem imreasonable to presume that 
the Harudes of Caesar (De Bel. Gall. I, 31, 37, 51) were also Croats; for they must have 
been a numerous and widely spread race. They are also called Charudes, *ApovO€^. 
The following passage from the Annales Fuldenses, A. 852, will strengthen this supposition; — 
*' Inde transiens per Angros, Harudos, Suabos, et Hosingos • . • Thuringiam ingreditur." 
Notes and Qrs, No 20, p. 314. 

22 Surpe, Surfe, Sorabi, or Soravi, Sorbi, or Servi, Serbi, or Servi, a Slavonic race inhabit- 
ing Lusatia. Misnia, part of Brandenburg, and Silesia. Forster. 

23 Are the Sysele, Sysyle, the Szeklers, or Siculi ? A part of the Hungarians is called 
Szekler, pronounced Sekler. In the work, known as that of the Notary of king Bela, we 
have: — "Siculi, qui primo erant populi Attilee regis,'* Not c. 50. Also — *'Tria milli* 
yirorum, eadem de natione (Hunnorum) . . . metucntes ad Erdewelwe confinia 
videlicet Pannonicae regiouis se transtulere, et non Hunos sive Hungaros, sed ne illorum 
agnoscerentur esse rendui, Siculos, ipsorum autem vocabulo Zekel, se denominasse perhi- 
bentur.. Hi Siculi Hunorum prima f route in Pannoniam Intrantium etiam hac nostra 
tempestat«s residui esse dubitantur per neminem, quum in jpsorum generatione, extraneo 
nondum permixta sanguine et in moribus severiores et in divisione agri csteris Hungaris 
multum differre videantur." Thwrocz, ap. Schwandtn. p. 78. Dr Latham's Germ, ot 
T&nitus, Epileg. ciii. — Porthan says, the Sysyle dwelt in the South-eastern part of Newmark. 
See Porthan's Swedish Trans, and notes. Also, Rask's Danish Trans, p. 344, note a. 

24 MoegSa-land is north of the Horithi, and perhaps a part of Great Poland, and East 
Prussia, or the Polish province of Mazovia. An. 

25 Sermende a people to the north of Msgtha-land, and to the east of thei3urguudian8, 
inhabiting the modem Livonia, Esthonia and part of Lithuania. 

26 Alfred, having described the continent north of the Danube, goes to the islands and 
countries of the East-Sea or Baltic, including the Cattegat, first coming to Denmark. 
Porthan remarks, that the king seems to turn the north a little to the east, and to speak of 
North and South Denmark, as separated by the East-Sea or Baltic, for Alfred expressly 
says, the North-Danes are *' on the continent and on the islands," that is in the province of 
Halls nd, and of Skaney or Schonen, on the continent, the present South west of Sweden, 
and on the islands Zealand, Moen, Falster, and Laland. * To the South-Danes he asngns 


38 OROSIUS ; Book I : Chap. I, f 12. 

is the arm of the ocean, which lies around the country of Britain ; 
and to the north of them is the arm of the sea called the Baltic" ; 
and to the east and to the north of them are the North-Danes," 
both on the continent and on the islands : to the east of them 
are the Afdrede" ; and to the south of them is the mouth of the 
river Elbe, with some part of the Old Saxons." The North- 
Danes have to the north of them the same arm of the sea called 
the Baltic" : to the east of them are the Esthonian population ; 
and the Afdraede to the south. The Esthonians" have, to the 
north of them, the same arm of the sea, and also the Wends" and 
Burgundians" ; and to the south are the Haefeldan." The Bur- 
ginidians have the same arm of the sea to the west of them, and 
the Swedes" to the north : to the east of them are the Sermende," 
and to the south the Surfe." The Swedes have, to the south of 
them, the Esthonian arm of the sea ; and to the east of them the 
Sennende" : to the north, over the wastes, is Cwen-land," and to 

the islands Langland, Funen, Arroe, Alseiii as well as the provinces of Jutland, Schleswig and 
part of Holstein. Rask, p. 348, note c. — Mr Thorpe thinks that the South-Danes inhabited 
the south of Jutland ; and the North-Danes, North- Jutland, the Danish islands and pro- 
bably Scania. 

27 In A. S. Ost-ss' or East-Sea, included the Cattegat as well as the Baltic. It was 
called Ost-sae' in opposition to the sea, on the west of Denmark and Norway. 

28 r. note 11. 29 A^S. Eald-Seaxan, v. note 8. 

30 Esthonians, ^Estii, Osti, Est), a Finnish race — the Estas of Wulfstan [note 72] and 
Osterlings of the present day. They dwelt on the shores of the Baltic, to the east of the 
Vistula, An. — See also Dr Latham's Germ, of Tacitus, p. 166—171, and Prol. p. liiL 

31 Note 13. 

32 Burgendas, Burgendan, Burgundfones, the Burgundians, who occupied the north part 
of Germany, cast of the Upper Vistula, or the district between the Vistula and the mer 
Bug. — Pliny [H. N. IV, 14] writes, " Germanorum genera quinque : Vindili, quorum 
pars Burgundiones, etc." Dr Latham's Germ, of Tacitus, Epileg. p. IvL 

33. Haefeldan, jE'feldan, v. note 12. 

34. Sweon, Sweoan, Suiones, Sueones, the Swedes. 

35. Surfe, Surpe, &c v. note 22. 

36. Cw^n-land. The country- east and west of the Gulf of Bothnia, from Norway to the 
Cwcn or White Sea, including Finmark on the north. Malte-Brun says that the inhabitants 
of Cwen-land were a Finnish race. They were called Quaines, and by Latin writers Cayani. 
Gerchau maintains, in his historj' of Finland, 1810, that the Laplanders only were called 
Finns, and that they were driven from the country by the Quaines. " They settled in Lap- 
land, and on the shores of the White Sea, which derived from them the name of Quen Sea 
or Quen-vik." . . . Adamus Bremensis happened to be present at a conversation, in which 
king Sweon spoke of Quen-land or Quena-land, the country of the Quaines, but as the 
stranger's knowledge of Danish was very imperfect, he supposed the king had said Quinna- 
land, the country of women or Amazons; hence the absurd origin of his Terra Feminarum, 
mistaking the name of the country, for quinna a woman. Malte-Brun *s Universal Geog. 
Edin. 1827, voL VI, p. 495.— Dr Latham's Gerniania of Tacitus, 174, 179. 


the north-west are the Scride-Finns," and to the west the North- 

13. Ohthere" told his lord, king Alfred, that he dwelt northmost 

S7 The Scride-Finuas of Alfred,— Crefcnnae of Jornandes, for Screde-Fennie,— Scriti- 
finni of Procopius, seem to have inhabited the present Russian Lapland, and the country 
around ; and to have extended into the modern Swedish Finland. In short, they appear to 
have occupied the country to the north and west of the White Sea. lliey were called 
Scrfde, Skri-Se Finiias, Striding Finns, from their swiftness in passing over frozen snow, 
on their skates. — Skri5a kann eg & skii^um, I can stride on skates. Dahlmann's Forschun- 
gen auf dem Gebiete der Geschichte, Erster Band, p. 452. Altona, 12mo. 1822. Rask, 
notp i, p. 352. — The Scride-Finns were a branch of the Ugrians or Finns, who were a 
distinct race occupying Lapland, Finland, Esthonia, and Hungary. In Hungary, the 
Finn population is of recent introduction, the present Ugrian indigents being the Lapps, 
Finlanders and Esthonians. Dr Latham's Germ, of Tacitus, Proleg.. XXXVII, and 
178, 179. 

38 These Northmen were Norwegians. The Northmanna land generally comprehended 
the present Norway, the chief locality of Northmen. But by Northmen, as the name im- 
plies, may be understood, men that dwelt in the north. [See more in Note 40.] They 
spoke the Old Norse language [norraena] which was common to Denmark, Norway and 
Sweden. In A.D. 874 it was conveyed to Iceland by Ingolf, and bis followers, the first 
Norwegian settlers in Iceland. Norse was also the language of the Faroe Isles, Green- 
land, &c. The nearest representative of this old Scandinavian or Norse language, once 
pervading the north-west of Europe, is the present Icelandic, which, from its northern 
locality, has undergone so little change, that the oldest documents are easily read by the 
present Icelanders. See Origin of the English, Germanic, and Scandinavian languages, 
p. 145. 

39 This name has been written Octher, Othere, Ottar, and Ohthere. Tlie last is the 
only correct modi? of writing it; for the Lai>d. MS. has Ohthere, and the Cotton MS. has 
the same orthography, but the word fs divided into Oht here, indicating its derivation 
oHT fear, dread, and here an army. Rask observes, that the A. S. ht answers to the Id. 
tt, and ere to the Icl. ari and ar, and thus is formed the well known old Norse name, O'ttar 
the dreadful, timendus, metuendus, from Icl. 6tti timor, mctus. — Ohthere was a Norwegian 
nobleman of great wraith and influence, anxious to state nothing, but that to which he 
could bear personal testimony. It appears impossible for any one to read this simple nar- 
rative, without being convinced, that this daring Northman is giving a detail of his voyage, 
on the west and on the north coast of Norway into the White sea. Iceland had already 
been discovered by Gardar, the Dane, in A.D. 8G0, and it was colonized by Ingolf, a Nor- 
wegian, in 874. Greenland was discovered in 877 and irhabited by Northmen soon after. 
Accustomed ai these Northmen were, to the most daring enterprises, it was not likely that 
Ohthere one of the most powerful, adventurous, bold and inqtiiring of them, should come 
to the renowned king of England, to relate the events of a common voyage. Ohthere had 
made discoveries, which he communicated to the king, and Alfred thought them of such 
importance, that he wrote and inserted this detail of them in his Geographical and His-^ 
torical view of Europe. It has always been considered an extraordinary voyage. On ita 
first publicrtion by Hakluj't, in 1598, it was acknowledged, as every unprejudiced reader 
roust now allow, that Ohthere doubled the north cape, and entered the Wliiie Sea. "The 
voiage of Octher made to ^he north-east parts beyond Norway, reported by himselfe vnto 
Alfred, the famous king of England, about the yere 890.*' Hakluyt*s Principal Naviga- 
tions, Voiages, TrafHques, and Discoueries of the English Nation, &c. page 5, Fol. 2nd 
Edn. London, 1598. Again, a little below> Ha]cluy t says : — '< Wil it not, in all posteritie, 
be as great renowne vnto our English Nation to haue bene the first disccverera of a sea 
beyond the North cape [neuer certainly knowen before] and of a conucnicnt passage into 

40 OROSIUS; Book I: Chat. 1, | 13. 

of all Northmen." He said that he dwelt northward, on the land 
by the west sea.*» He said, however, that the land is very long 
thence to the north ; but i^ is all waste [desert], save that in a few 
places, here and there, Finnsreside, — ^for hunting in winter, and in 
summer for fishing in the sea. He said, that, at a certain time, 
he wished to find out how far the land lay right north ; or whether 
any man dwelt to the north of the waste. Then he went right 
north near the land : he left, all the way, the waste land on the 
right," and the wide sea on the left, for three days. Then was 
he as far north as Whale-hunters ever go. He then went yet 
right north, as far as he could sail in the next three days. Then 
the land bent there right east, or the sea in on the land, he knew 
not whether ; but he knew that he there waited for a western 
wind, or a little to the north, and sailed thence east near the land, 
as far as he could sail in four days. Then he must wait therefor 

the huge Empire of Russia hy the hay S. Nicolas and the riuer of Duina? &c." Id. p. 5.— 
The suhsequcnt editors and translators of 0hthere*s voyage are of the same opinion as 
Hakluyt — Shr John Spelman and Oxonienses Alumni, in 1678: — Buss»us, in 1733: — 
Langehek in 1773: — Daines Barrington, and J. R. Forster, in 1773: Forster again in 
1786 in his Hist, of voyages and discoveries in the north. — Ingram, in 1807. — Rask, in 
his notes to his Danish translation, puhlished in 1815, expressly says — ** Ohthcre was the 
first who undertook a voyage to Beormia [Permia] or sailed round the North-cape, and 
all Lapland/' &:c. note k. p. 352—355. — Dahlmann, m 1822, sutes that Ohthere sailed 
into the White Sea. — Mr Thorpe comes to the same conclusion, in 1846. — Malte>-Brun, 
hefore Rask, Dahlmann, and Thorpe, speaks, in 1812, of Chthere*s northern voyage from 
* Halgoland in Norway [see note 52 and text] to the White Sea; and south to Schleswig; 
and also of WulfsUn's voyage from Schleswig to Truso in Prussia. [Note 63.] Through tibe 
liherality and kindness of S. W. Singer Esq. the reader is presented with an extract from 
Precis de la Olographic Universelle, of the celehrated Malte-Brun : — " Othere retra9ait ses 
voyages depuis le Halogaland en Norw^ge, jusqu' k la Biarmie a Test de la mer Blanche; 
et, d*un autre c6t6, le long des cdtes Norw^giennes et Danoises par le sund, jusqu' k la ville 
de Haethum ou Schleswig. L'autre relation 6tait celle d'un voyage du Danois Wulfstan, 
depuis Schleswig jusqu'4 Truso, ville de commerce dans le pays d* Estum ou la Prusse. 
Tom. I, Liv. XVII, p. 382. Paris, 8vo, 1812. 

40 NorSmen dwelt on NoriJmanna land which extended, on the west coast of Norway, 
from the district [scir,] of Halgoland [Note 52] to the south of Sciringes heal, [Note 53] 
probahly as far south as the river Gotha-Elf, both the branches of which enter the Cattegat 
not far from Gottenburg. The NortPmanna land is also called by Ohthere [NorJJwege] 
Norway, which was on his left when sailing from Halgoland to Sciringes heal. These 
particulars are all drawn from Ohthere's simple narrative. Malte>Brun, in his Precis de la 
G6og. Univers., speaking of the country of Northmen, says, in p. 383, " La Norw^ge ou 

.Northmannaland consistait dans la c6te occidentale de la Scandinavie depuis la riviere 
Gotha jusqu'& Halogaland. Les c6tes m^ridionales se nommaient Viken, c'est k dire le 
golfe ; c*est \k qu*il faut chercber la ville de Kiningbheal, le Koughille modeme, norom^ 
Sc)Tinges-heal par une faute de copiste." S. W. Singer. 

41 A. S. West-sae', the sea to the West of Norway, in opposition to the Ost-sse', or the 
Baltic. See Note 27. — A. S. Steor-bord, star-board, the right hand. Bsec-bord, the left 


a right north wind, because the land bent there right south, or 
the sea in on the land, he knew not whether. Then sailed he 
thence right south, near the land, as far as he could sail in five 
days. There lay then a great river up into the land : they turned 
up into the river, because they durst not sail beyond it, on 
account of hostility, for the land was all inhabited, on the oth^ 
side of the river. He had not before met with any inhabited land, 
since he came from his own home, but the land was uninhabited 
all the way on his right, save by fishermen, fowlers and hunters, 
and they were all Finns ; and there was always a wide sea on his 
left. The Biarmians" had very well peopled their land, but they 
durst not come upon it : the land of the Terfinns" was all waste, 
save where hunters, fishers or fowlers encamped. 

14. The Biarmians told him many stories both about their own 
country and about the countries which were around them ; but, 
he knew not what was true, because he did not see it himself. The 
Finns and the Biarmians, as it seemed to him, spoke nearly the 
same language. He chiefly went thither, in addition to the seeing 
of the country, on account of the horse-whales, [walruses],** 

42 The BiarmiaDs inhabited the country on the shores of the White Sea, east of the river 
Dwina. Alfred calls them Beormas. They were called Biarmians by Icelandic Historians, 
and Permiaki by the Russians, and now Permians. In the middle oges, the ScandinRvian 
pirates gave the name of Permia tc the whole country between the White Sea, and the 
Ural. Malte-Bnin's Univer. Geog. Vol. VI, p. 419. In an Icelandic MS. on Geography, 
written in the 14th century, Beormia and two Cwenlands are located together. Kvenlond 
II, ok ero J'au noi^r fr& Bjarmalandi. Duse Quenlandise, quse ulterius quam bjarmia 
boream versus extenduntur. Antiquitates Americans, p. 290. — Haldorsen's Lexicon 
Islandico-Latino-Danicum, edited by Rask, has — "Biarmaland, Biarmia, quae ob perpetuas 
nives albicatur, Bjarmeland, Permien. Biarmia ortum versus ad mare album vel gandvikam 
site est" 

43 Terfinna land, the country between the northern point of the Bothnian Gulf and the 
North Cape. An. 

44 One particular reason for Ohthere's sailing northward was to capture the Walrus, 
* which was, and stOl is to be found in abundance in the White Sea about Archangel, and 

the coast of the country of the Biarmians. This is additional evidence to what was advanc- 
ed in Note 39, to prove that Ohthere doubled the north cape and entered the White Sea, — that 
his first voyage was not into the Baltic, where the Walrus is scarcely ever found, but into 
the White Sea. [Forster's notes in Barrington's Orosius, p. 243.] Vfi have Forster't 
opinion confirmed by the best Zoologists of the present day. Mr Broderip assures me in a 
letter, " I do not think it likely that Ohthere, a Norwegian, would go into the Baltic to 
take the Walrus. — I do not believe that Walruses or Whales were ever so numerous in that 
sea, within the time of authentic history, as to attract the attention of fishers." 

Ohthere seemx to liave been a plain practical man, and to have described every thing 
just as he saw it. Alfred exercised his usual talent and judgment, in implicitly following the 
simple detail of the narrator; for, he was as fully aware as the most scientific of the 
present day, that he who most closely observes and describes nature, cannot wander far 


42 OROSIUS; Book I: Cbap. 1, | 14. 

because they have very good bone in their teeth : of these teeth 
they brought some to the king ; and their hides are very good for 
ship-ropes. This whale is much less than other whales : it is not 

from scientific truth. They were, therefore, upon the whole, correct in associating the 
monstrous Whale, and the smaller Horse- Whale, Sea-horse or Walrus, in the same class of 
animals ; for hoth the Whale and the Walrus suckle their young, have warm blood, and 
are viviparous, and aquatic. The great Linnseus was the Hrst to place the Whale in the 
class of Mammalia , in allusion to which a gentleman, who has written much and well on 
Zoology, Mr Broderip, has properly remarked — ** Here then we find the decisive step taken, 
with the unflinching fitmness of a master mind, relying upon the philosophical principles 
that demanded the separation, and no longer yielding to popular prejudice by calling that 
a Hsh, which Linnseus knew to be a mammiferous animal.** May not this remark be 
applied to our glorious Alfred, and to this intrepid and close observing Northman, Ohtbere, 
who first placed the Whale and Walrus in the same class of animals ? 1 have the authority 
of Linnspus, as well as of Mr Bell, one of the Secretaries of the Royal Society, whose zoolo- 
gical works are known over the whole of Europe, for saying, that the Walrus belongs to the 
same class as the Whale, that is to the Mammalia, but to a very different order. The 
Horse-whale or Walrus belongs to the Camivora, and to the family Phocadee or Seals, 
although the structure and arrangement of the teeth remove it far from the more typical 
forms of this order. The bulky proportions of the body, the aquatic habits, and the modi- 
fication of the limbs into paddles give a general resemblance to the cetacea, which might 
well lead observers, unacquainted with the details of their structure, to consider them as 
more nearly allied than they really are. 

Mr Broderip, in writing to me, says: — You are, in my opinion, right in giving Ohther^'t 
*Miors-hwar* as the Walrus, Morse, or Sea-horse. — Bell (British Quadrupeds p. 288) 
writes — "The knowledge of this chase," (thait of the Walrus) " says Pennant, is of great 
antiquity : Octher the Norwegian, about the year 890, made a report to King Alfred, 
having, as he says, made the voyage beyond Norway for the more commoditie of fishing 
of Horse Whales ; which have in their teeth bones of great price and excellence, whereof 
he bicught some on his return to the king." Hakluyt s Coll. Voy. I, 5. — Bell, then, thus 
continues. — " The above quotation leads to some observations upon the Etymology of the 
different names which have been given to this animal. — Horse-Whale is a literal translation 
ot Whal-ros, in Norwegiiin Hwal-ros. llosmar, another Norwegian name, appears to be a 
compound of the Teutonic Ros horse, and the Latin mare, the sea. Morse is from the 
Russian ^lorss ; the Lapponic name being Morsk." — Charleton, physician to Charles 2nd, 
in his Onomasticon Zoicon, small 4to London, 1668, thus writes of the Walrus. — Vll. 
Walrus, aliis Mors, Danis et Islandis Rosmarus (quod in Septentrionali oceano saltern 
reperiatur, ut credit 01. Wormius, in Musso) non nullis Vacca marina, nobis the Mors or 
Sea-cow, (quia monstrosum animal est et amphibium, bobus nostratibus, ubi adolevit, inter- 
dum majus.) Cute tegitur pilosa, nee a vitulo marino multum abhorrente. Dentes duot 
habet; e superiori maxilla propendentes, et ante recurvos ; cubiti nonnunquam longitudine, 
quorum usus ac pretium ebori comparatur. Ex lis enim varia conficiunt. annulos contra 
Spasmum [Cramp-Riugs], manubria gladiorum, framearum et cultorum ; frc. 

Mr Broderip has given the following precise information. The length of the Walrus is 
from 10 to 15 feet, girth 8 or 10 feet, and upwards. Length of the tusks, when cut out of the 
skull, generally from 15 to 20 inches, sometimes 30, and their weight from 5 to 10 lbs. 
Other facts have been communicated by the Rev. W. Scoresby D. D. The tusks of the 
Walrus, which are hard, white and compact ivory, are employed by dentists in the fabrication 
of teeth. The skin is used for defending the yards and rigging of bhips from being chafed 
by friction against each other. When cut into shreds and plaited into cordage, it answers 
admirably for wheel ropes, being stronger and wearing much longer than hemp. In 
ancient times, most of the ropes of ships, in northern countries, appear to have been made 



longer than seven elLs;** but, in his own country, is the best 
whale-hunting : they are eight and forty ells long, and the largest 
fifty ells long ; of these, he said, that he [was] one of six, [who] 
killed sixty in two days.** 

of this substance. Arctic Regions and Whale Fishery, 2 vols 8vo : and a neat little vol. 
with the same title, published by the Tract Society at the moderate price of 10 pence, p. 

Dr Scoresby speaking of the common Greenland Whale, Mysticetus, observes that the 
size has been much overrated. Authors of the first respectability give a length of 80 to 100 
feet to the Mysticetus, and that some specimens were found of 150 to 200 feet in length, or 
still longer. Even Linneeus has given 100 feet Some ancient naturalists have gone so 
far, as to assert, that whales have been seen of above 900 feet in length. Dr Scoresby, 
like Ohthere, speaking from what he had known and seen, makes this statement — '* Of three 
hundred and twenty two individuals, in the capture of which I have been personally con- 
cerned, no one, I believe, exceeded 60 feet in length, and the largest I ever measured was 
58 feet, from one extremity to the other, being one of the largest in appearance, that I 
ever saw. — The greatest circumference of these Whales is from 30 to 40 feet.*' Id. p. 140, 141. 

** The largest sort of Whale is, however, not the Mysticetus, but the Physalus. Tliis is 
probably the most powerful and bulky of created beings. In comparison with the Mysti- 
cetus, the Physalus has a form less cylindrical, a body longer and more slender Its 

length is about 100 feet, and its greatest circumference 30 or 35 feet. ... A whale, pro- 
bably of this kind, 101 feet in length, was stranded on the banks of the Humber about the 
middle of September 1750." Id. p. 152—154. 

45 In giving the size of the Horse-whale, or Walrus, and of the Whale, Ohthere would 
most probably calculate by the measure of Scandinavia, the £11 of Norway, Sweden and 
Denmark. Molbeck, in his Dansk Ordbag, thus defines it : — << Alcn, et vist Isengdemaal, 
som deles i 24 tommer . . . Tommeeenl2tefod, ogeen24dealen," . . That is, £11, a certain 
measure of length, which is divided into 24 inches ... An inch one 12th of a foot, and one 
24th of an ell. Alfred followed the calculation of Ohthere, who says that the Horse-whale or 
Walrus is 7 ells long, that is 14 feet, and the Whales 48 ells, and the largest 50, that is, 96 
feet, and the largest 100 feet long. These calculations approach very nearly to those 
given by Mr Broderip and Dr Scoresby, in Note 44. 

46 Every translator has found a difficulty in this passage, as it appeared impossible for 
6 men to kill 60 whales in two days. The earliest translators understood it in its plain and 
obvious meaning. — " Hakluyt gave it in 1598. He affirmed that he himself was one of 
the six, which, in the space of three days, killed threescore." The Oxford Alumni 
in 1678 — " Dixit se sextum fuisse, qui sexaginta bidui spatio interfecerit." — Porthan ad- 
hered to the literal sense, in his Swedish translation, in 1800. Af dessa sade ban, at ban sjelf 
Ejette dodat sextio paa tvaa dagar. — For six men to kill 60 whales, of the larger sort, in two 
days, appears most extraordinary, though in the time of Alfred, whales seem to have been 
more plentiful in the northern than they now are in the southern ocean ; yet, in the latter, 
eleven have been killed one moniing, as will appear by the following extract from " The 
Log-book containing the proceedings on board the Barque Gipsy, commanded by John 
Gibson, owners Almon and James Hill, Esqrs, 13 Austin Friars, London. "Cruising from 
Sooloo Archipelago towards Japan — ^Tuesday May 31st, 1836. All these 24 hours moderate 
breezes and fine weather. Ship's head N. E. at 6 a. m. saw whales at 7 a. m. Lowered the 
boats at 9 a. m ; struck and killed eleven. At noon the boats employed collecting 
the whales to the ship." 

I have so great an objection to conjectural criticism, that I have retained the text of the 
Cotton MS. though it is the only MS. known to exist, that contains this clause. At the 
same time I ou^ht not to omit the emendation of the A. S. text suggested by my friend, the 

44 OROSIUS ; Booi I : Cmaf. 1, f 15. 

15, He [OhthereJ was a very wealthy man in those posses- 
sions in which their wealth consists, that is in the wider [animals]. 
He had, moreover, when he came to the king, six hundred 
tanie deer of his own breeding.*' They call these rein-deer: 
of these, six were decoy-deer, which are very valuable among 
Finns, because with them they take the wild-deer. He was 
amongst the first men in the land, though he had not more than 
twenty homed cattle, twenty sheep and twenty swine ; and the 
little that he ploughed, he ploughed with horses. But their 
revenue is chiefly in the tribute, that the Finns pay them, which 
tribute is in skins of animals, feathers of birds, in whale-bone, and 
ship-ropes, which are made from the whale's hide, and from the 

late Professor Rask — Instead of the Cotton reading syxa sum, he proposes svx asum, or as- 
cum ; and translates it in Danish, 1815, — ** At hanmed 6 harpuner (eller6skibe) dnebtefiO 
paa 2 dage," i. e. that he with G harpoons (or 6 ships) killed 60 in two days — Asum d. pL of 
acs, or as, Lat. oes ; and ascum of spsc a ship. — Dahlmann, in 1822| supposes Ohthere to mean 
6 large ships ; and, therefore, gives it in his German translation, " Dasser mit sechs grossen 
schiffen ihrer sechzig in zwei tagen todtete." 

Feeling it difficult to come to a satisfactory conclusion ; and being anxious to obtain the best 
information on the subject, I wrote to the Rev. W. Scoresby, D.D. F.R.S. &c. an old college 
friend. — a man of great scientific acquirements, who published a most interesting work, on 
the Arctic Regions, and the Whale-fishery in 1820, and in early life had been engaged in cap- 
turing no less than 322 whales. See note 44. — To the following queries : 1 ft, Is it possible that 6* 
men could kill 60 whales in 2 days? 2dly, Could GO be killed in 2 days with 6 harpoons, as Rask 
8Ug{ ests ? 3dly, Could 6 ships be so employed, as to kill GO in 2 days ? He repliei^. — 1. I do not 
conceive it at all possible, that C men could kill 60 Whales of the large size [Balsena Mysti- 
celus] in two days. 1 know of no instance of even one whale having ever been killed, of 
the largest size, hy a single boat's crew of 6 or 7 men. Ordinarily 3 or 4 boats, with 18 to 
25 men, are deemed necessary for the capture of a single whale — 2. It might be possible, if 
the whales were sunning in vast numbers, in any of the bays pf the Arctic regions, that 60 
might be killed by 6 harpoons, and men in proportion, say 36 to 40 men. But, I may add, 
though whales have been met with occasionally, in great numbers together, no such feat as 
this, I am persuaded, had ever been performed by the crew of one ship containing 6 or 7 
boats and 50 men. A single whale may, on an average, cost about 3 hours for its capture, 
with 4 to 6 boats. If two, therefore, or three, were constantly under attack, at the same 
time, and neither acident nor failure happening, it would be a wonderful feat for 50 men 
with half a dozen or eight harpoons, to capture half ihe number specified ! — 3. Six ships, 
with their ordinary complement of men and boats, might, no doubt, be so employed^ if the 
Whales were very numerous and the circumstances, as to ice or position, favourable, as to 
kill 10 large Whales a piece in two days. In Whales of a small size, this proportion has 
often* been reached; but never, that I am aware of, where the kind was of the largest 
The pleasing process, indeed, so interferes with the enterprize of slaughter, that more than 
half a dozen, of any size, is seldom killed at once. I have known 10 or 12 within one 
period of unceasing exertion." Upon the whole, then, it appears that the proposed 
emendation of the text does not remove the difficulty, and it is, therefore, best to retain 
the Cotton reading, as represented in the present translation. 

47 Tamra deora, unbebphtra, syx bund. — Literally, Of tame .deer, unbougbt [non 
eroptus, Ettmiiller] untrafficked or traded in, six hunted. 


seal's. Every one pays according to his means : the richest must 
pay fifteen skins of the marten, and five of the rein-deer, and one 
bear's skin, aud forty bushek of feathers, and a bear or otter-skin 
kirtle, and two ship-ropes, each sixty ells long, one made from 
the whale's hide, and the other from the seal's. ^ 

1 6. He said that the country of Northmen was very long and very 
narrow. All that can be either pastured or ploughed lies by the 
sea, and that, however, is in some places, very rocky; and, on the 
eas.t, lie wild mountains" along the inhabited land. In these 
mountains [wastes] Finns dwell ; and the inhabited land is broadest 
eastward, and always narrower more northerly. Eastward it 
may be sixty miles" broad, or a little broader, and midway thirty 
or broader ; and northward, he said, where it was narrowest, that 
it might be three miles broad to the waste, and moreover, the 
waste, in some places, [is] so broad that a man may travel over 
it, in two weeks ; and in other places, so broad that a man may 
travel over [it,] in six days. 

17. Then, over against this land southward, on the other side 
of the waste, is Sweden," extending to the north; and over 
against the land northward, is Cwena land." The Cwenas some- 

. times make war on the Northmen over the waste ; sometiynes the 
Northmen on them. There are very laige fresh water meers 
beyond the wastes ; and the Cwenas carry their boats over land 
into the meers, and thence make war on the Northmen. They 
have very little boats, and very light. 

18. Ohthere said that the district in which he dwelt \\'as called 

48 Rask translates it : — Der ligger \nlde Fjeelde osten for og oven for langs mc'd det r 
beboedeLand. Afhandlinger, p. 313, 315. — Dahlmann: — Im Osten liegen wilde Gebirge, 
hoch iiber und langs dem angebauten Lande ; p. 425. — Mdr denotes waste land generally, 

a moor, beath : waste land from rocks, bence a bill, mountain : &c. 

49 Rask observes, wben Norway is reckoned 60 miles wide, in tbe broadest part and 3 
miles in tbe narrowest, it is evident tbat tbe king used tbe exact pbrase of Obtbere, and did 
not alter it, as on anotber occasion, to agree witb tbe Anglo-Saxon measure. See note 74. 
One mile of tbe Northman, Obtbere, contained about 5 Anglo-Saxon miles, — bence tbe broad- 
est part would be about 300 miles and tbe narrowest 15. Rask's Afbandlinger, 8vo, 
Kobenbavn, 1834 : vol. 1, p. 379, note r. — A Danisb mile is 4.68 English, and a Swedish 
mile is 6.64 English miles. 

50 A. S. Sweoland. Tbe country of tbe Sweons, tbe Suiones of Tacitus. Tbe names Suedia 
or Suecia, and Svidiodar, or Svitbiodar, a^ applied to tbe Swedes, occur in their earliest 
annals. Wbcaten, and Cricbton's Scandinavia, vol. I, p. 24. 

51 See note 36. 


46 OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. 1, § 18. 

Halgoland." He said that no man abode north of him. Then 
there is a port, on the south of the land [Norway], which is 
called Sciringesheal." Thither he said, that a man could not 
sail in a month, if he anchored at night, and ever}' day had a fair 
wind. All the while he must sail near the land. — On his right 
hand, is first** Iceland, and then the islands which are between 

52 Halgoland, a division [scfr] of the northern part of ancient Norway. Ohthere dwelt 
in the most northerly part of it : to the north of his residence, the country was nninhabited. 
Even at the present day, this district is called Helgeland. It is in Nordland, or Northland, 
in the province of Trondhiem, or Dronthehn, pronounced Tronyem. Drontheim is now 
the most northerly province of Norway, extending from 62 deg. to 71 deg. 10 min. N. Lat. It is 
divided into Trondhiem Proper, Nordiand, and Finmark. Nord or Northland was the most 
northerly part inhabited in Ohthere's days. Helgeland is now the southern district of 
Nordland, and lies on the coast between the island Lekde, N. Lat. 65 deg. 10 min., 
and Cape Kunnen near the arctic circle. The Riolen range of mountains, separatmg 
Helgeland from Sweden, is about 60 miles from the sea ; and, in some places, not ao far. 
Helgeland has a rocky coast of considerable elevation. The interior is filled by mountains 
rising from 1000, to 1500 feet. A considerable portion of the land might be cultivated, 
hut agriculture is often neglected, because fishing offers greater advantages. This is more 
particularly the case in the islands, on the coast of Helgeland, which rise to an elevation of 
2000 and to 4260 feet Such is Helgeland in the present day.— In this wild district, 
Ohthere first saw the light He was brought up amid i>tupendous mountains, and exposed 
to the severity of the climate in the care of herds of deer, and in superintending the rude 
culture of the land. From a child he was not only accustomed to the exertions and perils 
of the chase in the Norwegian Alps, but to brave the dangers of the vast waves of the 
Northern Ocean, raging amongst the exposed and elevated islands, and the high, rocky 
shore of Norway. Thus educated amid the magnificent scenery of Halgoland, and inured 
to danger, Ohthere was well prepared for a daring enterprise, such as his exploring voyage 
to the most northerly regions. It was a voyage worthy of Ohthere, and deserving the 
permanent record which Alfred — the Hrst man of that age — ^has here given of it 

53 This is a minute description of Ohthere*s second voyage. His first was to the remote 
north : this voyage is to the south, llie Hrst place he mentions is a port '* on the south of 
this land [Norway], called Sciriugesheal." Judging from Ohthere*s narrative, Sciringes- 
heal seems to he in the Skager Rack, near the Fiord or Bay of Christiana. Snorre Sturleson, 
an Icelander, born in 1178, in his Ynglin^a Saga, ch. 49, places Sciringesheal in Westfold, ' 
on the west side of the bay of Christiana. The note, appended to Professor Rask's Af- 
handlinger, published by his son, in 1834, concludes, — ** Thus, it cannot be doubted, that 
Skiringssal reaUy existed at that time, [the age of Snorre,] and that it is the same that 
Ohthere and king Alfred call Sciringesheal." vol. I, p. 384. — Ohthere says to the south of 
bciringesheal is a very great sea, apparently the Cattegat, opposite to which was Jutland, 
and then Zealand. Sailing from Sciringesheal to Haddeby near Schleswig, Ohthere said 
he had Denmark on his left, that is Halland and Skaane [Scania], the early seat of the 
Danes. Then, two days before his arrival at Schleswig, taking a westerly course, he had 
Jutland on his right As he mentions islands on his left, it appears that he sailed between 
Moen and Zealand. An. 

54 The Cotton MS., the only one that contains this part of Ohthere's voyage, has Ira- 
l.?nd. Though I have the greatest objection to conjecturale mendatious of a text, in this 
case, after reading the context, and all that commentators have written upon it, I prefer 
substituting Isaland for Iraland. To what Dr Ingram and Rask have advanced to justify the 
insertion of Isaland in the text, it may be added that Ireland was generally called Scotland 
from the fifth to the eleventh century [v. note 89]. If any other name was used, it was 


Iceldfia and this land [Britain]. Then this land continues till he 
comes to Sciringesheal ; and all the way, on the left, [is] Nor- 
way." To the south of Sciringesheal, a very great sea runs up 
into the land: it is broader than any man can see over; and 
Jutland** is oppositjg, on the other side, and then Zealand. This 
sea lies many hundred miles up into the land. 

19. He said that he sailed in five days, from Sciringesheal to 
the port which they call*' Haddeby [near Schleswig], which stands 

Ibemia or Igbernia; thus, when Alfred is speaking of Britam, he adds, <' Ibernia pmt 
igland," — and, ** Igbernia, past we Scotland hata'S." In Alfred's translation of Bede, Hi- 
bemia is used, as Ybemia is, in the earliest part of the Saxon Chronicle. In the year 891, 
Dr Ingram inserts Hibemia in the text, and gives Yrlande in the notes, as the reading of 
the Cot. MS. But this is taken from a collation by Junius of one of the latest MSS. and 
which Dr Ingram says is of the least authority, because the writer has taken great liberties 
in using **his own Normanized dialect.** Yrlande occurs again in the year 918, and in 
1051, and 2, but these two instances do not invalidate the assertion of Alfred, just cited, 
that in his days Igbernia was called Scotland. Alfred confirms this, by adding to his 
translation of Orosius in § 3 — '* On the west end of the Mediterranean Sea is Scotland.'* 
Though wrong, as to geographical position, this is an additional proof that our Ireland was 
called Scotland in the time of Alfred. — Upon the whole then, I prefer inserting Isaland in 
the text 

Langebek and Porthan retained Iraland in the text and Forster sanctioned this reading, 
but they all thought erroneously, that Scotland was intended. Dr Ingram, in his Inaugural 
Lecture, published in 1807, preferred reading Isaland, and gives his reasons thus ; ** I suspect 
that the true reading in the original, instead of Ira-land, [i. e. Scotland] should be Isa- 
land, Iselaud, (or, as it is sometimes improperly written, Iceland.) How frequently the 
Saxon lettei3 p and r have been confounded and interchanged, is well known to i/ery 
person conversant in the language. As Ohthere sailed from Helgoland, Iseland was the 
first land to his right, and then the islands of Faroe, Shetland, and Orkney, between Iseland 
and this land [L e. England] ; then this land continued on his right hand, till he entered 
the Baltic, which he soon afterwards describes very accurately, as running up many hun- 

'fMl miles into tie land, and so wide that no man could see over it." p. 79, note q. — Rask 
' -^l'.. renrir/' . in 1334, gives Isaland in his A. S. text, and a long note to the same 

:: ^i, ; : . ',]♦', . .!: 2, of his AfliandlJt.'^er. 

Prof.'— x- L». . sa:.. in his Forschungc, 1822, think? '.. u Ireland was intended, and that 
Ohthere spoke of Ireland indefinitely, placing it more :i 1 c north, an*! in his right hand. 
He has a long and interesting article in No 4 of his Kiluuterungen, " Iraland, oder Isa- 
land?'* He gives a very fair statement of the opinions of Langebek, Porthan, and Hiisk, 
p. 443 — 449. — After all, I prefer Isaland, notwithstanding what Dahlmann and others have 

55. A. S. NoT^weg, in Saxon Chronicle 1028, Nori^weg and Norweg ; in 1045 and 7 Nor- 
weg, so in 1058, See. In 1066 Norweg andNorwei ; and in 1070 NorwsBg. Literally, Uie 
north way or way to the north. Pliny, 1. IV, c. 16, calls it, Nerigon, and Malte-Brun suggChts 
Nor-Rige, kingdom of the north, or rather, assuming Nor to be a gulf, kingdom of gulfs. 
Geog. vol. VIII, 517. 

56. A. S. G6Mand, the country of the Hreth Goths: Jutland, Jutland. An.^Zealand, 
A. S. Sillende — v. note 10. Tlie old name of Zealand was in Danish Sia-Lund, a forest 
near the water, from sia sea, and lund a forest. Now sia, sea, or Zea-laud, Sea land, land 
surrounded by the sea : like the Dutch Zee-land, Sea-land, from zee the sea. 

57. A. S. ]7e nion h&*t aft Uuf^i^uni, which Poithun translates, som Dallas Hacthum, which 

48 OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. 1, § 19. 

in the midst of theAvinedi," Saxons, and Angles, and belongs to 
the Danes. Whra he sailed thithenvard from Sciringesheal, then 
Denmark " was on his left ; and, on his right, a \>ide sea for three 

is called Hsethum. Rask more properly translates it — « som man kalder Hedeby," p. 321 
and 323 , and Dalilmann, — '* den man zu Hddum [at Hsedum, Hedaby] nennt" p. 427. 
Rosk observes, that it is customary, especially in Icelandic, to put a preposition before the 
name of a place, which is then to be in the dative case ; as in IcL i Ripum, and oceaatonally 
in A. S. as, set Hae^i^um. These dat. plur. may be read, as in the singular. The ting. 
Hk% is the Id. herSr, now hstSi a heath ; hence its Icl. and old Danish name HeiVaby'r, or 
Her^abcer, present Hedeby, from modern Danish, hede a heath, and by a town. Langebek 
has rightly explained, pe mon beet set Hse^Vum, quem vocant Haethe. Rask, p. 374, note n. 
Hs'9e is mentioned, in connection with Schleswig, by Ethelweard about two centuries 
after Alfred ; and, in the subsequent half century by William of Malmsbury as in the follow- 
ing extracts. — Ethelweard or El ward, is known only by his Chronicle or History of the Anglo- 
Saxons. He says he was descended from Ethelred, the brother of king Alfred. We are 
not informed when his book was compiled, but be was stiU alive in 1090 [Wright's Biogra- 
phia Britannica Literaria, Vol. 1, p. 522]. This Ethelweard says that, '* Anglia vetus sita est 
inter Saxuues et Giotos, habens oppidum capitale, quod sermone Saxonico Sleswic nuucupa- 
tur, secundum vero Danos Haithaby." Chronicorum Ethelwerdi Libri Quatuor: v. Rerum 
Anglicarum Scriptores post Bedam prsecipui [edited by Saville]. Fol. Francof 1601, pp. 
831—850. What Ethelweard has stated, is confirmed by that *< great lover of truth," Wil- 
liam of Malmsbury, who died about 1 143. He says — " In cppido quod tunc Slaswick, 
nunc vero Eitheisi [al. Hurtheby] appellatur, est autem regio ilia Anglia vetus dicta, unde 
Angli venerunt in Brittanniam, inter Saxones et Giothos constituta." 

Alfred says ** Se [Hse^^e] stent betuh Winedum, and Seaxum, and Angle, and hyt^ in on 
Dene." This agrees with the locality of Schleswig. The A. S. Hse^e and the subsequent 
Eitheisi, Haithaby, and Hurtheby are in the preceding extracts associated with Schleswig. 
The termination -by is Danish, and signifies a town. There is a place on the south of the 
river Schley, opposite Schleswig, engraved in the map of Mercator in 1623, Haddebuy, and 
called by Rask Hedeby, by Dahlmann Hedaby and by others Haddeby. This is concluded 
to be the Hae'^e of Ohthere, Wulfstan and Alfred— Dr Ingram adds, " At Hsethum, a port 
by the heaths, afterwards changed into Haithaby, and called to this day Haddeby, is situa- 
ted on the south side of the river Schley, opposite to Schleswig, which having since become 
of greater importance, has eclipsed the fame of its ancient rival. Hence Sir J. Spelman, 
Somner, Lye, and others, following the authority of Ethelweard, a Saxon writer, have con- 
sidered At-Haethum, or Haddeby, to be the same with Schleswig." Inaugural Lecture, p. 
109. note k. 

58 Winede, the Venedi or Wends, who, at one time, occupied the whole coast from the 
Schley in Schleswig, South Jutland, to the Vistula in Prussia. An. v. Note 13, and 64. 

59 A. S. Denamearc, [see note 65] That is, the provinces of Halland, Scania or Schonen, 
the early seat of the Danes. Halland and Schonen are in South Gothland, in Sweden, 
having the Cattegat, the Sound, and the Baltic for its maritime boundaries, v. note 53. 

60 A. S. Engle aer hf hider on land comon, the Engles before they came hither on land,i. 
e. into Britain. Alfred expressly states here, that the Engles before they came to Britain 
dwelt not only in Jutland, but in Zealand and many islands. Hence we conclude that the 
Engles or Angles came hither not only from Anglen, in South Jutland, between Schleswig 
and Flensburg, but from the Danish islands. The majority of settlers in Britain were the 
Engles, and from them we derive not only our being, but our name, for England is 
literally, Englaland, the land or country of the Engles. The Engles were the most powers 
ful and energetic of the tribes, that constituted the great Saxon confederacy, which, in the 
third and two following centuries, had the greatest extent of territory in the north west of 
Cicrmany. The Saxon confederacy increased, till it possessed the vast extent of countiy 


days ; and, the two days before he came to Haddeby, he had on 
his right, Jutland, Zealand, and many islands. The Angles dwelt 
in these lands, before they came into this country .•• And, these 

embraced by the Elbe, the Sala, and the Rhine, in addition to their ancient territory between 
the Elbe, and the Oder. Bosworth's Origin of the Eng. and Germ. lang. and nations, p. 
14 — 17. — It will be evident, from the following authorities, as well as from the testimony of 
Alfred given in the text, that in the seventh century, and m the time of Alfred, Schleswig 
was considered the locality from which England received its chief population. It will be 
interesting to see what Bede says, on the population of England, confirmed by the A. S. 
version of Alfred, and by the A. S. Chronicle. " Advenerant autem de tribus Germanise 
populis fortioribus, id est, Saxonibus, Anglis, Jutis. De Jutarum origine sunt Cantuarii et 
Victuarii, hoc est, ea gens quae Vectam tenet iusulam, et ea quae usque hodie in provincia 
Occidentalium Saxonum Jutarum natio nominatur, posita contra ipsam insulam Vectam. 
De Saxonibus, id est, ea regione quae nunc antiquoram Saxonum cognominatur, venere 
Orientates Saxones, Meridiani Saxones, Occidui Saxones. Porro de Anglis, hoc est, de ilia 
patria quse Angulus dicitur et ah eo tempore usque hodie manere desertus inter provincias 
Jutarum et Saxonum perhibetur, Orientales Angli, Mediterranei Angli, Mercii, tota 
Nordanhmbrorum progenies, id est, illarum gentium qufe ad Boream Humbri fluminis 
inhabitant caeterique Ar.glorum popub sunt orti. Duces fuisse perhibentur eorum primi duo 
fratres Hengist et Horsa ; e quibus Uorsa postea occisus in bello a Brittonibus, liactenus in 
Orientalibus Cantiae partibus monumentum habet suo nomine insigne." Smith's Bede, Fol. 
Cambridge 1722, lib. 1, ch. 16, p. 52. — Alfred's Saxon translation of which is : '^Comon 
hi of )>rim folcum )>am strangestan Germanie, J'aet of*Seaxum, and of Angle, and of 
Geatum. Of Geata frumau syndon Cantware, and Wihtsaetan, J'aet is seo )>eod pe Wiht 
]>ai Ealond oneardaV. Of Seaxum J'aet is of ]7am lande "pe mon hateif Eald-Seaxan, coman 
East-Seaxan, and SuiT-Seaxan, and West-Seaxan. And of Engle coman East-Eugle and 
Middel-Engle, and Myrce, and call Nor Membra cynn, is )>aet land ]>e Angulus is nemned 
betwyh Geatum and Seaxum. Is sfcd of J'aere tidej^e hi )>anon gewiton dS to daegej'aet hit 
we^te v^nmige. Wseron \>e aerest hcora latteowas and here£ogan twegen gebroi^ Hen^est 
and Horsa." Id. p. 483. 

The Saxon Chronicle gives the following account : '* An. ccccxlix. Her Martianus and 
Valentinianus onfengon rice, and ricsodon vii winter. On heora dagum Hengest and 
Horsa, from Wyrtgeome gela^ode Brytta cyninge to fultume, gesohton Brytene on pam 
stse^e, pe is genemned Ypwines-fleot, aerest BryttUm to fultume, ac by eft on hy fuhton. 
Se cing bet hi feohtan agien Pihtas, and hi swa dydan, and sige haefdon swa hwar swa hi 
comon. Hi )>a sende to Angle, and heton heom sendan mare fultum, and heom seggan 
Brytwalana nahtnesse, and pass laiides cysta. Hi )>a sendon heom mare fultum, pa comon 
pa menn of )>rim maeg^um Germanie, of Eald-Seaxmn, of Anglum, of lotum. 

" Of lotum comon Cantware and Wihtware [)>aetis seo maeiif )>e nu earda^ on Wiht,] and 
pws cynn on West-Sexum, pe man nu gyt het lutna-cynn. Of Eald-Seaxum comon East- 
Seaxan, and Su'S-Seexan, and West-Seaxan. Of Angle comon, se & si^San stod westig betwix 
lutum and Seaxum, Ea:$t-Engle, and Midd el-Angle, and Mearce and ealle Noi^ymbra. 
Heora here-togan wceron twegen gebro^ra, Hengest and Horsa." 

Though the Friesians are not named by Bede, as forming part of this migration to Bri- 
tain, it is probable, from their locality in the north west of Germany, that many of them 
may have accompanied the Angles, Saxons, and other tribes to this Island. But we are 
not left in doubt, on this subject, for Procopius, who lived two hundred years nearer the 
Saxon expedition to Britain than Bede, expressly states, in his fourth book on the Gothic 
war, that Britain was peopled by three nations, the Britons, the Angles, and the Friesiana 
[^Ayytkoi Kcu ^plaaov^si]* "^^^i* i* ^^ opinion still prevalent among the Friesians 
and Dutch. They even claim Hengist as their countr}*-man ; and the old Chroniclers are 
at a lobi whether to make Hengist a Frivsiun or a Saxun. Mucrlant, the father uf Dutch, 

50 OROSIUS ; Book I : Chap. 1, f 20. 

two days, the islands/' which belong to Denmark, were on his left 
20. Wulfstan" said that he went from Haddeby, — ^that he was 
in Truso" in seven days and nights, — that the ship was running 
all the way under sail. He had Weonodland," [Mecklenburg 
and Pomerania] on the right [star-board,] and Langland, Laaland, 
Falster and Sconey, on his left, and all these lands belong to 
Denmark." And then we had," on oiu- left, the land of the 
Biu-gundians*' [Bomholmians], who have their o^vn king." After 

or rather Flemish Poets, for he was born in Flanders about 1235, speaks of him, tbut:^ 
£en hiet Engistus een Vriese, een Sas, 
Die uten lande verdreven was ; 

One, a Saxon or Frietian, Hongitt by nam*. 
From hU country waa banished in soirovv and shame. 
SrisasL HitTOBiAX^ C. XV, p. IS. 
Tlius again : — 

Engistus wart dus onteert, 
Ende is in Vrieseland gekeert 
Henjritt was thus so much disfrraccd. 
That he, to Friesland, his steps retraced. Tom. Ill, p. 29. 

Tlie Chronicle of Maerlant is founded upon the Speculum Mistoriale of the Monk Vicentios, 
who wrote about the year 1245. Boxworth's Origin of the Eng. and Germ. Lang, and 
Nations, p. 15, S -^* Qote f : p. 52, f 50, note t : p- ^3, f 52.— Latham's Germania of 
Tacitus, Epileg. p. CXXII, and 117. — Also, Latham's English Language, 3rd £dn, for 
Friesians and Jutes. 

61 These are the islands Moen, Falster, Laaland, &c.: he, therefore, sailed between 
Zealand, Moen, &c. 

62 Forster says — '* Wulfstan appears to have been a Dane, who, perhaps, had become 
acquainted with Ohthere in the course of his expeditioi , and had gone with him to England.'* 
Northern Voyages, p. 69, note 73. 

63 Truso, a town on the shore of the mere or lake Drausen, or Truso, from which the 
river llfing [Elbing] flows in its course towards the town of Elbing [v. note 75]. Forster 
says : — '* Tliere is at this time, a lake between Elbing and Prussian Holland, called Truso, 
or Drausen, from which, probably, the town Truso . . . took its name." Forster's Northern 
Voyages, 4to, 1786, p. 69, note 74. 

64 Weono'Mand the country of the Wends on the coast of Mecklenburg, Pomerania, &c. 
in PrurVia [see notes 13 and 58.]. — A. S. Langa-land, the long inland. — A. S. Sc6neg, the 
beautiful island. 

65 Denmark from daim low, mark ground, land, country. Malte-Bnm's Geog. VoL 
VIII, p. 577. — A. S. Dene-mearc — Dene The Dane;, — Dene from denua plain, vale, valley; 
and niearc a boundary. The Saxon Chronicle in 1005, 1023, 1035, has Denemearc ; 
Denmearc, in 1019, 1075; Dsenmarc, in 1070; Denmarc, in 1070 and 1119. In Danish, 
nuirk signifies a country ; hence Denmark the low country of the Danes. — Finmark the . 
country of the Finns. Forster says ; — ** Wulfstan [Alfred] is the most early writer hitherto 
known, who mentions this name. Notes to Barrington's Orosius, p. 257, note 36. 

66 Waeron us, literally crant nobis. The pronoun of the first person plural, we and us, 
proves that Wulfstan is relating to the king his own account of their voyage. 

67 Biirgenda land is the Id. Rurgundarh6lmr of which the present Dan. and Swed. 
name Boruholm is a contraction. Rask's Afliandlinger, p. 374, note o. 

68 And pk habba'S^ himsylf cynmg, literally, and who have to themselves a king. 


the land of the Burgundians, we had," on our left, those lands that 
were called first Blekingey," and Meore, and Oeland and Goth- 
land ; and these lands belong to Sweden. And we had Weonod- 
land, on the right, all the way to the mouth of the Vistula. The 
Vistula'* is a very large river, and near it lie Witland^' and Weo- 
nodland ; and Willand belongs to the Esthonians.'" The Vistula 
flows out of Weonodland and runs into the Frische Haff " [Est- 

69 A. S. Bleeingmsg, the proTince of Bleking, on ihe southwest of Sweden. — Meore, 
the Upper and Lower Moehre, in the province of Smoeland or Sxnaland, also in Sweden.—- 
Eowland and Gotland, the two islands on the coast of Sweden, Oeland and Gothland. 

70 A. S. Wisle, in Polish Wisla. German Weichsel : hy other nations, and hj Latin 
writers, it is called Vistula. Before reaching the Baltic, the Vistula first divides into two 
hranches, the smaller and eastern hranch of which, called the Neugat or Nogat, runs north 
easterly, and discharges itself into the Frische Haff [see note 73]. The larger or western 
hranch, after flowing 35 or 40 miles farther, again divides, ahout 9 miles from Danzig, into 
two hranches, the smaller of which runs easterly into the Frische Haff, the main stream 
of the Vistula taking an opposite direction, discharges itself into the Baldc at Weichsel- 
miinde, north of Danzig. So there are, at least, three great hranches of the Vistula, the 
Nogat at the commencement of the great Werder ; the second, ahove Danzig : this second 
hranch and the Nogat run into the Frische Haff, and the third passes hy Danzig into the 
Baltic Jomandes, de reh. Get c 3, correctly descrihes this river. He speaks of Scancia 
thus : — " Hspc a fronte posita est Vistulse flmii ; qui Sarmaticis montibus ortus, in con- 
spectu Scanziae septentrionali oceano trisulcus illabitur : for, besides the smaller streams of 
the Nogat, this river has three great branches. The roost westerly is near Danzig ; the 
easterly branches just described, enter the Frische Haff, with the Elbing. v. note 76. 

71 Porthan says that Witland is a part of Samland in Prussia. In old times it extended 
to the eastern bank of the Vistula. The monk Alberik, who lived a century and a half after 
Alfred, ia the first that mentions W.tland.— •« In Prutia [Prucia], quae est ultra Pomerar 
niam, Epiacopus Mutinensia, missus a Papa legatus, ingenio et sapientia sua, non fortitudine, 
multoa paganos ad fidem attraxit . . • Erant autem hoc anno, in illis partibus, quinque 
tantummodo provincias paganorum acquirendae: ista videlicet, de qua agitur, Prutia 
[Prucia], Curlandia, Lethonia, Vidilandia, et Sambria. Rask*s Afhandlinger, p. 375, note 
q.^ Witland was celebrated for its amber at the time of the Crusades, it was still called 
Witland. Forstcr's North. Voyages, p. 70.— Professor Voigt, in his Geschichte Preussens 
von den altesten Zeiten, Kttnigsberg, 1827—39, advances many ar§ruments to prove, that 
part of WiUand has been absorbed by the Frische Haff,— that Witland, not only occupied 
the north-eastern part of the Frische Haff, from the old castle of Balga or Honeda, but ex- 
tended far into the sea on the west and north of Samland. The space is marked in hia ^ 
map. See note 76. 

72 A. S. Estnm dat. pi. of Eate, or Estas of Alfred, mentioned in note 30 and its text. 
These Esthonians or Osterlinga dwelt on the ahores of the Baltic to the eaat of tiie Vistula. 

73 A. S. Eetmere, [eat eaat, mere a hike] the present Frische Haff or fresh water 
lake ia on the north of eaat Pruaaia. Hav or Haff aignifiea a sea, in Danish and Swedish. 
It is written Haff in Geiman and it ia now used to denote afl the lakes connected with the 
rivers, on the coaat of Pruasia and Fomerania. The Frische Haff is about 60 mfles long, and 
from 6 to 15 broad. It is separated by a chain of sand banks from tiie Balticaea, wiA 
which, at the preaent time, it communicates by one strait called Uie Gat This strait 
is on the north eaat of the Haff, near the fortress of Pillau. Malta Brun's Univ. Geog. 
Vol. VII, p. 14. Thia Gat^ as Dr BeU informa me, •« seems to have been formed, and to 
be kept open by the superior force of the Pregel stream." Thia gentieman has a perfect 

52 OROSIUS ; Book I : Chap. I, f 20. 

mere]. The FrischeHaff is, at least, fifteen mUes^^broad, Then'' 
the Elbing'* comes from the east into the Frische Haff, out of 
the lake [Drausen] on the shore of which Truso stands; and 
[they] come out together into the Frische Haff, the Elbing from 
the east, out of Esthonia ; and the Vistula from the south out of 
Weonodland. Then the Vistula takes away the name of the 
Elbing, and runs out of the lake into the sea, by a western [open-, 
ing] on the north [of the Frische Haff] ; therefore, they call it 
the mouth of the Vistula, — "Esthonia [Eastland] is very large, and 

knowledge of the Frische Hail, and the neighhourhood, at he received hia eaily educatioD 
in the vicinity, and matriculated at the University of Konigsherg, near the west end of the 
Haff. I am indebted to Dr Bell for the map of the celebrated German Historian, Professor 
Voigt, adapted to his <' Geschichte Pteusaens von den &ltesten Zeiten, 9 vols 8vo, Ronigs- 
berg. 1827 — 39.*' In this map, there are four openings from the Frische Haff to the Baltic. 
" It is certain/' says Malte-Brun, that in 1394 the mouth of one strait was situated at Loch- 
sett, 6 or 8 miles north of the fortress of Pillau.** Voigt*s map gives the year, 1311. Id. 
vol. VII, p. 15. The next is the Gat of Pillau, at present the only opening to the Baltic, 
with the date 1510. The third Gat, marked in the map with the date 1456, is about 10 or 
12 miles south west of Pillau ; and the fourth, without any date, is much nearer the wcat end 
of the Frische Haff. 

74 It b evident, that Alfred has here altered the measure of Ohthere, the Northman, and 
has made it to agree with the Anglo-Saxon miles. Hence, the dimenrions of Estmere, given 
by Alfred, perfectly accord with those of the Frische Haff of the present day, as mentioned 
in tlie preceding note. See also note 49. 

75 Literally, Then comes the Elbing from the east into Estmere [the Frische Haff] from 
[out of] the mere, on the bank of which Truso stands [or, which Tniso stands upon the bank 
uf [1. e. the lake of Drausen]. Truso, therefore, was '^n the border of the lake Drausen, and 
not of the Estmere or Frische Haff. The river Elbing [llfing] flows from the lake Drausen 
towards the town of Elbing. Rask's Afhandlinger, p. 379 and 380, note s. — V. note 63. — 
Hence Rask has translated this passage into Danish — IlHng lober osten fra ind i det friske 
Hav, og kommer fra den So, paa hvis Breed Truso staar.*' Id. p. 325. — Dahlmann trans- 
lates it — ** Der Ilfiug [Elbing] lauft von Osten in das Esthenmeer von der See her, an des- 
sen Gestade Truso steht." p. 428. 

76 A. S. nfing, the river Elbing in Western Prussia, to the east of the Vistula. The 
Elbing flows from tlie small lake Drausen to the town of Elbing called also Elbmga, in 
Polish Elbiag or Elblag, and urbs Drusinia. Malta Brun says: — <<The flourishing and 
commercial town of Elbing, is built on a low and fruitful valley : iU; name is derived from the 
small river Elbach, which issues from the lake of Drausen." Univer. Geog. Vol. VII, p. 
23.— V. note 75. 

77 Wisle mli^a, the mouth of the Vistula. The most westerly stream of the Vistula, 
which flows into the Baltic, a little to the north of Danzig, is still called in German, Weich- 
selmiinde [v. note 70]. Forster observes, every thing that Alfred here mentions, incon- 
tcstably shews, that Wulfstan had an intimate and personal knowledge of what he was stat- 
ing. The Elbing came out of Esthonia and from the east, so far as regards that arm of the 
Elbing, which ran from east to west, into the Nogat the eastern branch of the Vistula ; but 
the Vistula comes [sti'^an of Winodlande] out of Weonodland from the south. The two rivers, 
the eastern branch of the Vistula, and the Elbing, flow together under the former name, 
and enter the Frische Haff. This Haff or lake extends from west to north, that is in a 
north-easterly direction and flows into the Baltic at Pillau. Forster then adds : — ** It is 


there are many to>vTis, and in every town there is a king. There 
is also very much honey and fishing. The king and the richest 

possible, that this, as veil as the western arm, may hare formerly borne the name of 
Weichselmimde or the mouth of the Vistula." Koi-them Voyages, p. 71 note 83. 

Barrington translates it :— " The Ilfing, having joined the Wesel, takes its name, and rant 
to the west of Estmere, and northward, into the &ca, when it is called the Wesel's 
mouth.'* p. 17. 

Dr Ingram's translation is, — '*Then the Weissel deprives the Hfing of its name; and, 
flowing from the west part of the lake, at length empties itself northward into the sea; 
whence this point is called the Weissei-mouth." Lect. p. 81. 

Rask gives the whole passage thus : Ilfing lober bsten fra ind i det friske Hav, og kom- 
mer fra den So, paa hvis Brasd Truso staar, de lobe begge tilsammen ud i det friske Hav, 
Ilfing 5sten fra ud af Estland og Vejksel sonden fra ud af Venden, da betager Vejkselen 
Ilfing dens Navn, og lobar fra bemsldte friske HaT nordvest paa ud i Sden, derfor kalder 
man dette [Udlob] Vejkselmundingen. Afhandlinger, p. 325. 

Dalhmann translates the same passage : — " Der Ilfing [Elbing] lauft von Osten in das 
Esthenmeer von der See her, an dessen Gestade Truso steht ; sie stromen beide gemeinsam 
ins Esthenmeer aus, Ilfing aus Osten von Esthland, und die Weichsel aus Siiden von Wen- 
denland ; und hier benimmt die Weichsel dem Ilfing seinen Namen, und strbmt aus dem 
[Esthen-] Meere nordwestlich in die See; davon nennt man das Weichselmiinde." For- 
shungen, p. 428. 

The Uteral translation of the last sentence of the A. S. text is,— Then the Vistula deprives 
the Elbing of its name, and flows out of [of J^sem mere, from or out of the mere or lake : v. 
note 75] the Lake or Haff, west and north into the sea ; therefore, they call it the mouth 
of the Vistula. 

This would seem to imply, that there were then two openings from the Frische Haff, one 
on the west, and the other on the north. This suppo^^ition is not impossible ; for, in different 
ages, there have been four openings from the Frische Haff to the Baltic, one of which was 
near the western extremity of the Haff. [v. note 73.] But these two openings do not 
accord with the conclusion, where the singular is used, " therefore, they call it, the mouth 
of the VUtula." 

Rask and Dahlmann, seeing this difficulty, have given a different translation of " west 
and norS " ; Rask gives " nordvest," and Dahlmann *' nordwestlich." — ^They appear to admit 
of only one gat or opening, and that on the north-west, towards the present Weichselmiinde, 
on the west of the Haff, but without authority from the A. S. text, and without a reference 
to history to prove there was such a gat on the west. 

Though the translation I have given in the text, does not accord with the present locality 
of Weichselmiinde, and it is not translated verbally ; yet, I think, it gives the plain 
meaning. I allude to the latter part of the sentence: and flows out of the Lake [the 
Frische Haff] west and north into the sea ; that is, flows out of the gat or opening at 
Pillau, on the west side of the most northerly part of the Frische Haff, which is west of 

The great dif Acuity here is to ascertain whether there is any truth, in what Forster sug- 
gests, that the gat of Pillau was called Weichselmiinde, as well as the western branch of 
the Vistula, which flows into the Baltic to the north of Danzig. This uncertainty, with some 
other difflculties, has led to several suggestions, one of which is by W. Bell Esqr. Dr Phil, 
who thinks that the Truso of Wulfstan is the present Dirschau about 30 miles south of 
Danzig, and 4 west of the Vistula. He supposes, that the Baltic may have extended so far 
up the valley of the ViBtula, that Dirschau may have been on the shore of the Baltic, in the 


54 OROSIUS, Book I: Chap. I, f 21, 22. 

men drink mare's milk/* but the poor and the slaves drink 
mead/* There is very much war among them ; and there is no 
ale brewed by the Esthonians, but there is mead enough. 

21. Tiiere is also a custom wth the Esthonians/* that when a 
man is dead, he lies, in his house, unburnt with his kindred and 
friends a month, — sometimes two; and the king and other 
men of high rank, so much longer according to their wealth, 
remain mibunit sometimes half a year ; and lie above ground in 
their houses. All the while the body is within, there must be 
drinking and sports to the day, on which he is burned. 

22. Then, the same day, when they wish to bear him to the 
pile, they di\ade his property, which is left after the drinking and 
sports, into five or six parts, sometimes into more, as the amount 
of his property may be. Then, they lay the largest part of it 
within one mile from the town, then another, then the third, till 
it is all laid, within the one mile ; and the least part -shall be 
nearest the town in w^hich the dead man lies. All the men, 
who have the softest horses in the land, shall then be assembled, 
about five or six miles from the property. Then they all run 
towards the property ; and the man, who has the swiftest** horse, 
tomes to the first and the largest part, and so each after the 
other, till it is all taken : and he takes the least part, who runs 
to the property nearest the to^vn. Then each rides aw^ay with 

time of Alfred. See his Ein versucb, den Ort Schiringsheal, &c. p. 8. This supposition seems 
to be surrounded with very great difficulties. 

78 Forster observes : — This mare's milk was not merely milk, but milk which had under- 
gone a kind of fermentation, and was changed into & species of brandy, such as the inhabi- 
tants of the desert plains of Asia Media drink in great quantities, calling it kurayss. . . . 
Adam of Bremen [§ 138] says, that the ancient Prussians ate horse-flesh, and drank the 
milk of their mares to intoxication ; and Peter of Duisburg [§ 80] relates of these people, 
that at their feasts, they drank water, mead, and mare's mili. Northern Voyages, p, 71, 
note 85. 

79 Mead, even so early as in the ninth century, had the name of Medo, medu and meodo 
in Anglo-Saxon; in the Lithuanian tongue it is called Middus; in Polish, Miod ; in Rus- 
sian, Med ; in German, Meth. Hence it appears probable that mead is a beverage of great 
antiquity, as the name, by which it is known, is exactly the same in languagea of so differ- 
ent an origin. With these it is perhaps worth while to compare the Greek verb fie0v» 
J intoxicate, from fi€0u wine. Id. p. 72, note 86. 

80 The following particulars, relating to the manners of the Esthoni&ns n the ninth cen- 
tury, the preservation of which we owe to the diligent pen of King Alfred, form a valuable 
supplement to the short sketches of aboriginal manners delineated by Csesar and Tacitui. 
Ingram's Lect. p. 82, note e. 

81 In A. S. )7aet swifte hors, for J^set twiftoste, the swiftest. 


the property, and may keep it all ; and, therefore, s^vift horses 
are there uncommonly dear. When his property is thus all 
spent, then they carry hira out, and burn him with his weapons 
and clothes." Most commonly they spend all his wealth, with 
the long lying of the dead \Nithin, and what they lay in the way, 
which the strangers run for and take away. 

23. It is also a custom with the Esthonians, that there men of 
every tribe must be burned ; and, if any one find a single bone 
unbumt, they shall make a great atonement." — There is also 
^mong the Esthonians, a power of producing cold ; and, there- 
fore, the dead lie there so long, and decay not,** because they 
bring the cold upon them. And if a man set two vats full 

82 That the ancient Prussians burnt their dead, and buried them together with their 
horses, weapons, clothes, and valuable possessions, appears from a treaty concluded through 
the mediation of the Archdeacon of Liege, in quality of the Pope's Legate, between the 
German Knights and the newly converted Prussians, wherein the Prussians expressly promise 
never in future to bum their dead, nor bury them with their horses, arms, clothes and va- 
luables. Forster^s Northern voyages, p. 72, note 88. 

A similar custom is mentioned, in Cssar*8 Commentaries, as prevailing in Gaul : — " Fun- 
era sunt pro cultu Gallorum maguifica, et sumptuosa ; omniaque, quae vivis cordi fuisse ar- 
bitrantur, in ignem inferunt, etiam animalia ; ac, paulo supra hane memoriam, servi, et 
clientes, quos ab iis dilectos esse constabat, justis funeribus confectis, una cremabantur." 
De Bello Gallic©, L VI, c 19.— The custom of burning the dead, veKpoKavarla, or crema- 
tion, was almost universal, among rude nations, from the age of Homer to that of Alfred. 
Ingram's LecL p 83, note h. 

83 The A. S. geb^tan to atone for, or to make atonement, is similar to the Icl. boeta, 
Swed. bode, to reconcile : miclum dat. pU multo, used adverbially. The atonement, 
sacrifice or offermg, did not apply merely to the individual, but to his whole race, as is 
evident by the pi. hi sceolan they shall. The meaning, as Rask says, is this : — " Saa skulle 
de udsone det med et stort offer." Thus shall they atone for, or expiate this, with a great 
offering, sacrifice, or atonement Afhandlinger, p. 381, note oe. 

Atonement is al-one-ment, an expressive English compound, from afone, to set at one, to 
reconcile, make peace. Thus the Greek of St. Paul, in the Acts— /ral (TwriKaa'ev axrrov^ 
Ci9 €iff)ViiVy Ch. VII, 26, is in our version, '*and would have set them at one again*' : this 
follows Tyndale's translation of 1534 — and wolde have set them at one agayne. — He made 
the J ewes and the Gentiles at one betwene themselues, euen so he made them both at one 
with God, that there should be nothing to breake the atonement. Udal. Ephesians, C. 2. 

84 Phineas Fletcher, who was ambassador fiom Queen Elizabeth to Russia, gives an 
account of the same practice continuing in some parts of Moscovy. " In winter time, 
** when all is covered with snow, so many as die are piled up in a hovel in the suburbs like 
^'bflleta on a wood stack ; they are as hard with the frost as a very stone, till thf spring- 
** tide come and resolve the frost, what time every man taketh hb dead friend, and com- 
** mitteth him to the ground." See a note to one of Fletcher's Eclogues, p. 10, printed at 
Edinburgh, in 1771, 12mo. See also a poem written at Moscow, by G. Tuberville, in the 
first volume of Hakluyt, p. 386, where the same circumstance is dwelt upon, and the 
reason given, that the ground cannot be dug. Bodies, however, are now [1773] buried at 

56 OROSIUS; Book I, Chap. I. f 24^ 25. 

of ale or of water, they cause that either shall be frozen over, 
whether it be summer or winter." ^ 

24. Now will we speak about Greece, on the south of the 
river Danube.* The sea, Propontis, lies on the east of Constan- 
tinople, a city of the Greeks. On the north of Constantinople, 
the arm of the sea shoots up right west from the Euxine ; and, 
on the north-west of the city, the mouth of the river Danube 
shoots out south-east into the Euxine sea; and, on the south 
and on the west side of the mouth, are the Moesians, a tribe of 
Greeks; and, on the west of the city, are the Thracians; and 
on the west" of these, the Macedonians. On the south of 
the city, and on the soufli side of the arm of the sea which 
is called Archipelago [iEgaeum], is the country of the Athe- 
nians and of Corinth. To the south-west of Corinth is the 
country of Achaia, by the Mediterranean Sea. These countries 
are peopled by Greeks. On the west of Achaia, along the Medi- 
terranean, is the country Dalmatia, on the north side of the sea ; 
and on the north of Dalmatia are the Bulgarians, and Istria. On 
the south of Istria is that part of the Mediterranean Sea, which is 
called Adriatic; and on the west, the Alpine mountains; and 
on the north, that waste, which is between Carinthia and the 

25. Then the country of lTALY,f extends a long way north-west, 
and south-east; — and all around it lies the Mediterranean Sea, 
save on the north-west. At that end, it is bounded by the 

Moscow during the winter. D. B. — At the poem of G. Tuberville, to wliich Mr 
Barrington refers, in Hakluyt, is addressed to so great a poet af Spenser, the reader may 
perhaps be amused with the following specimen, relating to the subject. 

Perhaps tbou tnuiest much, how this nay stand with reason, 
That b«)die8 dead can nncomipt abide, so long a season ! 
Take this for certain trothe : as soon as heate is gone. 
The force of colde the body binds as hard as any stone, 
Without offence at all, to any living thing ; 
And so they lye in perfect tute, till next retume of springe.** 

Ikokam's Lkct. p. 94, note m. 

85 This power, so much admired by King Alfred, of producing cold either in summer or 
in winter, by which the putrefaction of dead bodies was prevented, and ale and water were 
frozen, must have been effected by some sort of ice-house, and this, every Pru»sian of auy 
consequence had in, or near his house. Forster's Northern Voyages, p. 73. 

SG A. S. and be eastan J'aere byrig, and on the east of the city, note 89. 

* Partly from Oros. 1. I, c. 2, Haver, p. 23, 24 : see note 88. 

t Partly from Oros. 1. I, c. 2, Haver, p. 24. 


mountains called the Alps : these begin on the west, from the 
Mediterranean Sea, in the country Narbonensis, and end again on 
the east in the country of Dalmatia by the^[ Adriatic] Sea. 

26. The countries called Gallia Belgica*: — on the east of 
these is the river Rhine, and on the south the mountains called 
the Alps, and on the south-west the ocean which is called Britan- 
nic ; and on the north, on the other side of the arm of the ocean, 
is the country Britain. On the west of the Loire is the country 
Aquitania ; and, on the south of Aquitania, is some part of the 
country Narbonensis; and on the south-west the country of 
Spain; and, on the west, the ocean. On the south of Narbo- 
nensis is the Mediterranean Sea, where the river Rhone empties 
itself ; and, on the east of it, Provence ; and on the west of it, 
over the wastes, the nearer Spain [Hispania Citerior], and on the 
west and north, Aquitania; and Gascony on the north. Pro- 
vence has, on the north of it, the Alps ; and on the south of it is 
the Mediterranean Sea ; and, on the north and east of it, are the 
Burgundians, and on the west the Gasconians. 

27. The country of Spain f is three-cornered, and all encom- 
passed with water by the Atlantic*' ocean without, and by the 
Mediterranean Sea within, more than the countries named be- 
fore. One of the corners lies south-west, opposite to the island, 
called Crdiz, and another east, opposite the country Narbonensis, 
and the third north-west, towards Betanzos, a city of Galicia, 
and opposite Scotland [Ireland], over the arm of the sea, right 
against the mouth of the river called the Shannon. As to that 
part of Spain," more distant from us, on the west of it, and on 
the north is the ocean, on the south the Mediterrannean Sea, and 
on the east the nearer Spain ; on the north of which are the 

• Oros. L I, c 2. Harer. p. 25. t Oros. L I, c. 2. Haver, p, 25, 26. 

87 Literally : — and all encompassed with water without, and also encompassed within, 
more than [ofer over, ahove, more than] those lands [)7a land those lands, or countriea 
Provence, Aquitania, and Gallia Belgica] both by the ocean and by the Mediterranean 

88 It must be recollected, that Orofius is stipposed to spealc, anH not Alfred. — The 
royal Geographer, indeed, appears to have deserted Orosius entirely, as an insufHcient 
guide, till he came to those territories, which arc situated to the south of the Danube. 
This, therefore, is the only part of his description which can be strictly considered as a 
translation. The division also of all Europe into the countriea lying north and south of 
the Danube^ to clear and simple, which is completely original, shews how much we owe to 
King Alfred. Ingram*s Lect p. 86, note q. 

58 OROSIUS; Book I: cuaf. I, | 28, 20. 

Aquitani, and on the north-east the forest of the PjTenees, J and 
on the east Narbonensis, and on the south the Mediterranean 

28. The island Britain. — It extends || a long way north-^ast ; 
it is eight liundred miles long, and two hundred miles broad. On 
the south of it, and on the other side of the arm of the sea, is 
Gallia Belgica; and on the west part, on the other side of the 
sea, is the island Hibemia"; and on the north part, the Ork- 
ney islands §. Ireland, which we call Scotland, is on every side 
surrounded by the ocean ; and because it is nearer the setting of 
the sun than other lands, the weather is milder there, than in 
Britain. Then on the north-west of Ireland, is that outmost land 
called Thule ; and it is known to few because of its great dis- 
tance. — Thus, have we spoken about the bomidaries of all Eu- 
rope, as they lie. 

29. Now, we will [speak] of Africa,* and how the boundaries 
lie around it. — Our elders said, that it was the third part of this 
mid-earth, not because there was so much of the land, but be- 
cause the Mediterranean Sea has so divided it : because it breaks 
more into the south part than it does into the north; and the 
heat has taken more hold on the south part, than the cold has on 
the north ; and because every creature can better withstand cold, 
than heat ; for these reasons, Africa is less than Europe, both in 
land and in men. 

I Pyrensei saltus a parte septeutrionis. Ores. 1. I, c. II. Haver, p. 26, 8. — A. S. Be 

norJTnn eastati is se weald Pireni. 

II Britannia oceani insula, per longum in boream extenditur. Oros. 1. T, c. II. Haver, 
p. 27. 4. 

89 Ibernia, Hibernia, Igbemia, now Ireland, was denominated Scotland from about the 
fifth to the eleventh century. Tlie Scoti were first beard of, as inhabiting Iieland. As 
they imposed their name on H ibernia, so in settling in North Britain they gave it the name 
of Scotland, which it still retains. [See note 54 : Also Alfred's Orosius § 3 note 7] Bede 
says, •' Haec [Hibernia] proprie patria Scottorum est." I. I, c. 1 ; p. 42. So in Alfred's 
translation. ITiis [Hibernia] is agendlice Scotta cj>el. id. p. 474. — Diodorus Siculus calls 
Ibernia, 'I/)t9, Strabo *l€/>i^, ^lepvU v^<ro<:^ Ptolemy *Iov€pvia, Poroponiut Mela Ju- 
vema, Claudian lerna. In the names Iris, lema, Juverna, Hibernia, the native Irish, 
Eri or Ir is discoverable. Tlie Irish, to indicate a country, prefix Hy, or Hua denoting 
" the [dwelling of the] sons, or family of." In prefixing Hy to a name beginning with t 
vowel, a consonant is often inserted, thus; Hy-v-Each, the country or descendants of Each 
or jEacus. This prefix requires a genitive, which in Eri is Erin : and thus, all the vari- 
ations in the name seem to be accounted for, — as Eri, or Ire-land; Hy-b-emia, Hibernia,' 
— Hy-ernis, lemis. 

§ Orcadas insulas habet. Ores. 1. I, c. II. Haver, p. 27, 10.— A. S. Orcadua pmt igland. 
• Oros. I. I : c. 11. Haver, p. 28, 29. 


30. On the east, Africa begins, as we said before, westward of . 
Egypt, at the river Nile. Then the most easterly country is 
called Libya f Cyrenaica ; on the east of it is the nearer Egypt, 
and on the north the Mediterranean Sea, [and on the south the 
countiy] that is called Libya ^^thiopum; and on the west the 
Syrtis Major. 

31. On the west of Libya iEthiopum is the farther Egypt J ; and 
on the south the sea which is called iEthiopic ; and, on the west 
the Troglodytae. The countrj^ Tripolitana, which is also called 
Arzuges : — It has, on the east of it, the Syrtis Major, and the 
country of the Troglodytae ; and on the north the [part of the] 
Mediterranean Sea, which is called Adriatic, and the country 
which is called Syrtis Minor ; and, on the west, to the salt lake, 
Byzacium ; and, on the south of it to the ocean, the Natobres, 
and GetuU, and Garamantes. 

32. The country Byzacium, || in which is the city Adrumetus, and 
Seuges, and the great city Carthage, and the region of Numidia. 
They have, on the east of them, the country Syrtis Minor, and 
the salt lake ; and, on the north of them, is the Mediterranean 
Sea ; and, on the w est of them, Mauretania : and, on the south 
of them, the mountains Uzera ; and, on the south of the moun- 
tains to the ocean, the ever-wandering ^Ethiopians. — Maiu-etania : 
— On the east of it is Numidia ; and, on the north, the Mediter- 
ranean Sea; and, on the west, the river Malva; and on the 
south, Astria, about the mountains, which separate § the fruit- 
bearing land, and the barren whirling-sand, which then lies south 
all the way to the ocean. — Mauretania is called also Tingitana. 
On the east of it, is the river Malva; and, on the north, the 
mountains, Albenas, and Calpe another mountain, where the end 
shoots up from the ocean, between the mountains eastward, where 
the pillars of Hercules stand ; - and, on the west of them to the 
ocean is the mountain Atlas; and, on the south, the mountain 
called Hesperium ; and, on the south of them to the ocean, the 
country Aulolum. — Thus have w^e spoken about the landmarks 
of Africa. 

t Oro«. L I : c. II. Haver, p. 29. t Oros. 1. 1 : c. II. Haver, p. SO. 

I] Bisacium, Byzacena Regio, l5v^aKtx>v, fiv^Kh X^P^ ^® ^^^^^^ P^^ of Tunis. Oros. 
1. 1 : c. II. Haver, p. 30. 

f Qui dividit inter vivam tcrram et arenas jacentes usque ad Oceanum. — ^Tingitana 
Mauritania ultima est Africae. Oros. 1. 1 : c. II. Haver, p. 31. 

60 OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. I, f , 33—36. 

33. Now, we vnll speak about the islands,f w hich are in the 
Mediterranean Sea. — The island Cyprus lies opposite Cilicia and 
Isanria, on the arm of the sea which is called Issicus.^ It is a 
hundred and seventy five miles long, and a hundred and twenty 
two miles broad. — The island, Crete : — On the east of it, is the 
sea which is called Carpathian ; and westerly, and on the north, 
the Cretan Sea ; and, on the west, the Sicilian, which is also called 
the Adriatic. It is a hundred and seventy miles long, and fifty 
miles broad. 

34. Of the islands, called Cyclades % there are fifty three. On 
the east of them, is the Icarian sea ; and, on the south, the Cre- 
tan; and, on the north, the iEgaean; and, on the west, the 

35. The island, Siqly || is three-cornered. At each comer there 
are hills '* : the north comer is called Peloms, near to which is 
the city Messina: the south corner is called Pachynum, near 
which is the city Syracuse ; and the west corner is called lily- 
baeum, near which is the city Lilybaeum. On the north and south," 
it is a hundred and fifty-seven miles long; and the third side, 
along the [east] " is a hundred and seventy seven. On the east 
of the land is [that part of] the Mediterranean Sea, which is 
called Adriatic ; and, on the south, that which is called African ; 
and, on the west, what is called Tyrrhenian ; and, on the north, 
is the sea, which is both narrow and rough, towards Italy. 

36. The islands, Sardinia § and Corsica are separated by a little 
arm of the sea, which is twenty two miles broad. — Sardinia is 

t Oroa. I. I : c. II, Haver, p. 32. 

J O I<T<TLKO% KoKiro^ Issicus sinus: Issicum sinum vocant. Oros. 1. I: c II, Ha- 
ver, p. 32. 

f Insulsp Cyclades sunt numero quinquaginta tres. Oros. 1. I : c. II« Haver, p. 32. — 
They were called KVKXdh^^, because they lay iv KXUcKup in a circle. 
I) Oros. l I : c. II. Haver, p. 33. 

90 A. S. beorgas. Oros. promontoria, from promontorium. i. e. mons in mare prominens. 

91 lliere is not in the text, the usual accuracy observed in giving the dimendons of this 
island. Dr Smith gives them thus : — **The north and south sides are about 175 mDes each 
in length, not including the windings of the coast; and the length of the east side is about 
115 miles." Classical Diet of Geog. &c. Svo. 1850. 

92. A. S. west-lang. Here seems to be some mistake ; for, the north and south-west sides 
having been named, there only remains the east to be mentioned. The scribe seems to 
have erroneously written west-lang instead of east-lang. 

f Oros. 1. 1, c. II : Haver, p. 33, 34. 


thirty three miles long, and tvrenty two miles broad. On the 
east of it, is [that part of] the Mediterranean Sea, which is called 
T}Trhenian, into which the river Tiber flows. On the south is 
the sea which lies towards the country of Numidia ; and, on the 
west, the two islands which are called Baleares; and, on the 
north, the island Corsica. 

37. Corsica : — On the east of it is the city of Rome ; and, on 
the south, Sardinia ; and, on the west, the Balearic islands ; and, 
on the north, the country of Tuscany. It is sixteen miles long, 
and nine miles broad. 

38. The two islands, Baleares : ♦ — On the [south] " of them, 
is Africa ; and Cadiz on the west, and Spain on the north. — We 
have now spoken shortly about the inhabited islands, that are in 
the Mediterranean Sea. 

Book I : Chapter Il.f 
1. One thousand three hundred years before the building of 
Rome, » [B. C. 2053 : Clinton, B, C. 2182.] Ninus, king of 
Assyria, first began to reign in this mid-earth; and, from an 
immeasurable longing for power, he harassed and fought for fifty 
years, until he had brought all Asia under his sway, from the 
Red Sea on the south, to the Euxine on the north. He, more- 
over, often went with great armies into the north country of the 
Scj-thians, who are said to be the hardiest of men; though, in 
worldly goods, they are the poorest. "VVliilst he was fighting with 
them, they became skilful in the arts of war, ' though before they 
lived a peaceable life. They afterwards bitterly repaid him for 
the art of war, * which they had learned from him ; and, in their 

• Oros. 1. I : c. 2. Haver, p. 34. 

93 A. S. benoT^an. 

t Oros. 1. I : c. 4. Haver; p. 37 — 39. The 3rd chapter of Orosias, " De dilurio sub 
Noe," Alfred has entirely omitted. 

I Before the building of Rome 1300 years, add 753 years, from the foundation of Rome 
to the birth of Christ, make 2053 years, B. C, according to Orosius. — Blair says, the 
kingdom of Assyria began under Ninus, B. C. 2059 ; but Clinton states, that the Assyrian 
Chronology of Ctesias, according to Diodorus, gives B. C. 2182, for the beginning of the 
Assyrian empire. Then, B. C. 2182, take 50 years, the reign of Ninus, make 2132 yean 
B. C. for the death of Ninus, and the beginning of Semiramis's reign. She reigned 42 years ; 
and, therefore, [from 2132 take 42, make 2(i90] she died B. C. 2090. As these dates 
appear to be the most correct, they are given in the text, and at the head of the page. 
Clinton's dates are generally adopted for the Chronology of Greece and Rome. See An 
epitome of the civfl and literary chronolog)' of Greece, etc. by Henry Fjmes Clinton Esqr. 
M. A. late Student of Christ's Church. Svo. Oxford, 1851. pp. 101—114. 

7 A. S. wig-crsefta, war-crafts. 3 A. S. wig-craeft, war-craft 


G2 OROSIUS; Book 1: Cuap. Ill, | 1. [s. c 2183 

minds, it was as agreeable to see the shedding of man's blood, as 
it was to see the milk of their cattle, upon which they mostly 
lived. Ninus overcame and slew Zoroaster, king of the Bactrians, 
who was the first man, that knew the arts of the wizzard. * At 
last, when he w as in a city fighting against the Scythians, he was 
there shot dead with an arrow. 

2. After liis death Semiramis, his queen, succeeded, both to the 
war and to the kingdom. For forty t^vo years, she carried on 
the same war, which she brought upon herself by her manifold 
wicked desires. Still, the power, which the king had gained, 
seemed too little for her ; and, therefore, with womanly zeal, she 
fought against the harmless people of Ethiopia ; and against the 
Indians, w ith whom no man but Alexander, either before or since, 
went to war. She wished to overcome them in war, though she 
could not accomplish it. Such desires and wars were then more 
fearful than they now are, because they before knew no example 
of them, as men now do ; for they lived a harmless life. 

3. The same queen Semu-amis, after the kingdom was in her 
power, w as not only always thirsting for man's blood ; but also, 
with unbounded profUgacy, formed plans for such manifold lewd- 
ness, that she enticed to her bed every one of those, that she 
knew to be of the king's family, and aftenvards, with guile, put 
them all to death. Then, at last, she took her own son to her 
bed ; and, because she could not fulfil her wicked desire without 
the infamy of mankind, she published, over all her kingdom, that 
there should be no bar to mamage between any kindred. 

Book I : Chapter III.* 
1. One thousand one hundred and sixty years before the build- 
ing of Rome, [B. C. 1913 : Blair, B. C. 1897] the fruitful land, 
on w^hich were the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, was burnt up 
by fire from heaven. That [land] was between Arabia and Pales- 
tine. There w^as an abundance of fruit, chiefly because the river 

4 A. S. dry-cracftas, wizzard-crafts. 

• Oros. LI: c. 5. Haver, p. 40—43. — Alfred omits the first part cf this chapter, which 
relates to Pentapolis [JTfi/TaTToXi?] the five "cities of the plain" [Gen. XIII, 12] of sou- 
them Jordan, Sodoui, Gomorrah, Adama, Zehoimand Zoar, all of vliich, except Zoar, were 
destroyed, and the valley in which they stood was huried heneath the waters of the Dead Sea. 
Pentapolis is mentioned in the Book of Wisdom, X, 6, where Lot is said to have escaped 
Kara^ddLov irvp IleinairoK£<as* The other parUi of this chapter, Alfred haa much 


Jordan, every year, overflowed the mid-land with water a foot 
deep ; and thus manured it. 

2. Then the people immoderately enjoyed this great wealth, 
till great sensuality waxed within them ; and, for this sensuality, 
God's wrath so came upon them, that he burnt up all the land 
with sulphurous fire. Afterwards there was standing-water over 
the land, through which the river formerly flowed. The part of 
the dale, which the flood did not reach, is to this day fertile in 
fruits of every kind ; ' and they are very fair, and pleasant to look 

1 Tills isnot in the original Latin of Orosius, as edited by Havercamp, but the edition 
of 1471 by Schuszler [see Introduction p. 10 note 2] contains the whole sentence. This 
would lead to the conclusion, that Alfred translated from a MS. connected with that from 
which Schuszler printed [Seech. XIV, § 3, note 1]. The edition of 1471 inserts— " Spcctes 
illic poma virentia et f ormatos uvarum racemos, ut edentibus gignant cupiditatem, si carpas, 
fatiscunt in cinerera, fumumque excitant, quasi ardeant.** — Hegesippus, and S. Ambrose 
make tlie same btatement, in ahnost the very same words : see Hegesippus, or Egesippus, 
De bello Judaico et urbis Hierosolymorum excidio, Paris, 1511. Book IV, ch. 18. 

Though roM uu is employed to denote any kind of fruit, as an apple, pear, plum, peach, 
chcrrj*, grape, olive, nut, etc. [ Valpy's Etym. Diet.] like the Spanish and Italian pumo, yet 
p6mo, in these languages, is particularly used, as the French pommc, only for the fruit of the 
apple tree. Hence perhaps, the Latin poma has been taken in \U restricted sense, to sig- 
nify apples. Hence also, the expression poma Sodomitica has been translated the Apples 
of Sodom, and the prevalent impression that the f ult of Sodom here alluded to, as well as that 
by which Eve was tempted, was an apple. 

It is pretty clear, that the poma Sodomitica gave rise to the strange story, that all the 
fruits, growing near the Dead sea, though beautiful to the sight, dissolved into smoke and 
ashes, when they were gathe ed. This exaggerated storj-, though alluded to by Straho, seems 
to have been first generally propagated by Josephus, who, ho'vever, o'firms, that he had it 
from eye-witnesses. His words are these— *.E<7Tt Be Kav Tol^ Kapiroh <nroBiav avayev- 
va)fjLivT)v, [IBelv] o? \p6av fihf exovai T0Z9 eSwSi/xot? ofwiav, Bpe-^^afiivcov Bi 
')(€p<Tlv eU Kairvov avoKvovrat Kal ricf-pav tu fi'ip B) irepl ttjv SoBofi^rv 
fjLV0€v6fi€va TOLauTi]V €)(€L TTLCTtv UTTO T^9 3>|r€a>9, Ir.-upcr et in fructibus cineres 
renasccntes, qui specie quidem et colore edulibus similes sunt, manibus autem decerpti in 
favillam et cinerem resolvuntur. Atque his quidem, de terra Sodomitica narratis, ejusmodi 
fides habetur ex testibus oculatis. Flavii Josephi de bello Jud. Lib. IV, cap. VIII, § 4. 
Hudson, p. 1195, line 40. 

The fruit is mentioned by Pliny, 1. V, c. 17 : Solinus c. 36 and others have given the same 
story as Josephus, with some alterations and additions. Tacitus says. — " Terramque ipsam 
specie torridam vim frugiferam perdidisse. Nam cuncta sponte edita, aut manu sata, sive 
licrbiB tenues aut flores, .1 solitam in spcciem adolev^re, atra et inania velut in cinerem 
vanescunt." Hist. 1. V, c. 6. — Syr John dc Maimdeville, in his ** Voiage and Travailes '* 
written about 1.122, gives the story thus. — And there groweth trees, that beareth fruit of 
fair coloui*, seerocth ripe, and when men breaketh it, they findeth them nought but ashes, 
in tokening that, through vengeance of God, those cities were burnt with fire of hell. — 

This diversity of description seems to have arisen from the indefinite expressions of the 
promulgators of the story — the Kapiro^ of Josephus, and the pomum of others. It has 
been previously stated, that pomum was used to denote an apple, a plum, grape, etc. 
Though there is much exaggeration on the subject, there must have been some truth in it, 
for Moses speaks of the fruit of Sodom, in the ears of all the congreg<ition of Israel, and sursly 
he would not have mentioned tliis extraordinary fruit, if his hearers had not known of its 

61 OROSJUS; Book I : Chap. Ill, | 2. [s. c. 1897 

upon ; but, when they are taken into the hand, they turn to 


existence. Moses cnly mentions the " >ine of Sodom,** and that metaphorically, in the 
follcving manner,— **' But their vine, [is] of the vme of Sodom, and of the fifcld of 
Gomorrah ; their grapes [are] the grapes of tTH poison, their clusters are bitter : their 
wine is the poison of dragons.** Deut. XXXII, 32. 

Michaclis, in his Recueil, Quest 64: and suppl. ad Lex. Heb. p. 345, layt. that the 
vine of Sodom is tlie Solanmn or night-shade, which bears a considerable resemblance to 
the %'itis or white. vine, in its leaves and frtiit, which is vinous but poisonous, and which 
the Arabs call 273^? ^M 32^ Fox-grapes. See Parkhurst's Hebrew Lex. under pS. 

In the Solanum, night-shade, or fox-grape, though resemblmg the vine, there is nothing 
like explosion, nothing like fmoke and ashes, as Hasselquist remarks, *' except when the 
fruit is punctured by an insect [Tenthredo], which converts the whole inside into dost, 
leaving notliing but the rind entire without any loss of colour." Therefore, Dr Robert;on 
objects to the Solanum, and thinks that the Asclepias gigantia vel procera of Botanists 
[Sprengel Hist Rei Herbar. I. p. 232] is more in accordance with the ancient story, 
especially as, in Palestine, it is peculiar to the shores of the Dead Sea, while the Solannm 

is found in other parts of the country. The Asclepias, called by the Arabs j &wW el-osher, 
was seen by Dr Robertson ahout the middle of the western shore of the Dead Sea. He 
thus describes the fruit of the Asclepias or bjher. " Externally it greatly resembles a 
large smooth apple or orange, hanging in clusters of three or four together ; and, when 
ripe, it is of a yellow colour. It was now fair and delicious to the eye, and soft to the 
toucli : but, on being pressed or struck, it exploded with a puff, like a bladder or puff-ball, 
leaving in the hand only the shreds of the thin rind, and a few fibres.** — " It must he 
plucked and handled with great care to preserve it from bursting.** Jo«ephus states in the 
preceding Greek quotation that " there are still to be seen ash?s reproduced in the fruits, 
which indeed resemble edible fruit in colour ; but, on being plucked with the hands <^ 
dissolved into smoke and ashes." Dr Robertson then observes, " In this account, afters 
due allowance for the marvellous, in all popular reports, 1 find nothing which does not 
cpplv almost literally to the fruit of the osher, as we saw it** 

\\ e noticed several osher trees, the trunks of which were six or eight inches in diameter, 
and t!:e whole height from ten to fifteen feet. They had a grayish cork-like bark, and 
long oval leaves. See Dr Robertson's Biblical Researches in Palestine, &c. 3 vols, Sro. 
London vol. II, p. 235-—238. 

Dr Robertson seems to have been influenced by the popular oi:inion that this fruit of 
Sodom was .in apple — the Hebrew mCH an apple, or rather the citron, lemon or orange. 

The Honourable Mr Curzon, in his recent and most interesting work — "Visits to the 
Moi-r.-tcrics of the Levant,*' thinks he has discovered this fruit of Sodom in what had the 
f.ppcarancc of a plum. His account of the discovery is so graphic, thr.t it must be given 
in his ov.n words. *• We made a somewhat singular discover}', whej travelling among the 
mountains to the ea>t of the Dead Sea, where the ruins of Ammon, Jerash, and Adjelotbi 
v»ell repay the labour and fatigue encountered by visiting them. It was a remarkably hot 
and sultry day : we were scrambling up the mountains through a thick jungle of bushes 
and low trees, v.hich rises above the eas«t shore of the Dead Sea, when I saw before me s 
fine plum-tree, loaded with fresh blooming plums. I cried out to my fellow traveller, * Kow, 
then, who will arrive first at the plumtree? * And, as he caught a glimpse of so refreshing 
an object, we both pressed our horses mto a gallop, to see which would get the first plum 
from the branches. We both arrived at the same moment, and each snatching a fine ripe 
plum, put it at once into our mouths ; when, on biting it, instead of the cool, delicious, 
juicy fruit which we expected, our mouths were filUd with a dry, bitter dust, and we sat 
under the tree upon our horses, sputtering, and hemming, and doing all we could to be 
relieved of the nauseous taste of this strange fruit. We then perceived, and to my great 
delight, that we had discovered the famous apple of the Dead Sea, the existence of 


B. c. 1823 ; 1715] OF CANDIA : JOSEPH IN EGYPT. 66 

Book I : Chapter IV.* 
1. One thousand and seventy yeai^s before the building of 
Rome [Orosius B. C. 1823], the people of Candia [Telchines] 
and Scai-panto [Carpathus] began a war. and can-ied it on, till 
they were all slam, save very few. However, those Candians, 
that were left there, gave up their land and went to the island of 
Rhodes, hoping that they had fled from all war, but there the 
Greeks found them and utterly put an end to them. 

Book I : Chapter V.f 
r. Eight hundred years before the building of Rome [Orosius B. 

C. 1761 : Blair, B. C. 1715], the Egyptians had verj- great fertility 
in their land, for seven years ; and afterwards, they were in the 
greatest famine for the next seven years. Then Joseph, a righte- 
ous man, helped them by divine aid. Of this Joseph, Pompeius, 
the heathen bard, and his follower Justin, * thus said : — Joseph 
was the youngest of his brethren, and also the wisest of them all ; 
so that the brethren, being afraid, took Joseph and sold him to 
chapmen, and they sold him into the land of Egypt. Pompeius 
also said, that he there leai-nt the arts of magic, and that by these 

which has been doubted and canvassed since the days of Strabo and Pliny, who first 
described it ; but, up to this time, no one had met with the thing itself, either upon the 
spot mentioned by the ancient authors, or elsewhere. I brought several of them to 

This deceitful apple is a kind of gall-apple, about 2 inches long, produced by a small 
insect. " A kind of oak-gall, formed by an insect upon the branches of a species of ilex, 
and is the only fmit or apple hitherto met with by travellers, which answers the description 
of tiie ancient writers, though the gourds of the colchicum, solanum melongena called 
abeschaez, the osher plant — have been by some thought to be the one in quest^.** 

Alter taking into consideration, what travellers have written, on this^ubject, it is 
difficult to determine, which is correct, and what particular fruit is meant when we speak 
of the apple or raiher the fruit of Sodom. There seems to be some ground for the ;tate- 
ment of Josephus, that the fruit ** dissolved into smoke and ashes," if his informant had 
seen the gall-apple, mentioned by Mr Curzon as like " fresh blooming plums." But even 
tJhe fruit iteelf, us well as the sort of fruit, is doubtful. Neither Maundrell nor Came could 
see or hear any thing of the Apple of Sodom, and neither they nor Lord Bacon believed 
that it had any existence. The scriptural statemant^ as to the " vine of Sodom," cannot be 
doubted, and it seems to be followed by Orosius iu his "formates uvarum racemos." In 
this case, the Solanum would appear to be the f uit [not the apple] of Sodom alluded to, 
and mentioned by Michaelis and Hasselquist, especially if what the latter has said be 
considered, that when the fniit of the Solanum is punctured by an insect, the whole inside 
is converted into dust, without any loss v/f fulness or colour. 

* Alfred has omitted the sixth chapter of Orosius, Comparatio cladis Sodomitics et 
Roman®, Haver, p. 43, 44 : and, in this IV chapter, he comprises the VII Chap, of Orosius, 
Haver, p. 45 — 47. 

t Oros. L I : c. 8, Haver, p. 48--5]. 

1 Justin, 1. XXXVI, c. 2. 

GO OROSIUS; Boor I : Cuaf. VI, § 1. [b. c 1715 

arts he used to work many wonders, — ^that he could thus well 
explain dreams ; and that, therefore, by this art he became very 
dear to Pharaoh, the king. He [Pompeius] said that he [Joseph] 
by the art of magic had so learned divine ^visdom, that he had 
foretold the fruitfulness of the land for those seven years, and the 
want of the next seven years, that came after ; and how, by his 
wisdom, he stored up in the former seven years, so that during 
the following seven years, he supported all the people in the great 
famine. He said that Moses was Joseph's son,* and that the arts 
of magic were naturally from him, because he ^vrought many 
Vv^onders among the Egyptians. For the plague, which came 
upon the land, the bard said that the Egj'ptians drove out Moses 
with his people ; because, Pompeius and the Eg}Tptian priests 
said that the godlike wonders, which were wTOught in their land, 
were ascribed not to the true God, but to their own gods, which 
are idols, because their gods are teachers of the arts of magic. 
The people still keep up this token of Joseph's law, because, 
every year, they give up, as tribute to the king, the fifth part of 
all the fruits cf the earth. 

2. The famine in Egj-pt was in the days of the kinjr, who is 
called Amasis, though it was their custom to call all their kings, 
Pharaoh. At the same time, Belus reigned in Assyria, where 
Ninus wa-. lefore. Among the people, called Argives, Ap?s reign- 
ed as king. At that time, there were not any kings, except in 
these three kingdoms, but afterwards their example was followed 
over all the world. It is a wonder, that the Egyptians felt so 
little thanks to Joseph for his having rid them of the famine, that 
they soon dishonoured his kindred, and made them all their slaves. 
So Hiso it is still, in all the world : if God, for a very long time, 
grant any one his will, and he then takes it away for a less time, 
he soon forgets the good, which he had before, and thinks upoi\ 
the evil which he then hath.' 

Book I ; Chapter VI.* 
1. Eight hunch'cd winters and ten years before the building of 

2 Orosius Las : — Filius Joseph Moyses fuit [non secundum camem, sed secundum na- 
turam , quia filius Mambre fuit Muses ;] quern praeter patemse scieniia? hrereditatem etiam 
formae pulchritudo commendabat. 1. I : c. 8. Haver, p. 48, 49, and note 10. 

3 This is one of those beautiful moral conclusions of Alfred, which he so frequently addi 
to his version of Boethi as. 

• Oros. 1. 1 : c. 9. Haver, p. 51, 52. 


Rome [Orosius, B. C. 1563], Amphictyon, tlie king reigiied in 
Athens, a city of the Greeks. He was the third king that reigned 
after Cecrops, who was the first king of that city. In the time 
of this Amphictyon, there was so great a flood over all the 
world, — thoug-h most in Thessaly, a Grecian city, about the 
mountams, called Parnassus, where king Deucalion reigned, — 
that almost all the people perished. King Deucalion received all 
those, that fled to him in ships to the mountains, and fed them 
there. Of this Deucahon, it was said, as a proverb, that he was 
the parent of mankind, as Noah w^as. 

2. In those days, there was the greatest pestilence among the 
Ethiopians, a people of Africa ; so that few of them were left. — 
It was also, in those days, that Liber Pater overcame the harm- 
less people of India, and almost brought them to an end, either 
by drunkenness, by lusts, or by manslaughter : nevertheless, 
after his days, they had him for a god ; and they said that he- 
was lord of all war. 

Book I : Chapter VI L* 

1. Eight hundred and five years, before the building of Rome 
[B. C. 1558 : Blair, B. C. 1491], Moses led the people of Israel 
out of Egyi)t, after the many wonders, that he had done there. — 
The first was, that their waters became blood. — Then, the second 
was, that frogs came over all the land of the Eg}'ptians, so many 
that no work could be done, nor any meat cooked, that there 
was not nearly as much of the vermin, as of the meat, ere it was 
cooked. — After that, a third evil was, that gnats came over all 
the land, both within and without, with fire-smarting bites, and 
gave endless pain to man and beast. — Then, the fourth was, 
w^hat was most disgraceful of all, that dog-fhes * came over all 
xnankind; and they crept upon men, between the thighs, and 
over all the limbs, as it was w^ell fittmg that God should bring 
low the greatest pride, with the most vile and disgraceful punish- 
ment. — The fifth was the death of their cattle. — The sixth was, 
that all the people had blisters, which painfully burst, and then 

• Oros. 1. I. c. 10. Haver, p. 52—57. 

1. A. S. Hundes fleogan, literally hound's or dog's flies. Orosius wrote: — Post muscas 
caninas, ctiam per interiora xnembronim horridis motibus cursitantes, acerbeque inferentcs 
tarn graviora tormeDta quam turpia. Haver, p. 55, — In Exod. VIII, 21. it is translated, — Ic 
send eaU fleogena cyun. 

68 OROSIUS ; Book I: Chap. VII, | 2. [b. c 1558 

putrid matter oozed out, — The seventh was, that there came 
hail, which was mingled vnth fire, so that it slew both the men 
and the cattle, as well as all that was waxing and growing in the 
land. — The eighth was, that locusts came and ate all the blades 
of grass, that were above the earth ; and also gnawed the germs, 
and roots. — ^The ninth was, that there came hail, and so great a 
darkness, both by day and night, and so thick that it might be 
felt — ^The tenth was, that all the young men and all the maidens, 
who were the first-born in the land, were killed in one night ; 
and, though the people would not before bow down to God, they 
now un\nllingly yielded to him. As they before hindered Moses 
and his people, from going away, so now they were much more 
eager that they should go from them. But their repentance 
very soon turned to a worse resolve. The Idng then, with his 
people, quickly followed after them, and wished to turn them 
back to Egypt. Pharaoh tlie king had six hundred war-chariots, 
and so gi-eat was his other army, that we may know why those 
were afraid, that were with Aloses: there were six hundred 
thousand men ! However, God lessoned Pharaoh's great multi- 
tude, and brought low their overv^eening pride, — and dried up 
the Red Sea into twelve ways, before Moses and his people, 
so that they went over the sea with dry feet. When the Egj-p- 
tians saw that, then their magicians, Geames, and Mambres,* 
encouraged them ; and they trusted, that, through their arts of 
magic, they might go the same way. When they were wdthin 
the passage of the sea, then were they all overwhehned and 
drowned. The mark, where the wheels of the war-chariots went, 
is still to be seen on the sea-shore. God gives this as a sign to all 
mankind : though the wnd, or sea-flood, cover it over with sand, 
yet it is seen again, as it was before ! 

2. At that time, there was such excessive heat in all the world, 

1. These names are the addition of Alfred. He evidently refers to the 2ud of Timothy, 
III, 8, which the Vulgate gives, " lannes et Mambres restiterunt Moysi." Our authorixed 
Tersion has, " Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses." The names are not giren in Exodoi 
VII, II, but St Paul quotes them from the old records of the /ews. The Targum of Jona- 
than ben Uzziel writes them " Janis and Jambris ": the Babylonian Talmud, " Joanne and 
Mambre.'* — Wiclifs version of A. D. 1380 has, lammesand Manbrcs agenstoden Moiset— 
Tyndale in 1534, Cranmer in 1539, and the Geneva in 1557, have, " lannes and lambres:" 
the Rheims in 1582 has, ** lannes and Mambres*' — and our authorized version of 1611 has, 
•* lannes and lambres." The larames or Jammes and Mambres of Wiclif, and of the Vul- 
gate, in Anglo-Saxon times, would be Alfred's " Geames and Mambres." 


that men not only suffered much, but nearly all the cattle died. 
The most southern Ethioinans had bmrning instead of heat ; and 
the most northern Scythians unknown heat. Then many unwise 
men used this saying and leasing-speech, that the heat was not 
for their sins ; Imt said, that it was for the fault of Phaeton,* who 
was only a man. 

Book I : Chapter VII L* 

1. Six hundred and five years before the building of Rome, 
[Alfred, B. C. 1358, Orosius B. C. 1528] fifty men, in Egypt, were 
all dain in one night, by their own sons ; • and all these men 
were the offspring of two brothers. ^Vhen this was done, the 
brothers were still living. The elder, with whom this evil began, 
was called Danaus. He was driven from his kingdom, and fled 
into the country of Argos, and Sthenelas the king welcomed him 
there; though he afterwards repaid him with evil, when he 
[Danaus] drove him from his kingdom. 

2. In those cays, it was the custom of Busiris, king of Egypt, 
to sacrifice all the strangers that visited him, and to offer them 
to his gods. — Orosius said, I wish now that they would answer 
me, who say that this world is worse, at present, under Christi- 
anity, than it was before in heathenism, when they made such 
sacrifices, and were guilty of such murder, as I have just said. 
Where is it now, in any Christian country, that, among themseh es, 
a man needs dread such a thing, as to be saciificed to any gods I 
or where are our gods, that desire such crimes as theirs ! 

3. In those days, Perseas the king went from Greece into Asia 
with an army, and made war on those people, till they yielded to 

1 An allusion is bere macle to tlie fabulous ncconnt, giren by tbe poets, of Pbaeton, wbo 
drove tbe cbariot of bis fatber Phcebus or tbe sun, so near tbe Etbiopians, tbat tbeir blood 
vra,% dried u)), and tbeir skin became black, and tbat tberefore tbis colour is prevalent among 
tbe inliabitants of tbe torrid zone. — ^Tbe A. S. of tbe last part of tbe sentence is very brief :— 
for Feotontis f orsc&punge, 4nes mannes, for tbe misconduct or fault of Pbaeton, one mann- 
er for tbe fault of one man, Pbaeton. 

• Oros. 1. I : c. XT. Haver, p. 59, GO. Tbis VlII cHap. of Alfred contains tbe XI and 
Xlltb of Orosius, v. | 4. 

2 Tbis is an error, from taking tbe Latin of Orosius in too literal a sense : —Inter Danai 
atque JEgyp^ f ratru m fdios quinquaginta parricidiia una nocte commissa sunt. Here, parri- 
cidiuin [quasi patri- vel parenti-cidium, a caedendo] is taken too literally as tbe murder of 
a fatber only, wbile it denotes the murder of any relation, and, in tbe present case, tbe 
murder of busbands by tbeir W'ves. Reference is bere made to tbe 50 sons of Danaus and 
tbe 50 daughters of bis twin-brotber -ffigyptus. Tbe daughters of -ffigyptus were given in 
marriage to tbeir cousins, and they all, except Hypermnestniy murdered their huabandt in 
the bridal night ApoUodorua, II, 1, f 5. 

70 OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. IX, f 2. [■• c. HIS 

him. He gave his own name to the people, so they were 
afterwards called Persians. 

4. Crosiusf said, I know well that I must here pass over 
much, and must shorten the story which I tell, — because the 
Assyrians bore rule one thousand one hundred and sixty years, 
under fifty kings, — that it never was without war until Sardana- 
palus was slain, — and, after^vards, power was given to the Medes. 
Who is there that can count or relate all the evils, which they 
did ! — Moreover, I will be silent about the most shameful stories 
of Tantalus and Pelops; — how many scandalous wars Tantalus 
waged, after he w as king ; — about the boy GanjTnedes, whom he 
took by force ; — and how^ he killed his own son for an offering 
to his gods, and he himself dressed him as meat for them. — I 
shall also wTary if I speak about Pelops, and about Dardanus, 
and about the wars of the Trojans, because their wars are known 
in history, and in poetry. I must also pass over all things that 
are said of Perseus and of Cadmus; and also those which are 
said of the Thebans, and of the Spartans. I will, likewise, pass 
over in silence the wicked deeds of the Lemniades, and of king 
Pandion, how cruelly he was driven away by the Athenians, his 
own people. How Atreus and Thyestres slew their own fathers, 
I pass over, and all about their hateful adulteries. I also pass 
over, how GEdipus slew his own father, and his step-father, and 
his step-son. In those days, were such unbounded evils, that 
men of themselves said, — the very stars of heaven fled from 
their wickedness. 

Book I : Chapter IX.* 

1. Six hundred and sixty years before the building of Rome 
[Orosius B. C. 1313.— Alfred B. C. 1413J there was that very 
gi'eat battle between the Cretans and the Athenians. The 
Cretans gained the bloody battle, and took all the most noble 
childi'en of the Athenians and gave them for food to the Minotaur, 
which was half man and half Hon. 

2. It was in those days, that the Lapithae and Thessalians were 
at war with each other. ^Vhen the Lapithae saw the people of 
Thessaly, on their horses, fighting against them, they called them 
Centaurs, wliich are half horse and half man, because they never 
before saw them imht on a horse. 


t Ores. 1. I: c. XII. Haver, p. 60—62 
• Oros. 1. 1 : c. XIII ; Haver, p. 62, 63. 


Book I : Chapter X.* 

1. Four f hundred and eighty years before the building of Rome, 
[Orosius B. C. 1233] Vesoges, king of the Egyptians, waged war 
in the south of Asia, until the greatest part yielded to him.. Ves- 
oges afterwards went with an army unto the Scythians, in the 
northern parts, and sent his message bearers before to the people, 
and told them to say without wavering, that they must either 
pay him for the freedom of the land, or he would harass and 
bring them to an end by war. They then wisely answered him 
and said, — '' That it was greedy and unjust, that so wealthy a 
king should go to war with so poor a people, as they were." 
They, however, told them to say, in answer, — '* That they would 
rather fight against him, than pay taxes." They so followed it 
up, that they soon put to flight the king with his people, and pur- 
sued him, and laid waste all Egypt, save only the fen-lands. 
Tliey then turned towards home by the west of the river 
Euphrates. They forced all Asia to pay them taxes, and were 
there fifteen years, harassing and wasting the land, till their 
wives sent messengers after them, and told them, — '' That they 
should make their choice: either they should come home, or 
they would choose other husbands." They then left the country, 
and went homeward. 

2. At the same time, J b vO noble men, called P1}Tios and Scolo- 
pythus,' were driven from Scythia. Tliey left the country, and 
abode between Capadocia and Pontus, near Asia the Less : there 
they fought till they took the land. After a short time, they 
were slain, through treachery, by the people of the country. 
Tlien their wives, not only the wives of the princes, but of the 
other men slain with them, — were so sore in their minds and so 
much grieved, that they took up arms with the view of revenging 
their husbands. Soon after, they slew all^the men, that were in 
their neighbourhood. They did so, because they wished the 
other wives to be as full of grief as themselves, that they might 
afterwards have their help, and be more able to revenge their 
husbands. Then, all the woinen dame together and waged war 

• This chapter contains c. XIV, XV, and XVI of Orosius ; Haver, p. 63—69. 

t Ores. 1. 1 : c. XIV. p. 63, 64. 

: Oros. 1. 1 : c. XV. Haver, p. 64—67. 

1 Orot. hat Scolpytlius, Scolopitui, Scolopesioi and Scolopetius. Haver, p. 64, nste 2. 

72 OROSIUS; Book I: Chap. X, { 4. [b. c. 1233 

on the people, and slew all the males, taking much of the land 
into their hands. In the midst of the war, they made peace with 
the men. It was afterwards their custom, that, each year, about 
twelve months, they went together, and then bore children. 
Whenever the women had children, they reared the females, and 
slew the males. They seared the right breast of the female chil- 
dren to stop its growth, that they might have a stronger bow ; 
they were, therefore, called in Greek Amazons, that is in English, 

3. Two of them, called Marpcsia and Lampeto, were their 
queens. They di\dded their army into two parts ; — (me to be at 
home to hold their land, — the other to go out to war. They 
afterwards overran the greatest part of Eurojie and Asia, and built 
the city of Ephesus, and many others in Asia the Less. Then 
they sent the greatest part of their army home with their booty, 
and left the other part there to hold the country. Mari)esia, the 
queen was slain there, and a great i)art of the army, that was with 
her. There also, her daughter Sinope became queen. Sinope, 
the same queen, besides her courage and her manifold virtues, 
ended her life m maidenhood. 

4. In those days there was so great a dread of these women, 
that neither Europe, nor Asia, nor any of the nciglibouring coun- 
tries could think or plan, how to withstand them, till they had 
chosen Hercules the giant to overcome them, by all the arts of 
the Greeks. Yet he durst not venture to attack them \vith an 
army, before he began with Grecian ships, called Dulmunus,* 
of which, it is said, that one ship would hold a thousand men. 
Then he stole upon them unawares by night, and grievously slew 
and destroyed them ; and yet he could not take away tlieir land. 
In those days, two of their queens, Antiope and Orithyia, were 
sisters ; and Orithyia was taken. After her Peutliesileia took the 
sovereignty, who, in the Trojan war, became very gieat. 

1 Orosius has.— Inu^tls iiifntitlmn dextcnovrons liimnilll?, nc s .^itfr'nii.i jiiclus mpo<"Urcn- 
tur, unde Anmzoues dicta?. HavcT. p. C';. — DIouoius bnys, it \vi.>. ilicir cn-tm.i [roif Se^iov 
fia}$)V CiTUCaiav'] to burn tlie viglit brea>t, anc' it was Toj- litis xoa^ow ihr.'. \to l6vo^ to)V 
*A/JLa^6v(Ov] the nation of tlie Ainnzons received ilicir na-nc [lib. U.]; thc.t is, a with- 
out, fia^o^ a breast, Aaionust the various opinions "s to the derivation of tl:is word, one 
is, that it is composed of d or ufL intciibivc, and afo) to drj', parch, or >ear. If tlils be 
correct, Alfred has given the right explanation — "On (Jrcacic, }>;jt is on 
Englisc, fortcnde." 

2 Ores. Longas naves prsepar&rit. Haver, p. 67. 


6. It is shameful, * said Orosius, to speak about what then 
happened, when such poor and such strange women had overcome 
the most powerful i)ai't, and the bravest men of all the world, in 
Europe and Asia, Then they almost entirely wasted and destroyed 
the old cities and old towns. After they had done that, they both 
settled kingdoms, and built new cities ; and, for nearly a hundred 
years, they ruled the whole world as they wished. Men were then 
so familiar with every trouble, that they held it as little or no 
disgrace, and as no e\il, that the^ poor women [the Amazons] so 
tormented them. 

G. Now the Goths came from the bravest men of Germany, 
whom both Pyrrhus, the fierce king of the Greeks, and Alexander, 
as well as Julius, the powerful emperor, all feared to meet in battle. 
— How immoderately, O Romans ! do ye murmur and complain, 
that it is worse with you now, under Christianity, than it then was 
with the people, because the Goths harassed you a little, and broke 
into your city, and slew some of you ! From their knowledge, and 
their bravery, they might have had power over you against your 
wll ; but they now quietly ask a peaceable agi-eement with you, 
and some part of the land, that they may be able to help you. 
Ere this, it lay baiTen and waste enough, and you made no use of 
it. How blindly many people speak about Christianity, that it is 
worse now, than it was formerly. They will not thuik nor know, 
that, before Christianity, no countr}% of its own will, asked peace 
of another, imless it were in need ; nor where any country could 
obtain peace from another by gold, or by silver, or by any fee, 
without being enslaved. But since Christ was born, who is the 
peace and freedom of the whole world, men may not only free 
themselves from slavery by money, but countries also are peace- 
able without enslaving each other. How can you think that men 
had peace before Clnistianity, when even then* women [the Ama- 
zons] did such manifold evils in this world ! 

Book I : Chapter Xl.f 
1. Four hundred and thirty years before the building of Rome, 
[Orosius B. C. 1183 : Clinton, B. C. 1192] it happened, that Alex- 
ander, * the son of Priam, kuig of the Trojans, took Helen the wiSe 

• Oros. II: c. XVI. Haver, p. GS, C9. 

t Orosius, 1. 1 : c. 17. Haver, p. 70, 71. 

1 This second son of Priam was generally called Paris, but he was also known by the 

74 OROSIUS; Book I, Crap. XII. f 1. [■. c 690 

of king Menelaus, from Lacedaemon, a city of the Greeks. About 
her, there arose that celebrated war, and the great battles of the 
Greeks and Trojans. The Greeks had a thousand ships of the 
gieat Dulraunus ' ; and they took an oath among themselves that 
they would never return, till they had wreaked their vengeance. 
For ten years, they surrounded the city and fought. ^Vho is there 
that can reckon how many men were slain, on both sides, of which 
the poet Homer has most clearly spoken ! Orosius, therefore, said, 
I have no need to relate it, because it is tiresome, and also known 
to many. Nevertheless, whoever ^vishes to know it, may read in 
his books, what evils, and what \ictims there were, by man-slaugh- 
ter, and by hunger, and by shipwreck, and by various misdeeds, as 
we are told in histories. 

2. War was waged between these people for full ten years. 
Think then of those times, and of these, which are the better ! 

3 Then * that war was soon after followed by another, ^neas 
with his army went from the Trojan war into Italy. In books 
we may also see in how many labom^, and in how many battles 
he was there engaged. 

Book I: Chapter Xll.f 

1 Sixty four years before the building of Rome, [Orosius B. C. 
817 : Clinton B. C. 630] Sardanapalus, the king reigned in As- 
syria, where Ninus was the first king, and Sardanapalus was the 
last that reigned in that land. He was a very luxurious man, 
and effeminate, and very lascivious, so that he loved the company 
of women more than of men. When that was found out by 
Arbaces, his chief officer, who was set over the country of the 
Medes, he began to plot with the people over whom he was, to 
deceive the king, and to withdraw from him all those who, it was 
feared, would support him. When Sardanapalus found, that he 
had been deceived, he burnt himself to death ; and then the Medes 
became rulers over the Assyrians. It is hard to say, after this, 
how many wars there were between the Medes, Chaldeans and 

name of Alexander \^A\e^avBpo<;, aXef o) to defend, dvrjp, avSpo^ a man] because he 
valiantly defended the shepherds on mount Ida. 

2 Tliis is Alfred's translation of the " mille navium " of Orosius, Haver, p. 70. In page 
67 he calls them " longas naves," for which the king puts Dulmunus. v. b. I : cb. X, § 4, 
note 2. 

• Orosius, 1. I : c. 18. Haver, p. 72. 

t Oroiius, LI: c. XIX. Haver, p. 73—77. 

B. c. 630] ASSYRIA conquered bt the MEDES, ako tret bt the PERSIANS. 75 

Scythians ; but this we may know, that, while such mighty king- 
doms were at war, there must have been dreadful slaughter in 
their battles. 

2 After this, king Phraortes reigned in Media. Next to Phra- 
ortes, De'joces reigned, who greatly enlarged the empire of the 
Medes. After Deioces, Astyages, who had no son, succeeded to 
tlie sovereignty ; but he took C}tus, his nephew, from the country 
of Persia, as his son. Then, as soon as Cyrus was gi'own up, being 
unwilling, as well as the Persians, to be under the power of his uncle 
• and of the Medes, they went to war. - Then Astyages, the king, 
especially turned his thoughts to Harpalus, his chief officer, — 
trusting that he, with his skill, might withstand his nephew in 
battle ; for the king did not call to mii.d the many wrongs, that 
e^ch had done the other in former days, nor how the king ordered 
his son to be slain, and afterwards to be dressed as meat for the 
father. * However, their quarrel was made up. Then the chief 
officer went with an army against the Persians ; and soon fleeing, 
he wholly misled the great part of the people, and ^vith treachery 
put them into the power of the Persian king. In that battle fell 
the power and dignity of the Medes. 

3. When the king had found out the deceit, which the chief 
officer had practiced against him, he gathered what forces he could, 
and led them against his nephew. Cyrus, k?ng of the Persians, 
kept a third part of his army behind him, for this reason, that, if 
any one in the battle should flee farther than the people that were 
behind, they should slay him, as they would their enemies. How- 
ever, it happened that they turned a little to flee, when their ^vives, 
running towards them, were verj^ angry, and asked, if they durst 
not fight, whither they would flee : — that they had no refuge, un- 
less they went into the womb of their wives. • Then after the 
/wives had so indignantly reproached 4hem, they turned again, and 
put his whole army to flight, and took the king. Cyrus then gave 
his uncle all the honour, which he formerly had, save being king ; 
and he gave up all that, because Harpalus the chief officer, for- 

1 This refers to the well known account of Astjages, who, by a shocking artifice, com- 
pelled Harpagus to eet the flesh of his only son, because he had not put to death the infant 
Cyrus. This most horrid fact was made known to the wretched father before he left the 
table, by exposing to Harpagus the head and hands of his beloved and only son. Herodo- 
tus, Clio, {119. A minute account is given, from | 107 to 129. 

2 Num in uteros matrum vel ujsorum vellent refugere. Grot. 1. 1 : e. XIX. Haver, p. 77. 

76 OROSIUS, Book I: Chap. XIV, | 1. [s. €.432 

merly betrayed him to his ovvn people. But Cyrus, his nephew, 
gave him the countrj' of Hyrcania to govern. Thus the empire 
of the Modes ended, of which Cyrus \\'ith the Pei-sians, took the 
goveniment But the towns, in many countries, which formerly 
paid tribute to the Medes, caused Cyrus many battles. 

4. In * those days, a certain prince called Phalaris, wished to 
nde in the country of Agrigentum. He was of the island of Sicily ; 
and he tortured the people with immeasurable pain, that they might 
submit to him. — ITiere was there a certain brass-founder, who 
could make various images. Then the founder, thinking to please 
the prince, offered to assist him in torturing the people. He did 
so, and made an image of a bull m brass, so that, when it was hot, 
and they put wretched men into it, the noise would be greatest 
when they were suffering the torment ; and also, that the prince 
should have both his pleasure and his vrish, when he heard the 
torture of these men. When it was heated, and every thing done 
as the founder formerly promised the prince, he then viewed it, 
and said : — '* That it became no man better to prove the work, 
than the workman, who had made it." — Then he ordered them to 
take him, and put him into it. 

5. Why do men speak against these Christian times, and say that 
they are now worse, than they were, when if any one did wrong, 
even by the desire of kings, they could thereby find no mercy 
from them ? Now, kings and emperors, if any one betoiiie guilty, 
in opposition to them, giant forgiveness for the love of God, ac- 
cording to the measure of the guilt. 

Book I : Chapter Xlll.f 
1. Thirty years before the building of Rome [Orosius B. C. 
7S3. — Clinton, B. C. 432] it was, that the Pelopoimesians and 
Athenians, i^eople of Greece, with all their forces, fought with 
each other ; and the slaughter was so great on both sides, that 
few of them were left. In those days, the women [Amazons] 
who were fonnerly in Scythia, waged war a second time in Asia, 
and very much wasted and harassed it. 

Book I : Chapter XIV.J 
1. Twenty years before [Clinton 30 after] the building of 

• Orosius, 1. 1 : c. 20, Haver, p. 77. 78. 

t Oros. 1. I : c. XXI, Haver, p. 79. 

: Oros. L I : c. XXI, Haycr. p. 7»--84. 


Rome [Orosius B.C. 773 : Clinton B. C. 723] the Lacedaeino- 
nians and Messenians, people of Greece, had been at war with 
each other for twenty years, because the Messenians were unwill- 
ing that the Lacedaemonian maidens should offer with theirs, 
and sacrifice to Uieir gods. At last, when they had drawn all 
the people of Gieece to the war, the Lacedaemonians surrounded 
the city of Messene for ten years ; and took oaths that they would 
never come home till they had avenged themselves. They then 
reasoned among themselves, and said that they should very soon 
• be without lielp from their posterity, since they thought they 
should be there so long, and had confirmed that by their pledges ; 
and that they did more good than evil to their enemies. With 
that, they resolved that those, who were not at the taking 
of the oaths, should go home and have children by all their 
wives. The others surrounded the town, till they had taken it. 
They were, however, but a little while obedient to them. 

2. But they chose an Athenian poet f for their king, and went 
again with an army against the Messenians. When they came 
near, then they doubted whether they were able to withstand 
them. Their king then began to sing and play ; and by his poetry 
so greatly strengthened their courage, that they said, they were 
able to withstand the army of the Messenians. However, there 
were few left on either side, and the people of Greece suffered 
many years, as well from the Lacedaemonians, the Messenians, 
and the Boeotians, as from the Athenians ; and they drew many 
other nations into the same war. 

3. Thus, it is shortly stated what formerly happened before 
Rome was built, which, from the beginning of the world, was four 
thousand, four hundred, and eighty two years [Blair 3251] ; and, 
after it was built, our Lord's birth was about seven hundred and 
ten * years [Blair and Clinton 753]. 

4. Here the first book ends, and the second begins. 

t The famous lyric poet Tyrtaeus. 

1 The dates are not given in the Lathi text of Havercamp [see p. 10, note 1 ] ; but, in 
Uic first German edition by Schuszler, 1471 [v. p. 10, note 2], the following gloss has found 
its way into the text, and Alfred may have translated from a MS. like that, from which 
Schuszler printed, [see ch. Ill, { 2, note 1. p. 63] but differing as to the precise dates— Ab 
orbe condito usque ad urbeni conditam anni IIII mille, CCCCLXXXVII. Ab urbe condita 
usque ad nativitatem Chrisii, DCCXV coUiguntur. Ergo ab origine mundi in adventura 
Domini nostri anni V mille XCVIIII [5192], Finit liber primus feliciter." 

Alfred's calculation, though differing in particulars, exactly agrees in result with the MS. 


rn OROSIUS; Book II, Chap. 1. f 1, 2. [B. C.S18S 

Book II : Chapter I.* 

1. I ween, said Orosius, that there is no wise man, who knows 
not well enough, that God created the first man just and good ; 
and all mankind with him. And because he forsook the good, 
which was given to him, and chose the worse, then God at length 
avenged it ; first on [man] himself, and afterwards on his children, 
with manifold miseries and wars throughout all the world : yea, 
he also lessened all the earth's fruitfulness, by which all moving 
creatures live. Now, we know that our Lord made us : we know 
also that he is our governor, and loves us with a more just love 
than any man. Now, we know that all empires are from him : 
we know also, that all kingdoms are from him ; because all em- 
pires are from kingdoms. Now, as he is governor of the less, 
how much more, think we, that he is over the greater kingdoms, 
which had such unbounded powers. 

2. The first [empire] was the Babylonian, where Ninus reign- 
ed : — The second was the Grecian,', where Alexander reigned : — 
Tlie third was the African, where the Ptolemies reigned : — ^The 
fourth is [that]of the Romans, who are yet reigning ' f A.D. 412 ?]. 
These four chief empires are, by the unspeakable providence of 
God, in the four parts of this mid-earth. The Babylonian was 
the first, on the east : — the second was the Grecian, on the north : 
— the third was the African, on the south : — the fourth is the 
Roman, on the west The Babylonian the first, and the Roman 
the last, were as father and son, as they could easily rule as 
they wished. The Grecian and African were as if they obeyed, 

from Tchich Schuszler printed.— Alfred gives 4182 years, from the beginning of tlic world 
to the foundation of Rome, and from thence to the birth of Christ 7 10 years, making a total 
of 5192 years, from the Creation to Christ.— Schuszler 's MS. gives, for the same periods, 
4487, to which add 715, making the total of 5192 years, the same as Alfred. They both 
follow the calculation of Euscbius, who adopted the longer generations of the Septuaghit 
[See Book VI, Ch. 38 § 23note,]— The shorter generations of the Hebrew Bible are generally 
followed, as is seen from in hat is given between brackets in the text, from Dr Blair: thus 
to 3251 add 753, make 4004 years from the creation to the birth of Christ I 

• Oros. 1. II. c. I, 11, and III, Haver, p. 85—91 : this first chap, of Alfred, therefore, 
contains the first three chapters of Orosius. 

1. Oros. has Macedonicum, the Macedonian empire. Haver, p. 86, 7. Alfred calls it, 
the Grecian empire, considering Macedonia as part of Greece. 

2 Orosius lived in the time of the emperor, Arcadius, who reigned in the east, twelve 
years, from A. D. 396 to 408 ; and he wrote this work, in the time of Honorius, the emperor 
of the west, from A. D. 4 10 to 416. See Book VI, Chapter 37, § 1. Also, Introducticn, 
p. 14, and 15. 

B. C. 2182—1018] THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. 79 

and were subject to them. But I will tell this more fully, that it 
may be better understood. 

3. f The first king was called Ninus, as we said before ; • and, 
when he was slain, then Semiramis his queen seized the govern- 
ment, and built the city of Babylon, so that it should be the capi- 
tal of all the Assyrians; and it stood as such for many years 
afterwards, until Arbaces, a chief officer of the Medes, slew Sar- 
danapalus, king of Babylon. Then the empire of the Babylo- 
nians and Assyrians was brought to an end, and turned to the 
Medes. In the same year, in which this happened, Procas, Numi- 
tor's father, began to reign in the country of Italy, where Rome 
was afterwards built This Procas was the father of Numitor and 
Amuhus, and [grandfather*] of Silvia. This Silvia was the 
mother of Remus and Romulus, who built Rome. — This will I 
say, that the kingdoms were not strengthened by the powers of 
man, nor by any fate, but by the providence of God. 

4. All historians say, that the kingdom of the Assyrians began 
with Ninus, and the kingdom of the Romans began with Procas. 
From the first year of Ninus*s reign, till the city of Babylon was 
built, were sixty-four years ; also, from the first year, in which 
Procas reigned in Italy, were sixty four years, ere the city of 
Rome was built. In the same year, that the kingdom of the Ro- 
mans began to grow and enlarge, in the days of king Procas. in 
the same year Babylon fell, and all the kingdom and the power 
of the Assyrians. After their king, Sardanapalus, was slain, the 
Chaldeans had free possession of the lands, which were nearest to 
the city, though the Medes had the government over them, until 
Cyrus king of the Persians began to reign, and laid waste all 
Babylonia, and all Assyria, and brought all the Medes under the 
power of the Persians. It so happened, that, at the same time, 
in which Babylon fell under the power of Cyrus the king, Rome 
was freed from the thraldom of the most unrighteous, and the 
proudest kings, called Tarquins. When the eastern power fell in 
Assyria, the westeni power arose m Rome. 

5. I shall now, said Orosius, speak much more fully against 
those who siiy, that empires have arisen from the power of the 
fates, [and] not from the providence of God. How justly it hap 

t Oros. 1. II. c 2, Haver, p. 87—89. 

3 Book I, c. 2, f I. p. 61. 

4 A. S. •am, uncle. ^^ 

80 OROSIUS; Book II, Chap. L | d. [& C. 7^3 

pened to these two chief empires, the Assyrian and the Roman, 
[is clear] from what we have lately J said, that Ninus reigned in 
the eastern empire fifty two years; and, after him, his queen 
Semiramis, forty two years ; and, about the middle of her reign, 
she built the city of Babylon. From the year in which it was 
built, the empire lasted one thousand one hundred and nearly 
sixty four years, before it was deceived, and its power taken away 
by its own chief officer, Arbaces, and by the king of the Medes ; 
though, as we lately said, there was aftenvards, for a little while, 
about the city, the freedom of the Chaldeans without dominion. 
So likewise it happened with the city of Rome, about one thou- 
sand one hundred and nearly sixty-four years, that Alaric, her 
governor, and king of the Goths, wished to take away her empire. 
She, however, after that kept her full power. Yet each of these 
cities, through the hidden power of God, thus became an exam- 
ple : — First Babylon, through her own chief officer, when he de- 
ceived her king ; so also Rome, when her ovm governor, and king 
of the Goths, wished to take away her empire, God did not suffer 
it, because of their Christianity — neither because of their em- 
peror's, nor of their own ; but they are even yet reigning [A. D. 
412 ?] as well in their Christianity, and in tlieir empire, as by their 

6. This II I say now, because I wish that they understood, who 
speak evil against the times of om* Christianity, what mercy there 
has been since Christianity came ; and, before that, how manifold 
was the misery of the world ; — and also that they may know how 
seasonably our God, in former times, settled the empires and the 
kingdoms, — the same, wlio is now settling, and changing all em- 
pires and every kingdom, as he wishes. How like was the begin- 
ning, that the two cities had, and how like their days were, both 
in good and in evil ! But the ends of their empires were very un- 
like ; for the Babylonians and their king lived in manifold wicked- 
ness and sensuality, without any remorse, [so] that they would 
not amend, till God humbled them with the greatest disgrace; 
when he took away both their king and their dominion. But the 
Romans, with their Christian king, served God, wherefore he gave 
them both their king and their empire. They, theief ore, may mo- 

t Ores. 1. II : c. 3. Haver, p. 89, 90. 
n Oros. 1. ir : c. 3. Haver, p. 90, 91. 



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derate their speech, who withstand Christianity, if Ihey will 
remember the uncleanness of their elders, and their deadly battles, 
and their manifold enmity, and their want of kindness, which they 
had to God, and also among themselves ; [so] that they could 
not obtain any mercy, until the remedy came to them from that 
Christianity, which they now most strongly blame. 

Book II : Chapter 1L* 

1. The city Rome was built by two brothers Remus and Ro- 
mulus, about four hundred and forty years [Clinton B. C. 753] 
after Troy, a city of [Mysia], * w^as laid waste. Soon after that, 
Romulus sullied their beginning by killing his brother, and 
aftenvards also by his own marriage, and [that] of his companions. 
Such examples he there set, when they prayed, that the Sabines 
would give them their daughters for wives, and they refused their 
prayers. Nevertheless, without their consent, they obtained them 
by stratagem, in as much as they prayed they would assist them, 
that they might the more easily sacrifice to their gods. When 
they granted this, then they seized then* daughters for wives, and 
would not give them back to their fathers. There was the great- 
est strife about this, for many years, until they were almost en- 
tnely slain and brought to naught on both sides. They could, by 
no means, be made to agree until the wives of the Romans, with 
their children, ran into the battle, and fell at the feet of their 
fathers, and prayed that, for the love of tlieir children, they 
would make an end of the war. So worthily, and so mildly, 
was the city of Rome hallowed in the beginning, with the 
blood of a brother, and of fathers-in-law, and with that of 
[Amulius] ' the uncle of Romulus, whom he also slew, when he 
was king, and after\vards took the kingdom to himself ! Thus, in 
the beginning, did Romulus bless the kingdom of the Romans, — 
the wall with his brother's blood, and the temples with the blood 
of then- fathers-in-law, and the kingdom with his uncle's blood ! 

• Oros. 1. II : c. 2. Haver, p. 92—95. 

1 In A. S. Creaca burh, a cily of the Greeks. An error— for the city of Priam king of 
the Trojans, who dwelt in Mysia, in Asia .\Jinor. Accordiu3 to Alfred, the fall of Troy was 
B. C. 119:J; for, 410 years, from the fall of Troy to the building of Kome, added to 753 
years from the buildiiig of Kome to tiie birth of Christ, make 1193, B. C. Clinton gives the 
dates more accurately, thus; <!30 yeara after the fall of Troy, added to 753, make 1183 
years B. C. See Book I, 1 1. f 1. 

2 A. S. Numetores— Numitor was grand-father to Romulos. See II, 1. | 3, p. 79. 

82 OROSIUS, Book II, Chap. III. { 1. [R C509 

And he afterwards betrayed his o^vn father-in-law to death, when 
he enticed him to him, and promised that he would divide the 
kingdom with him, and then slew him. 

2. Then Romulus himself, after this, undertook a war against 
the Caeninenses, • because he had, as yet, little power over the 
country, but only in the city. Romulus and all the Romans were 
thought to be mean by other states ; because, in their youth, they 
had been servants to others. When they had surrounded the city 
of the Ca^ninenses, and were suffering great famine, they said that 
they would rather lose their lives by hunger, than leave the war 
or make peace. They, therefore, fought till they stormed the 
city ; and, after that, they were always at war with the people of 
the country, on all sides, until they had taken many towns in the 

3. But those kings, that reigned after Romulus, were more 
wicked and vile than he was, and more hateful and troublesome 
to the people ; but Tarquin, of whom we have spoken before, was 
the worst of them all, — the most vile, the most lustful and the 
proudest He forced to adultery the wives of all the Romans that 
he could, and suffered his son to lie with Lucretia, the wife of 
CoUatinus, the sister of Brutus, when they were with the army, 
though by the king they were the most esteemed of the Romans. 
For that reason, Lucretia then killed herself. As soon as CoUa- 
tinus her husband, and Brutus her brother, were told of it, they 
left the aiiny, which they should have commanded ; and, when 
they came home, they drove both the king and his son, and all, 
who were there, of the king's family, altogether from the kingdom. 
After that, the Romans set over themselves leaders, whom they 
called consuls, — that one man should hold the government one 

Book II : Chapter III.* 
1. Two hundred and four years, after the building of Rome 
[B. C. 509], Brutus became the first consul. Romulus their first 
king, and Bmtus their first consul, were equally cruel. 

3 The people of Csenina, one of the petty cities of Latium bordering on the Sabinet. 
They were the first to rise up in arms against the Romans to avenge the seizing of their 
daughters. They were routed by Romulus, and their city probably destroyed, as its name 
does not occur in history after this time. The victory of Romulus is recorded by lAwy 1, 10; 
Dionys. : II, 32, 33. £utropius says, Romulus *< Csninenses vicit, Antemnates, Crustuim- 
nos, Sabinos . . . ; haec omnia oppida urbem [Romam] cingunt." 1. I, 2. 

• Oros. L 11^ c. 5. Haver. 96, 97. 

B. C. 609—501] THE SABINE WAR. 83 

2. Romulus slew his brother, and his uncle and his father-in-law. 
Brutus slew his five sons, and his wife's two brothers ; because 
they said, it would be better, that the Romans should take back 
the royal family, which they had before; he, therefore, gave 
orders to bind them, and scourge them with rods, before all the 
people^ and afterwards to cut off their heads with axes. 

3. Tlien Tarquin, who was formerly king of the Romans, drew 
Porsenna, the king of the Tuscans, to his aid, that he might more 
easily overcome Brutus and all the Romans. Then, on account of 
this enmity, Brutus himself proposed a single combat ; but Tar- 
quin sent against him another officer, the son of Aruns, * the 
proud ; and there each of them slew the other. 

4. After that, king Porsenna and Tarquin sun-ounded Rome, 
and would have taken it, had it not been for Mucins, a man of 
the city, who frightened them with his sayings. When they had 
taken him prisoner, they tortured him in such a manner, that they 
burnt off his hand, one finger after another, and commanded him 
to say how many men there were, who had especially conspired 
against king Tarquin. When he would not tell them, then they 
asked him, how many men there were, such as he was. He told 
them, that there were many of those men, and they had also sworn, 
that they would either lose their own life, or [take] king Porsen- 
na's. When Porsenna heard that, he altogether gave up the siege 
and the war, whicli he had already been carrying on for three 

, Book II : Chapter IV. 

1. Afterwards ♦ there was the Sabine war, which the Romans 
very much dreaded, and they set over themselves a higher leader 
than their consul, whom they called Dictator, [B. C. 501] and 
with tlie dictator they gained a great victory. After this, the 
Romans stirred up a great strife between the rich and the poor, 
and that would have ended in a lasting evil, had they not been 
quickly reconciled. In those days, the greatest troubles happened 
to the Romans both by famine and by plague, under the two 
consuls, Titus and Publius. Then, for a while, they put an end 
to their contests, though they could not to the famine and the 

1 It was Anins the son of Tarquin the proud and Brutusy who killed each other in single 
combat Livy, I, 56 : II, 6 : Eut. I, 10. 
• Oros. 1. II: c. 5, Haver, p. 97—99. 

84 OROSIUS; Book II, Chap. IY. | 2—4. [B. C 480 

plague, for manifold miseries greatly afflicted the weary city. 
Before the plague was ended, the Veientes and Etruscans waged 
war against tlie Romans, and against the two consuls, Marcus 
Fabius and Coeius Manlius [B. C. 480]. The Romans marched 
against them, and took an oath that none of them would return 
home, unless they had the victory. Though they had the \'ictory, 
the Romans were so very much slaughtered, that their only con- 
sul, who was left, [Fabius] would not have the triumph, which 
they offered him, on his way home ; and he said, that they would 
have done better to have come to meet him with weeping than 
with triumph. 

2. Wliat they called a triumph f >vas, when they had overcome 
any people in battle, it was their custom for all the senators to 
meet their consuls, after the battle, six miles from the city, with a 
chariot adorned with gold and precious stones ; and to bring two 
white hoi-ses. As they went homeward, the senators rode in 
chariots after the consuls, and the men, who had been taken, they 
drove before them bound, that their great actions might be seen 
in a more lordly state. But, if they brought any people under 
their power without a battle, when they came homeward, they 
were to meet them, from the city, with a chariot, mounted with 
silver, and one of each kind of four-footed beasts, in honour of 
their consuls. That was then a triumph. 

3. Romulus was the first to form a senate ; that was a hundred 
men ; though, after a time, there were three hundred of them. 
These always dwelt within the city of Rome, in order — that they 
m^'ght be their counsellors, and appoint consuls, — that all the 
Romans should obey them, — and, that they should keep, under 
one roof, all the wealth which they had gained, either by tribute 
or by pillage, — that they might afterwards apply it, in common, 
to the use of all, who were free from bondage. 

4. J The consuls, who, in those days, undertook the Sabine 
war, were of the Fabian family, which was the highest in rank 
and the most powerful of all the Romans. Now, to this very day, 
it is sung in verse, what a loss their fall was to the Romans. 
Moreover many rivers had their names from that battle ; and 

t This account of a Roman Triumph, and the appointment of a senate in | 3, are not 
mentioned hy Orosius : they are added by Alfred. 

t Oros. 1. II : c. 5, Haver, p. 99. 

B. c. 538] CYRUS— BAnYLON—NIMROD. 85 

also the gates, through which they marched from Rome to the 
battle, took, from the family, the names, which they still keep. 
Afterwards, the Romans chose three hundred and six champions, 
that they should go alone to fight against as many of the Sabines* ; 
and trusted that they, by their bravery, would gain the victor)* ; 
but the Sabines, by their stratagems, slew them all but one, who 
made known the sad story at home. — It was not among the Ro- 
mans only, but it was thus sung in poetic lays over the whole 
world, that there was care, and labour, and great fear. 

5 II While the Sabines and Romans were waging war in the 
west, Cyrus, king of the Persians, of whom we have before spoken, 
at the same time, waged war both in Scythia and in India, till he 
had laid w^aste almost all the east. He aftenvards led an army 
to Babylon, which was then more wealthy than any other city. 
But the river Gyndes, — ^the greatest of all fresh waters, save the 
Euphrates, — long hindered him from going over, because there 
were not any boats there. Then one of his officers proposed to 
go over the river by swimming with two tyncenum,* but the stream 
drove him down. Cyrus, being so vexed in his mind, and so 
angry with the river, threatened that he would so avenge his 
officer, that women should wade over it only up to the knees, 
w here it was formerly nine miles broad, w^hen it was flooded. He 
followed that up by deeds, for he divided it into four hundred and 
sixty streams, and then went over there w^ith his army ; and after 
that [he passed over] the river Euphrates, which is the largest of 
all fresh waters, and runs through the middle of the city of Baby- 
lon. By digging he divided it into many streams, and afterwards 
marched with all his people in the water-course and reached the 
city. How hard it is to be believed, when one states either how 
any man could build such a city as that was, or afterwards how it 
was taken ! 

6. J Nimrod, the giant, first began to build Babylon ; and, after 
him, king Ninus, and then Semiramis his queen finished it, in the 
middle of her reign. The city w as built on open and very level 
land : it was very fair to look upon, and it was quite a true square. 
The greatness and firmness of the wall, when stated, is hardly to 
be believed. It is fifty ells broad, and two hundred ells high, 

• See Ch. VI, § 1. D OroB. 1. II : c. 6, Haver, p. 100, 101. I Id. p. 102, 103. 

1 Mr Thomson suggests-^tunchens [tonnikensj barrels, now puncheons— Tyncen, dim. 
of tunne, a tun ; so Ger. tonne gives tonnchen (u : y : : o : 5). 

^0 OROSIUS; Book II: Chap. IV, { 7, 8. [b. c. 529 

and it is seventy miles and the seventh part of a mile, round. It 
is built with bricks and earth-tar ; and round the wall is a very 
great dike, in which runs the deepest stream. Outside the dike, 
a wall is built two ells high. Above, and all round the greater 
wall, stone towers are built. This verj^ city, Babylon, which was 
the greatest and first of all cities, is now the least and most 
desolate. Now the city, w hich was formerly the strongest, most 
wonderful and greatest of all works, is as if it were set for a sign 
to all the world ; and as if it spoke to all mankind, and said : — 
'' Now I am thus fallen and ^one away : lo ! in me ye may learn 
and know, that ye have nothing with you so fast and strong, that 
it can abide for ever ! ** 

7. * At the time, when Cyrus, king of the Persians, stormed 
Babylon, Croesus, king of the Lydians, came with an army to 
help the Babylonians; but, when he knew that he could not 
help them, and that the city was stormed, he went homeward to 
his own kingdom. Cyrus followed after him, till he took and 
slew* him. — Now, our Christians speak against Rome, because 
her walls decay with age, — not because she has been disgraced 
by pillage, as Babylon was : but Rome, for her Christianity, is 
even yet so shielded, that both she and her empire are fallen 
more from age, than by the violence of any king. 

8. I Cyiois, after that, led an anny into Scythia, and there a 
young king, and his mother Tomyris, marched against him wth 
an army. When Cyrus went over the boundary, — the river 
Araxes, — there the young king might have stopped his going 
over ; but he would not, because he and his people trusted that 
they should be able to entrap him, after he was within the boundary, 
and had taken a place for his camp. A\Tien Cyrus understood 
that the young king would attack him there, and also that the 
drinking of wine was almost unknown to that people, he went 
away from the camp, into a hiding place, and left behind him 
every thing that was good and sweet ; the young king, therefore, 
thought it much more likely, that they had fled, than that the/ 
durst practice a stratagem. When they found the camp so 

♦ Ores. 1. II : c. 4, Haver, p. t03, 104. 

1 Thin is a mistake of the translator. Orosius says, — Croesum cepit, captumque et vita 
et patrimonio donavit. Herodotus gives all the particulars of Croesus being taken, devoted 
to the flames and saved by Cyrus, for uttering the name of Solon. Croesus was then taken 
as the friend and counseller of Cyrus, and of his son Cambysei. * 

: Oros. 1. II : c. 7, Haver, p. 104, 105. 


forsaken, they, with great joy, drank so much wine, that they 
had Httle power over themselves. Then Cyrus there ensnared 
and slew them altogether. Afterwards he marched where the 
king's mother was waiting with two parts of the people, he ha^^ng 
entrapped the third part with the king. Then, she — the queen 
Tomyris, — in great grief, was thinking about the slaughter of the 
king, her son, and how she might wreak her vengeance. She 
carried out her wish, by dividing her people into two parts, both 
women and men ; for there, women fight the same as men. She, 
with one half, went before the king, as if she were fleeing, till she 
led him into a great plain, and the other half followed after 
Cyrus. There Cyrus was slain, and two thousand men with him. 
The queen then commanded the king's head to be cut off, and to 
be thrown into a vessel, which was filled with man's blood ; and 
thus said : — " Thou, who for thirty years hast thirsted for man's 
blood, drink now thy fill." 

Book II : Chapter V. 

1. ♦ Two hundred and six years after the building of Rome 
[Clinton B. C. 529 : Orosius B. C. 508 : Alfred B. C. 547] Cam- 
BYSES, son of Cyrus, succeeded to the kingdom of the Persians. 
When he overcame Egypt, he did what no heathen king durst do 
before, which was, that he cast off all their worship of idols, and 
then overthrew them altogether. 

2. f After him reigned Darius, who brought back to the Persians 
all the Assyrians, and Chaldeans, that had formerly gone from 
them. He then waged war on the Scythians, both because of 
their slaughter of Cyrus, his kinsman, and also because they would 
not give him a wife. His army was seven hundred thousand, 
when he went against the Scythians. The Scythians, however, 
would not attack him, in a pitched battle ; but, when they were 
scattered over the land, they slew them in parties. This made 
the Persians have very gieat fear and dread, lest the bridge, 
which was at the boundary, should be broken down; for then, 
they knew not how they could come from thence. Then the 
king, after a great many of his people were slain, left eighty thou- 
sand behind him to carry on the war still longer. He himself 
M'ent thence into Asia the Less, and laid it waste ; and afterwards 

* Oros. 1. II : c. 8. Haver, p. 106. 

t Oros, 1. II : c. 8. Haver p. 106—109. 

88 OROSIUS; Book II: Chap. V, f 3, 4. [s. c. 480 

against the Macedonians, and against the lonians^ a tribe of the 
Greeks, and overcame them both. And further, he went against 
the Greeks, and waged war against the Athenians, because they 
had helped the Macedonians. As soon as the Athenians knew, 
that Darius would attack them in battle, they chose eleven .thou- 
sand men and marched against him. They met the king on the 
plain, called Marathon. Their leader was named [Miltiades], 
who did more by bravery, than by great forces : he gained great 
glory in that battle. Two hundred thousand of the Persians were 
then slain, and the others put* to flight When Darius had again 
gathered an army among the Persians, and thought to ^vreak his 
vengeance, then he died. 

3. J After Darius, his son Xerxes succeeded to the empire of 
the Persians. For five years, he secretly built ships, and gather- 
ed forces for the war, which his father had undertaken. There 
was then with him, from Lacedaemon, a city of the Greeks, a 
stranger named Demaratus, w^ho told the plot to his countrj^ by 
writing it on a board, and afterwards covering it with wax. When 
Xerxes went against the Greeks, he had eight hundred thousand 
of his own people, and he had asked four hundred thousand from 
other nations. He had one thousand two hundred of the large 
ships, Dulmunus; and there were three thousand ships, which 
carried their food. His whole army was so very large, that it 
might w^ell be said, it was a wonder where they could find land, 
on which to encamp, or water to quench their thirst. However, 
it was then easier to overcome this very great multitude of people, 
than for us now to reckon or think. 

4. ♦ Leonidas, king of Lacedaemon, a city of the Greeks, had 
four thousand men, w^hen he marched against Xerxes, in a narrow 
land-fastness, and withstood him there in battle. Xerxes scorned 
the other people so much, that he asked, why there should be any 
more help against so small an anny, save from those only whose 
anger was before roused, in the former battle, on the plain of 
Marathon. He formed, into one band, those men, whose kins- 
men were slain in that country, for he knew they would be more 
eager for revenge, than others, and so they were, as they were 
almost all slain there. Xerxes, being very angry that so many of 
his people were killed, then marched thither himself, with all the 

I Ores. 1. II: c. 9, Haver, p. 109, 110. 
* Oros. 1. II: c. 9, Haver, p. 110—112. 


force that he could bring together, and there they f6ught for 
three days till there was a very great slaughter of the Persians. 
He then gave orders to surround that fastness [fast-land] that 
they might be attacked on more sides than one. W^'hen Leonidas 
understood that they would thus surround him, he went away 
and led his army into another faster land, and waited till night, 
lie gave orders that all the citizens, whom he had asked to help 
him, from other countries, should go away that they might be 
safe ; for he could not bear that any more should die, for his 
sake, than himself and those of his own country. But he thus 
spoke and lamented: — ^''Now we undoubtedly know, that we 
shall lose our o\^ti lives, because of the very great hatred there is 
in those who are coming after us. Let us, how ever, plan how we 
can, in this night, most weaken them, and earn by our deaths the 
best and most lasting praise." How wonderful it is to say, that 
Leonidas, with six hundred men, so brought to shame six hundred 
thousand, by slaying some, and putting the others to flight ! 

5. Xerxes, * with his very great multitude, had twice been so 
put to shame, on the land, that he wished to try a third time, 
what he could do in the war with a fleet, and he induced the 
lonians, a tribe of the Greeks, to give him their help. Tliey for- 
merly turned to him of their own mind, and promised him that 
they w^ould first finish the war by themselves. They Avere after- 
Avards unfaithful to him, when they were fighting on the sea. 

6. The leader of the Athenians w^as called Themistocles. They 
were to have come to help' Leonidas at the former battle, but 
they could not rcEtch him. Themistocles reminded the lonians 
of the old hatred, that Xerxes had shewn towards them : how he 
had brought them under his power by pillage and by the slaughter 
of then- kinsmen. He begged them also to remember the old 
faith, and the very great friendship, which, in olden times, they 
had both Avith the Athenians, and the Lacedaemonians; and 
besought them, that, by some stratagem, they would, ere long, 
turn from Xerxes, the king ; that they and the Lacedaemonians 
might make an end of the war with, the Persians. They granted 
his prayer. 

7. AVhen the Persians saw, that those were leaving them, on 
whom they most trusted to gain the victory, they themselves fled; 

1 Oros. 1. II ; c. 10, Haver, p. 112—114. 

90 OROSIUS ; Book II : Chap. V, | 8. [b. c 479 

and there, many of them were slain, and drowned, and taken. 
The general of Xerxes %vas called Mardonius, who earnestly 
a(l\ised, that he should rather go homewards, than abide there 
longer, lest any strife should arise m his own kingdom. He said, 
it was better that the further carrjing on of the war, with the 
forces that were still left there, should be intrusted to him, and 
that the king would have less blame, if the people still went on 
badly without him, as they did formerly. Xerxes, the king, in 
great faith, listened to his general, and went thence with some 
part of his forces. On his v'ay home, he came to the river, over 
which, when going to the west, he ordered a very large bridge to 
be built with stone, in token of his victory which he thought to 
gain in that warfare. The river was then so much flooded that 
he could not come to the bridge. The king was greatly troubled 
in his mind, that he was not with his army, and that he could not 
go over the river. Besides, he was very much afraid, that his 
enemies were following him. Then a fisherman came to him, 
and with much trouble brought him over alone. God so humbled 
the greatest pride, and the greatest imdertaking in so worthless a 
trust in self, that he, who formerly thought that no sea could 
keep him from covering it with his ships and with his army, 
afterwards begged for a poor man's little boat that he might save 
liis life. 

8. Mardonius, * general of Xerxes, left the ships, in which he 
sailed, and marched to a city in Boeotia a country of the Greeks, 
and stormed it. After that, they were speedily repaid, when tliey 
were put to flight, and to very gieat slaughter. This victor}', 
and the plunder of the Persian wealth became the great ruin of 
the Athenians; for, wlien they were more wealthy, they also 
became more luxurious. Afterwards Xerxes was thought un- 
Avorthy of trust by his own people, and his chief officer Artabanus 
plotted against him^ and slew him. — '* Oh ! " said Orosius, " what 
joyous times there were, in those days ! as they say, who are 
wranglers against Christianity, that we should now long after 
such times, as those were, when so many people, in so short a 
time, were slain in three pitched battles; — that is nineteen 
hundred thousand from the kingdom of the Persians alone, 
besides theii' enemies, whether Scythians or Grecians. Leonidas 
shewed, in the last battle between him and the Persians, what 

2 Orot. 1. II: c. 11, Haver, p. 115—118. 

B. c. 465] MURDER OF XERXES. 91 

slaughter there was ia the country of the Greeks, with manifold 
deaths, when, at his dinner, he thus spoke to his comrades, 
before he went to the fight — '*^^Let us now enjoy this dinner, as 
those ought, who must take their supper in another world.**' 
Though he said so then, he afterwards used another saying : — 
" Though I said before, that we must [go] to another world, yet 
I trust to God, that he may keep us to better times, than those 
in which we now are/* Leonidas said, that the times were then 
e\dl, and he \iished that they might afterwards be better. Yet 
some men say, that they were better then, than they are now. 
Hence they thus disagree, when both the former were good, as 
some men now say, and also the latter, as they formerly said, 
who were not of that mind. If they then spoke not true, then 
they were not good, — neither then nor now. 

9 " Now/ " said Orosius, ^' we must again turn nearer Rome, where 
we formerly left off ; for, at last, I cannot take notice of all the 
manifold evils, as I know not the greater part of the world, but 
what happened in two empires, — ^in the first, and in the last : 
these are, the Assyrian and the Roman* 

3 Oros. has: — Prandete, tamquam apud inferos coenaturi, Haver, p. ISS, 4. Inferi 
often denotes the dead, as distinguished from those living upon the earth ; apud inferos 
must therefore imply, in the lower world, in Hades or the place of departed spirits. 
Hades denotes the state of the dead, the place of departed sculs whether good or had. It 
was the general term of Greek writers hy which they expressed that state ; and this Hades 
was Tartarus to tlie wicked, and Elysium to the good. "Adijr Hades, is from a not, and 
Ihtiv to see, — the invisible receptacle or mansion of the dead, the state of separate souls 
or the unseen world of spirits, answering to the Hebrew Vi«Q>, which Gesenius says " Pro 
certo habeo, t%9t pro Vum^ cavitas, locus cavus et subterraneus, plane ut Germ. Holla 
ejusdem originis est atque Uiihle, et Lat. coelum est a Gr. xotXcf hohl, cavus." 

Alfred has translated the apud inferos of Orosius, by the Anglo-Saxon on helle, that is, in 
a concealed place. The A. S. on helle seems to have an analogy with the Hebrew 
hHtr^, and the Greek rir qhw^ as given in Psalm XVI, 10, Vimu^ m^OJ 2a*n M^, 
which is translated into Greek, ov/c cyicaraXfc^rif n^v ^xh^ V"^' '^^ fdoti, Acts 
II, 27, and also with the expression in the creeds, descendit ad inferos, descended 
into hell, and the A. S. he ny^er astah to helle. In the Anglo-Saxon paraphrase of the 
Psalms, published by Mr Thorpe, Oxon. 1835, the Latin, Non derelinques animam meam 
in inferno, is thus enlarged in A. S. ^u ne forlaetst mine sawle, ne min mod to helle. 
Psalm XV, 10, page 30. Our present English word Hell, in the Anglo-Saxon, denoted a 
concealed place, from the verb helan or helinn to cover, conceal, Jiele, hill. Even to this 
very day, they say in Derbyshire, hill or hell it up, for cover it up; and in Cornwall the 
covering or tiling of a house is called the helling. At the present time, the word Hell, is 
used only for " the place of the de^il and wicked spirits," that word could not, therefore^ 
be employed in the translation, as it would not give the meaning of the A. S. text* 

4 Oros. I. II : c 12, Haver, p. 118. 

D2 OROSIUS; Book II : Chap. VI, f 1--3. [». c m 

Book II : Chapter VL' 

1. Two hundred and eighty years after the building of Rome 
[Alfred B.C. 473? Orosius463? Clinton 477]— the same year, in 
which the Sabines led the Romans into a snare,* when three hundred 
and six men from each side went to fight alone, a great wonder 
was seen in the heavens, as if all heaven were burning. That 
token was made very clear among the Romans by the great raging* 
of the plague, which soon after came upon them, so that half of 
them died, and their two Consuls; who were then over them. 
Yea, at last, those, that were left, were so wearied, that they could 
not put the dead into the earth. 

2. Soon afterwards, all their slaves fought against their masters, 
and took from them their head-place, which they called Capito- 
lium. They had much fighting about it, till they had slain the only 
consul, whom they had lately chosen. The masters, however, in 
the end, had a poor victory. — Soon after that, in the following 
year, the Romans fought with the ^qui Volsci, and there was 
very great slaughter. The part, that was left, was driven into 
a fastness, and there they would have died of hunger, if those, 
who were at home, had not helped them. They, at that time, 
[B. C. 458] gathered all the men, that were left there, and 
took a poor man [Cinchmatus] for their consul, when he was 
in his field and had his plough in his hand. They then marched 
into the country of the Volsci and let the Romans free. 

3. After * that, for a full year, the earth was quaking and open- 
ing over all the Roman empire. Every day, men came to the 
Senate times without number, and told them of cities, and of 
to^vns, sunk into the earth ; and they themselves were, every day, 
in dread lest they also should sink into the earth. Aftenvards 
there came so great a heat upon the Romans, that all the fruits of 

1 Oros. 1. II: c. 12, Haver, p. 119, 120. 

2 See, Book II: chap. 4, { 4. 

3 A. S. Wol-bryne, the pest-fire, the burning or rage of a pest. 

4 Abridged from Oros. L II : c. 13 ; but Alfred adds to the following statement of 
Orosius: Per totum fere annum tam crebri tamque etiam graves in Italia terrsemotas 
fuerunt, ut de innumeris quassationibus ac minis villarum oppidorumque, assiduia Romt 
nuntiis fatigaretur. Deinde ita jugis et torrida siccitas fuit, ut prseseotis tunc futuriqns 
anni spem gignendis terne fructibus abneg&rit Haver, p. 122, 4---8. 


the earth, yea also they themselves nearly died away. Then, 
there was the gi-eatest famine there, 

4. After * that, the Romans chose ten consuls where they for- 
merly had two, that they might overlook their laws. One of 
them was named Claudius, who wished to take to himself the 
power of the others, though they would not grant it, but strove 
against him, till some of them turned to him, and others would 
not. But being divided into two parties, they strove so among 
themselves, that they forgot the foreign wars, which they had on 
their Ijands, till all the other consuls agreed together, and beat 
the one named Claudius to death with clubs. ' Afterwards they 
guarded their own land. 

5. " Lightly • and shortly," said Orosius, '' I have spoken of their 
wars at home, though to them they were almost the greatest and 
the most fearful, which also the sulphiurous fire of Etna betokened, 
when it sprang up from the gate of hell in the land of Sicily, and 
slew many of the Sicilians, with fire and with stench. What 
hardships were then, to what they are now ! But, after it became 
Christian, the fire of hell was thenceforth so calmed (as all evils 
were) that it is now without such marks of mischief as it formerly 
had ; though each year it is broader and broader. 

Book ^I : Chapter VII. 
1. Three ^ hundred and one years after the building of Rome, 
[Alfred B. C. 452] the Sicilians quarrelled among themselves. 
Half of them drew over the Lacedaemonians to help them, and 
the other half the Athenians a people of Greece, who formerly 
fought together against the Persians. But, after they had fought 

5 Abridged from Oros. 1. II; c. 13, Haver, p. 120, 121. Potestas consilium decemviris 
tradita. Haver, p. 121, 1. — ITie Decemviri or the Ten men, were appointed about 451 
B. C. and existed only for two years, till B. C. 449. They drew up a body of Laws divided 
into ten tables : the Decemviri of the following year added two new tables. These were 
engraved on tables of metal and they constituted the Twelve Tables, the foundation of the 
Roman laws. This was the first Roman code, which was not superseded for more than 
a thousand years, till the completion of the Emperor Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis, in 
A. D. 664. 

6 Much abridged from Oros. 1. II : c. 14, Haver. 123—127 ; though Alfred has given 
the impression of his age, respecting volcanos, for Orosius only speaks thus of Etna. — 
" Aetna ipsa, quae tunc cum excidio urbium atque agrorum crebris eruptionibus wstuabat, 
nunc tantum innoxia specie ad praeteritorum fidem fumat Haver. 124, .2 — 4. 

7 Oros. 1. II : c 15, Haver, p. 128, 12y.— Chapters XVI and XVII of Oros. are omitted 
by Alfred, 

91 OROSIUS ; Book II : Chap. VIH, } I. 2. [■. c. 398 

against the Sicilians, they then also fought among themselves, 
until Darius, king of the Persians, because of the wars of his fore- 
fathers, came to the help of the Lacedaemonians against the 
Athenians, Was it a great wonder, that all the power of the 
Persians, and of the Lacedaemonians could more easily lay waste 
the city of Athens, than make that people yield to their wills ? 

2. Soon • after that, in the same year, Darius, king of the Per- 
sians died ; and his two sons Artaxerxes and Cyrus fought about 
the kingdom, till one of them drew most of the people against the 
other, and they carried on the quarrel with battles, until Cyrus, 
the younger of them, was slain. — In those days,* there was a city 
in Africa, which was near the sea, until a sea-flood came and laid 
it waste, and drowned the people. 

Book II : Chapter VIII. 

1. Three * hundred and fifty-five years after the building of 
Rome, [B. C. 398] the Romans beset the city Veii, ten years. 
The siege did more harm to them, than to those who were within 
both in hunger and in cold ; moreover, they themselves were often 
pillaged, as well as their land at home. They would then have 
soon perished before their enemies, if they had not broken into 
the city by a device, which was most shameful, though it was 
afterwards thought most worthy of them ; that was to dig vmder 
the earth, from their camp until they came up within the city, 
ar»d stole upon them by night, in the first sleep, and altogether 
laid the city waste. This useful device, though it was not honour- 
able, was found out by their Dictator, Camillus. 

2. Soon afterwards there was the war of the Romans, and of 
the Gauls, * who were from the city Sena, which at first arose, 
because the Gauls had besieged the city, Tuscia. The Romans 
then sent ambassadors to the Gauls, and asked them to make 
peace with them. After they had thus spoken, on the same day, 
the Gauls attacked the city. When they saw the Roman ambassa- 
dors fighting against them with the town*s-people, they were so 

8 Abridged from Oros. 1. II : c. 18, Haver, p. 138, 139. 

9 Oros. i% more precise, — ^Tunc etiam Atalante civitas, Locris adbaerens, terrae contiguif 
rcpentino maris inpetu abscissa, atque in insulam desolata est. Haver, p. 139, 14. 

1 Oros. 1. II : c. 19, Haver, p. 143—143. 

2 Galli Senones, urbem Clusini, qua nunc Tuscia dicitur, obsederunt. Oros. 1. II : c. 19| 
Haver, p. 140, 12. 13. 


angry at it, that they left the city ; and, with all their forces, 
marched against the Romans. Fabius ' the consul, came against 
them in battle, and he was soon after chased into the city of 
Rome, and the Gauls followed him, till they were all within it. 
Just as if one were mowing a meadow, they were slaying without 
any regard, and pillaging the city. The remembrance of the 
slaying of the consul, Fabius, is still kept up in the name of the 

3. " I ween," said Orosius, " that not any man can tell the hann, 
which was done to the R,omans, at that time, even if they had 
not burnt the city, as they then did. The few, that were left 
there, gave a thousand pounds of gold for their lives ; and they 
did that chiefly, because they thought that they should afterguards 
be their subjects. Some fled into that fastness, which they called 
Capitohum. They beset these, till some of them died of hunger, 
others fell into their hands, and they afterwards sold them to other 
people for money." 

4. *' How," said Orosius, *' does it now seem to you, who slander 
the times of Christianity ? After the Gauls went out of the city, 
then what jojdtul times the Romans had ! when the wretches, who 
were left there, crept out of the holes in which they lurked, and 
so wailed, as if diey had come from the other world, when they 
looked around upon the burnt and wasted city; so that they 
then had a peculiar dread, where they fonnerly had the greatest 
joy. Besides this evil, they had neither food within, nor friend 

5. '^ Tliese were the times, after which the Romans now sigh, 
and say that the Goths have made worse times, than they had 
before, although they plundered them only for three days ; and 
the Gauls were formerly plundering ^vithin the city, and bm-ning 
it, for six months ; and still, they thought that they had not done 
them harm enough, unless they also took away their name, that 
they should be no more a people. Moreover, the Goths, for the 
honour of Christianity, and through the fear of God, plundered 
there a less time, and neither burnt the city, nor had the wish to 
take from them their name, nor would they harm any of those, 
who had fled to the house of God, though they were heathens ; 

3 Oros. has Fabius, but Haver, says, "Null us Fabius hoc tempore consul fuit"; sed^eo 
anno, quo Roma capta est, tres Fabii Tribuni militum consular! potestate fuerunt Haver, 
p. 141, note 9. 

96 OROSIUS ; Book III : Chap. I, i I, 2. [■• ^ M 

but had much rather that they would settle among them in peace. 
In former thnes, scarcely any could flee away, or hide themselves 
from the Gauls. When the Goths plundered them, for a litde 
while, one could only hear of few being slain. There was seen 
God's anger, when their brazen beams and their statues could not 
be destroyed by the fire of the Gauls ; but, at the same time, fire 
from heaven consumed them.** 

6. " Now," said Orosius, " as I have a long story to tell, I think 
I cannot end it in this book, I shall therefore begin another." 

Book III : Chapter L* 

1. Three hundred and fifty-seven years after the building of 
Rome [Orosius, B. C. 389 : Alfred, B. C. 396], in the days, in 
which the Gauls had laid Rome waste, the chief and most shame- 
ful peace was made between the Persians and the Lacedaemonians, 
in the country of Greece. After the Lacedaemonians had often 
overcome the Persians, then the Persians proposed, that they 
should liave peace with them, for three years, and with all who 
i^lshed, and whoever would not, that they would wage war against 
them. The Lacedaemonians gladly agreed to that peace, for they 
had little fear from such an agreement Hence it may be clearly 
understood, how great a wish they had for the vKxr, as their bards 
san.^ in their lays, and in their false stories. '* Does not such a 
war seem pleasant to thee," said Orosius, *' and the times more 
so, that one's enemy may so easily be restrained by words?" 
After the Lacedaemonians had overcome the city of the Athenians 
— their own people, — they raised themselves up, and began to 
wage war on every side, both against their o\^^l countrjinen and 
against the Persians, and against Asia the Less, and against the 
city of Athens, which they had formerly laid waste : for, the 
few that had fled out of it, had entered into the city again, and 
had drawn over the Thebans, a people of Greece, to help them. 
The Lacedaemonians were so lifted up, that they themselves, and 
all the neighbouring nations thought, that they could have power 
over them all. But the Athenians, vnth the help of the Thebans, 
withstood them, and beat them in battle. 

2. After that, the Lacedaemonians chose, for their leader, Der- 

4 Alfred omits the preface of Orosixw to this third book. Chapter I, paragraphs 1 — 4, 
are ahxidged from Oros. 1. Ill : c. I, Haver, p. 146 — 152. 


cyllidas, [B. C. 397] and sent him into Persia with forces to fight 
against them. The Persians then came against him with their 
two officers : one was called Phaniabazus, the other Tissapher- 
nes. As soon as the leader of the Lacedaemonians knew, that he 
must fight against two armies, it seemed to him more reasonable 
to make peace with one, that he might, the more easily, overcome 
the other. He did so, and sent his messeng-er to the one, and 
told him to say, that he wished more earnestly for peace, than 
for war. The officer then, in good faith, received the messenger 
with peace; and the Lacedaemonians, the while, routed the 
other officer, 

3. Aftenvards the king of the Persians took his power from the 
officer, who hai before made peace with the Lacedaemonians, and 
gave it to a man, banished from Athens, a city of Greece, who 
was named Conon, and sent him with a fl:et from the Persians 
against the Lacedaemonians. Tlie Lacedaemonians sent to the 
Egyptians, and asked help from them ; and they gave them one 
hundred large boats with three rows of oars. Tlie Lacedaemonians 
had, for their leader, a wise, though a lame man, who was called 
Agesilaus ; and they had a by-word " that they would rather have 
a lame king, than a lame kingdom." Tliey afterwards engaged on 
the sea, and there fought so very fiercely, that they were nearly all 
killed, and neither could gain the victory. There the power and 
the gloiy of the Lacedaemonians were laid low. " I ween," said 
Orosius, •' that not any two leaders fought more equally." 

4. After that, Conon again led an army upon the Lacedaemoni- 
ans ; and in all things he utterly laid waste the land outside the city ; 
so that they, who formerly yearned for power over other nations 
abroad, then thought it well if they could keep themselves from 
slavery at home. One of the Lacedaemonian leaders was called 
Lysander : he attacked Conon with ships, when he went from the 
Lacedaemonians, and there was much slaughter of the people 
on both sides. So many of the Lacedaemonians were slain there, 
that, afterwards, they neither kept their name, nor their power. 
But their fall was the rise of the Athenians, so that they were able 
to revenge the old ^vrongs which, in former days, they often bore. 
They and the Tliebans gathered themselves together, and attacked 
the Lacedaemonians in battle, and routed them, and drove them 
into their city, and afterwards besieged them. Then the citizens 
sent to Agesilaus, who was ^ith their army in Asia, and begged that 


98 OROSIUS; Book 111 : cuap. I, i 5. [b. €.107 

he would quickly come home and help them. He did so, and came 
suddenly upon the Athenians and routed them. The Athenians 
were then in gi-eat dread, lest the Lacedaemonians, because of the 
little advantage which they had gained, should reign over them, as 
they did formerly. Tliey, therefore, sent into Persia after Conon 
and prayed that he would help them. He granted their prayer, 
and came to them with a great fleet and destroyed almost all the 
Lacedaemonians, and made them feel that they were both poor and 
weak. After that, Conon came to Athens, his old birth-place ; and 
he was welcomed there with j:reat joy by the citizens. He there 
caused a lasting remembrance of himself, by forcing both the 
Persians and the Lacedaemonians to repair the city, which they 
had formerly sacked, — and also by bringing the Lacedaemonians, 
who before had long been their enemies, to be thenceforth under 
the city of Athens. It was after these wars, that the Persians 
offered peace to all the people of Greece. It was not because 
they wished to do them any good ; but because, being at w^ar with 
the Eg}'ptians, they thought to bring that war the more easfly to 
an end. 

5. But • the Lacedaemonians, in the mean time, had a greater 
wish for war, than the power, and rather made war on the 
Thebans, than sought their help; and stole up on them with 
small bands, until they overcame the city of the Ar'^adians. 
After that, the Thebans marched against them with an army, 
and the Lacedaemonians brought another against them. When 
they had fought for a long time, then the general • of the Lace- 
daemonians called to the Arcadians, and besought them to stop 
the fight, that they might bury the dead, which were slain. It is 
a custom with the Greeks, that by this saying it is shewTi which 
side has the \ictory. 

6. Thus I wished to tell, said Orosius, how the war of the Greeks 
was first raised from the city of the Lacedaemonians, — and, in the 
language of history, to describe it, — first against the city of the 
Athenians, and then against the Thebans, — the Boeotians, — and 
the Macedonians : these were all people of Greece : then against 

5 Abridged from Oros. 1. HI : c. 3, Haver, p. 152—155. 

6 Orosius is more explicit : — In eo prslio Archidamus, dux Lacedsmoniorum, Ttdne- 
ratus, quum jam csdi suos ut victos videret, occisorum corpora per praeconem ad sepultuiam 
poftcit : quod signum victorias traditae inter Graecos haberi solet Thebani autem ba coB- 
fessione content!, dato parcendi signo finem dedere certamini. Haver, p. 153, 3 — a. 


Asia the Less, and against the greater; and then against the 
Persians, and the Egyptians. I shall also hereafter tell the history 
of the Romans, which I had begun. 

Book III : Chapter II.* 

1. Three hundred and seventy-six years after the building of 
Rome [B. C. 377.], there was an earth-quake in Achaia; and two 
cities, Bura and Helice, sank into the earth. I may also speak of 
a like beginning, in our own times, though it had not the same 
end, — that Constantinople, a city of the Greeks, had the same 
quaking, and it was foretold by soothsayers that it should sink 
into the earth ; but it was shielded by the Christian emperor 
Arcadius, and by the Christian people, who were in the city. 
This shewed Christ to be the help of the lowly, and the fall of 
the high-minded. I remember more of this, than I have spoken, 
even altogether : if any one wish to know more of it, he must 
seek it for himself. 

2. It was in those days, that the Volsci and Falisci, who 
formerly fought seventy years against the Romans, then overcame 
them and pillaged their land. Soon after that, the Sutrini waged 
war on the Romans, even to the gates of the city. The Romans 
afterwards quickly repaid them with war and with pillage, and 
put them to flight. 

Book III : Chapter III.* 

1. Three hundred and eighty-three years after the building of 
Rome, [Orosius, B. C. 369 : AKred, B. C. 370] when Lucius, 
whose other name was Genucius, and Quintus, whose other name 
was Servilius, were consuls in Rome, the great pestilence was in 
the land, — not as it is wont from unseasonable weather, that is 
from wet summers, and from dry winters, and from parching 
spring-heats, and veiy heavy harvest-rains, and after-heats ; but a 
wind came off the wold of Calabria, and the plague with the 
wind. This pestilence was upon the Romans full two years, over 
all men alike : though some died, others, grievously afflicted, got 
over it. Then their priests said, that their gods ordered them to 
build an amphitheatre, that they might then have heathen games 
therein, and their denl worship, which were plainly all un- 

7 Oros. 1. Ill : c. 3, Haver, p 155, 150. 

8 Oros. 1. Ill : c. IV, V, Haver, p. 167—159. 

100 OROSIUS; Book III : Chapter IV, 1 1. [b. c 3<S 

2. Here/ said Orosius, may those, who withstand Christianity, 
now answer me, how, by their sacrificing and by their devil- 
worship, their gods gave help in the pestilence ; but they did not 
understand by what magic and by what craft the denls did it, (it 
was not the true God,) — that they troubled the men with that 
evil, to the end that they might trust to their offerings, and their 
idolatries, and that they might thence come to their souls, and 
harass them with the greatest blasphemy. But their amphi- 
theatres were then without number, and [too] manifold for me 
now to speak of ; for, '* Thou, father Augustine, hast plainly told 
them, in thy books * ; and I will teach every one to look there, 
who Irishes to know more of it." 

3. Aftenvards,* in the same year, the earth opened within the 
city of Rome. Then their priests said again, that their gods told 
them to give a liring man, as it seemed to them, that they had 
too few of their dead. The earth so kept yawning till Marcus, 
whose other name was Curtius, with horse and with w*eapons, 
leaped into it : and the earth then closed together. 

Book III : Chapter IV.» 
1. Three hundred and eighty-eight years after the building of 
Rome, [B. C. 365.] the Gauls ravaged the Roman lands to within 
three miles of the city, and might easily have taken it, if they 
had not stopped there : for, the Romans were so frightened, and 
so out of heart, that they thought they could not guard the city. 
But, in the morning, Titus, their leader, whose other name was 
Qiiinctius, attacked them with an army. There Manlius, whose 
other name was Torquatus, fought a single combat with a man of 
Gaul, and slew him ; and Titus Quinctius partly routed and partly 
slew the others. By this we may understand how many must 
have been slain there, when so many thousands of them were 

Book III : Chapter V. 
1. Four* hundred and two years, after the building of Rome, 
[B. C. 351] the ambassadors of Carthage came to Rome, and pro- 

9 Tliis paragraph is amplified by Alfred. 

1 Augustine's *^ City of God," I. HI : c. 17. See Introduction to this translation, p. 14, 
for a short account of this work of S. Augustine. 

2 Oros. L III : c. 5, Haver, p. 158, 159. 

3 Oros. 1. Ill: c. G, Haver, p. 159, IGO. 

4 Oros. I. Ill: c. 7, Haver. 161, 162. 


posed that there should be peace between them, because they 
were then making war on a country, — that was on Beneventura. 
When the ambassadors came to Rome, then came also with them 
very great misfortune and misery of many nations, which increased 
for a long time afterwards. So the stars of heaven made it known 
in those times,* for it was night till mid-day ; and, in summer 
time, it hailed stones over all the Romans. 

2. In those days, • Alexander was bom among the Greeks, as 
if a great storai had come over all the mid-earth ; and Ochus, 
king of the Persians, whom by another name they called Artax- 
erxes, after he had plundered Egypt, then went into the land of 
the Jews, and plundered many of them. Afterwards he settled 
many of them in the land of H}Tcania, near the Caspian sea ; and 
they are settled there even until this day, with extensive nations, 
in the hope, that God will some time bring them thence to their 
own land.' — Then Artaxerxes sacked Sidon, which, in those days, 
was the most wealthy city of the Phoenicians.' 

3. Then • the Romans began the Samnite war about the land 
of the Campanians. They fought about it, long and often with 
alternate victories. Then the Samnites drew over to then: side, 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, the greatest enemy of the Romans.' 
That war, however, was stilled for a while, because the Cartha- 
ginians began to wage war against the Romans. 

4. '' Since that war began, if there be any one/' said Orosius, 
*' who can find in historians, that the doors of Janus were shut, 
(save in one year, and that was because the Romans lay, all tliat 
year, under a pestilence,) it was first in the time of Octavianus 
Caesar.' " The Romans had formed that building with this one 
design, that, on whatever side they should be at war, — whether 
south, or north, or east, or west, then they undid the door, which 

5 Orosius says : — ^Tunc etiam nox usque ad plurimam die! partem tendi visa est : et 
aaxea de nubibus grando descendens, veris terrain lapidibus verberavit. 1. Ill, c. 7, Haver, 
p. 161, 11—13. 

6 Quibus diebus etiam Alexander Magnus, vere ille gurges miseriarum, atque atrocisstmus 
turbo totius Orientis est natus. Haver, p. 161, 13 — 15. 

7 Quos ibi usque in hodiernum diem amplissimis generis sui incrementis consistere, atque 
exinde quandoque erupturos, opinio est. Haver, p. 162, 3 — 5. 

8 Sidonem opulentissimam Phoenicisprovinciae urbem delevit. Haver, p. 162, 6. 

9 Oros. L III : c. 8, Haver, p. 162, 163. 

1 Bellum ancipiti statu gestum, Pyrrhus, vel maximum Romani nominis hostis, excepit 
Hav er.. 162,28,29. 

2 This account of the temple of Janu is one of the numerous additions made by Alfred. 

102 OROSIUS: Book III: Ciur. VI, i I. fA.n.M 

opened on that side, they thus knew whither they should marclL 
As soon as they saw any of the doors open, then they drew their 
clothing above the knee, and made themselves ready for war. 
Thus they knew that they had not peace with some people. 
When they had peace, then all the doors were shut, and they let 
their clothing • down to their feet. But when Octavianus Caesar 
took the empire, then the doors of Janus were shut, and there 
was peace and quietness over all the mid-earth. 

5. Afterwards* the Persians made peace with the Romans: 
then all nations wished to he under the Romans, and to be ruled 
by their laws. They loved peace so much, that they would 
rather have Roman kings, than those of their own race. Thus it 
was plainly shewn, that no earthly man could cause such love 
and such peace, as there was then over all the world*. But it 
was because, in those days, Christ was born, who is the peace of 
tlie dwellers in heaven and earth. This was also plainly shewn 
by Octavianus, when the Romans wished to offer sacrifice to him, 
as was their custom, and said that the peace was from his power. 
But he eschewed both the sacrifice and the saying; and moreover 
said himself that the peace was not his ; — nay also, it could not 
be any earthly man, that could bring such peace to all the world, 
as no two nations could formerly have ; and, what was less, no 
two families. 

Book III : Chapter VI. 

1. Four* hundred and eight years after the building of Rome 
[Orosius B. C. 314, Alfred B. C. 315], it happened that the 
Romans and the Latins were at war. In the first battle, the con- 
sul of the Romans, Manlius, whose other name was Torquatus, 
was slain ; and their other consul, called Decius, and by his other 
name, Mus, killed his own son, because he broke their fixed order, 
which was that they should press upon the Latins all together. 
But one broke out there from the army of the Latins, and chal- 
lenged to single combat ; and the consul's son came against hinii 

3 They put on the Roman Toga or long robe, instead of the short military dren. 

4 Oros. 1. Ill : c. 8, Haver, p. 163, 164. 

5 Cognoscere faterique coguntur, pacem istam totius mundi et tranquillissimam serenita- 
tem, non magnitudinc Ccesaris, sed potestate filii Dei, qui in diebus Cssaris adparuit, extti- 
tisse, nee unius Urbis imperatori, sed creator! Orbis universi, Orbem ipsum general! cogni- 
tioue paruisse. Oros. I. Ill : c. 8, Haver, p. 161, 6—10. 

6 Oros. 1. III. c. 9. Haver, p. 164, 165. 


and slew him there. For that fault, his father then ordered him 
to be put to death : because of that death, the Romans would 
not, as was their custom, offer the triumph to the consul, though 
he had gained the victory. 

2. In the year following, there was a woman, named Minucia, 
who, in their manner, should have been a nun ' [vestal virgin]. 
She had vowed to the goddess Diana, that she would ever hve a 
life of virginity. Then she soon forlay herself. Because of that 
sin, by which she behed her vow, the Romans buried her alive. 
And now, in remembrance of the sin, the ground, where she was 
buried, is yet, to this day, called Sinfield.* 

3 Soon • aftenvards, in the time of the two consuls, Claudius, 
whose other name was Marcellus, and Valerius, whose other name 
was Flaccus, it then happened, — " though to me, said Orosius, it 
is scandalous — that some Roman women were under such phan- 
tasy,' and such mad fervour, that, as far as they could, they wish- 
ed to kill every person, both female and male, with poison, and to 
give it them to take in meat or in drink. And they did it for a 
long time, before the people knew, whence the evil came, — but 
that they said, it came from above out of the air, — till it was laid 
open by a male-slave.* Then all the women were called before 
the Roman senators, of whom there were three hundred and 
eighty ; and were there forced to take the same, which they had 
formerly given to others ; and they died there forthwith before 
all the men. 

Book III : Chapter VII. 
1. Four • hundred and twenty two years after the building of 
Rome, [Orosius and Alfred, B. C. 331] Alexander, king of the 

7 Orosius calls her Virgo vestalis, Haver, p. 165, 9 ; but Alfred styles her, Nunne, a nun. 
The Vestal virgin made a vow of perpetual chastity. This custom of the Roman priesteses led 
king Alfred, not unreasonably, to identify the Vestal virgin with a nun. 

8 Vivaque obruta in campo, qui nunc Sceleratus vocatur. Haver, p. 165, 10. 

9 Oros. 1. Ill: c. 10. Haver, p. 165, 166. 

1 Incredibili rabie ct amoi-e scelerum Romanae matrons exarserunt. Oros. 1. Ill : c. 10, 
Haver, p. 165, 25. 26. 

2 This differs from Oros. who says : — Cum existente quadam ancilla indice et convincente 
primum roultse matronze ut biberent , quae coxerant, venena, compulsas : deinde siroul at- 
que hausere, coniumptae sunt. Tanta autem multitudo fuit matrunarum in his facinoribus 
consciarum, ut trecentse septuaginta damnatae ex illis simul fuisse referaiitur. Haver, p* 
166, 2— C. 

3 Oroa. 1. Ill : c 11, Haver, p. 166, 167. 

104 0R0SIU8; Book III: CiiAr. VII, i 2. [■. e.359 

Epirotae, uncle of the great Alexander, began to wage war against 
the Romans with all his power, and settled at the boundary of the 
Samnites and the Romans, and drew over the neighbouring coun- 
try-people on both sides to help them, until the Samnites fought 
with them, and slew the king. — " Now being reminded here of 
this Alexander," said Orosius, " I will also then call to mind the 
great Alexander, the other's nephew, when, in the course of time, 
I have told about the wars of the Romans.** 

2. I must,* however, turn back, that I may tell some small 
part of Alexander's deeds; and how Philip, his father, four hun- 
dred years after the building of Rome, [Orosius and Alfred, B. C. 
353 : Clinton, B. C. 359] took Macedonia in Greece, and held it 
twenty- five years ; and, within these years, he over-ran all the king- 
doms that were in Greece. One was the Athenians : — another was 
the Thebans : — a third was the Thessalians : — a fourth the Lace- 
daemonians : — a fifth the Phocians : — a sixth the Messenians :— a 
seventh the Macedonians, which he had first. Philip, when he was 
a boy, was given by his own brother, Alexander, who then held the 
kingdom of Macedonia, as a hostage to the Thebans, — to Epami- 
nondas, the brave prince, and the most learned philosopher, and 
was taught by him, for the three years, when he was there. Then 
his brother Alexander was slain by his o>mi mother,* thoug^i she 
formerly slew her other son also, because of her lewdness. She was 
Philip's step-mother. Then Philip succeeded to the kingdom of 
Macedonia, and held it all the while in great danger and in great 
trouble, because both strangers from other lands fought a^inst 
him, and also his own people plotted against his life, so that, at 
last, he would rather fight abroad, than be at home. His first 
battle was against the Athenians, and he overcame them : after 
that against the Illyrians, whom we call Bulgarians ; and he 
slew many thousands of them, and took their chief city, Larissa. 
Afterwards he turned the war upon the Thessalians, chiefly with 
the wish of drawing them over to help him, because of their skill 
in war, and because they were known to be the best of all people 
in horsemanship. They turned to him at first, both for their fear 
and for his flattery. With their force and with his own, he then 

4 Oros. 1. Ill: c. 12. Haver, p. 167. 

5 So says Orosius, who follows Justin ; but Haver, adds, " Eurj'dicet innocentiaoi tf 
testimonio scriptorum, qui eodem tempore vixenmt, demonstravimus* p. 168, note 4. 


made up an araiy both of horse and foot, such as could not be 

3. After' PhiHp had brought the Athenians and Thessalians 
under his power, he took for his wife the daughter of Aruba, king 
of the RIolossi : she was called Olympias. Aiuba thought that 
lie should enlarge his kingdom, when he gave his daughter to 
Philip; but he deceived him in that hope, and took all that 
Aruba had, and afterw^ards banished him till the end of his life. 
Then Philip fought against the city of Methone, in the kingdom 
of the Thebans ^ ; and there, one of his eyes was shot out with 
an aiTow. He, nevertheless, took the city, and killed every one, 
that he found therein. • By his wiles, he afterwards overcame all 
the people of Greece, because it was their custom that every city 
should have its own government, and none would be under 
another, but they were often at war among themselves. Tlien 
they asked Philip first from one city, then from another, to help 
them against those with whom they were at war. '\\'hen he had 
overpowered those, against whom he was then at war, and also 
the people, who before asked him for help, he then brought both 
under his sway. Thus he beguiled all the Greeks into his power.* 

4. When' the Greeks understood that, and also being very 
angry, that one king should so easily, almost without any 
struggle, bring them under his power, just as if they were enslaved 
to him ; he, indeed, often sold them into slavery to other nations, 
whom formerly none could take in war, — they then all rose in 
war against him ; and he humbled himself to the people, whom 
he there most sorely dreaded. These were the Thessalians, 
whom he prevailed upon to join him in war against the Athenians. 
When they came to the boundarj^ with their army, they had 
closed their passes.* As Philip could not get within to wreak his 

6 Oros. 1. Ill : c 12, Haver, p. 168—170. 

7 Methoiie, where Philip lost his eye, was in Macedonia, on the Tliermaic gulf. 

8 Grceciam prope totam, consiliis prceventam, viribus domuit. Quippe Gro^cise civitates 
dum hnperare singulie cupiunt, xmperium omnes perdiderunt : et dum in mutunm exitium 
sine roodo ruunt omnibus perire, quod singul-x amilterent, oppresses deraum 8er\'ieutesque 
senserunt: quanim dum insanas concertationes Philippus veluti e specula observat, auxili- 
umque semper inferioribus suggerendo, contentiones, bellonmi fomites, callidus doll artifer 
fovet, >nctos sibi pariter victoresque subjecit. Haver, p. 109, 5 — 10, and p. 170, 1 — 3. 

9 Oros. 1. Ill: c.